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THE GODDESS, THE DRAGON

AND THE PEARL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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This has been a work in progress.. and still is.. as you will see it is not fully edited, but remains a collection of notes.. it is posted in this unfinished state because the message is so important.. SpiritBride does not claim ownership or copyright of this collection.. it is compiled under ''fair use'' judgment..  please take this information and create new pages for the truth of our Christian Goddess.


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This page disclaims any prejudice against any race.. it is educational and based on historical evidence

we believe in the general goodness of humanity and in people of all races

it is an investigation into the dragon of dreams and prophecy

it is based on the premise that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely

 

 

The rise of the red dragon is reciprocal to the fall of the oracles & sybils (the female prophets)

the people of the goddess have ever resisted the darkness of the red dragon


THE DRAGON

fossil bones are called dragon bones by the chinese


Legendary monster usually conceived as a huge, bat-winged, fire-breathing, scaly lizard or snake with a barbed tail. The belief in these creatures apparently arose without the slightest knowledge on the part of the ancients of the gigantic, prehistoric, dragon like reptiles. In Greece the word drakon, from which the English word Dragon was derived, was used originally for any large serpent (see sea serpent), and the dragon of mythology, whatever shape it later assumed, remained essentially a snake.
In general, the dragons in the Middle Eastern world, where snakes are large and deadly, the serpent or dragon was symbolic of the principle of evil. Thus, the Egyptian god Apepi, for example, was the great serpent of the world of darkness. But the Greeks and Romans, though accepting the Middle Eastern idea of the serpent as an evil power, also at times conceived the drakontes as beneficent powers--sharp-eyed dwellers in the inner parts of the Earth. On the whole, however, the evil reputation of dragons was the stronger, and in Europe the dragons outlived the other. .
The dragon's form varied from the earliest times. The Chaldean dragon Tiamat had four legs, a scaly body, and wings, whereas the biblical dragon of Revelation, "the old serpent," was many-headed like the Greek Hydra. Because the dragons not only possessed both protective and terror-inspiring qualities but also had decorative effigies, dragons were early used as warlike emblems. Thus, in the Iliad, King Agamemnon had on his shield a blue three-headed snake, just as the Norse warriors in later times painted dragons on their shields and carved dragons' heads on the prows of their ships. In England the dragon was chief among the royal ensigns in war, having been instituted as such by the 'Pendragons'.




The association of the English people with dragons stretches back millennia, way back to the dark ages and beyond. They weren’t called the Dark Ages for nothing and as is the case for a great deal of history from this time much is open to speculation and conjecture. What is certain is that the early English adopted the Dragon as their battle standard.

The ancestors of the English people – the Angle, Saxon and Jutish tribes first encountered the Romans a century before the birth of Christ. The Rhine and the Danube became the northern frontiers of the Roman Empire and while the legions had conquered much of the known world, the “barbarian” Germanic tribes of northern Europe, they could never subdue. It is plausible that around this time the early English tribes adopted the battle flag of their Roman enemies who were known to fly the Dragon Standard. It was customary for the victors on the battlefield to take the standard of their defeated foe and although the northern tribes both won and lost many battles they were never conquered. The Red Dragon of the Welsh traces it’s existence back along a similar route to the interaction of the conquered British with their Roman masters. This is one theory but our association with dragons may go back even further. From the very earliest times the English spread from their continental homelands in boats with dragons heads on their prows and early English folklore tells us of heroes such as Beowolf and Sigurd and their battles with dragons. Estimating the dates of the origins of these legends is impossible but the English were a race of people centuries before they had a unified homeland and it is certain that both sagas far pre-date the existence of what we now call England.
 

In the 20th century the dragon was officially incorporated in the armorial bearings of the prince of Wales.

The royal family are descendents of the dragon order to which Dracula belonged.

Prince Charles is related to Vlad the impaler.


 

The Dragon Order

 

There is a little known  

secret society of what are now a group of ultra-wealthy international bankers and European crowned heads hidden in what people believe is Jewry and the RCC and this is its ancient dark history..

A 'Jew', is a term which in the Bible and Torah meant, a Semitic and Hebrew 'Judean, person of Judea'. . Hebrew people are any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews. Historians use the term Hebrews to designate the descendants of the patriarchs of the Old Testament (i.e., Abraham, Isaac, and so on) from that period until their establishment in Palestine in the late 2nd millennium bc. Thenceforth these people are referred to as Israelites until their return from the Babylonian Exile in the late 6th century bc, from which time on they became known as Jews.
 

And which today means nothing of the sort..

 


The division of  the 'Jews'.. One of the most misunderstood subjects of Bible study involves the total political division of ‘Israel’ and ‘Judah’ that occurred at the time of King Rehoboam. Before then, all twelve tribes of Israelites were a united kingdom through the reigns of David and Solomon, but after Solomon’s death they split into two completely separate and independent kingdoms, north and south. The Southern kingdom was called Judea. During the Babylonian exile, Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Chaldeans, only deported the most prominent citizens of Judah: professionals, priests, craftsmen, and the wealthy. The "people of the land" (am-hares ) were allowed to stay. Some people were better off when Nebuchadnezzar deported the wealthy citizens, he redistributed the land among the poor. This resulted in rivalries between the two groups of Jews. Judah returned from exile in 539 BCE. Israel became a province of Persia under the priests. In 428 CE, Ezra brought the Torah from Babylon to Jerusalem, effectively marking the beginnings of modern Jewish religion. Ezra was a priest who reorganized the Israelite state politically, and organized the new religious system that included study of the Torah: he is known as the "Father of Judaism." Nehemiah, a court official in Persia, returned slightly later to rebuild the city walls and the temple in Jerusalem: this is the "Second Temple" in Jerusalem (the first temple was built by Solomon), so one speaks of "Second Temple Judaism."
It is clear that the wealthy and professional Jews in Babylon regarded themselves as the true Jewish people. However, they intermingled with the people of Babylon and were no longer considered  next of kin by the people of Israel. This is because Moses, in leading the Israelites back from Egypt in 1491 BC., warned them to make no marriages, no alliances with the Canaanites, or they might lose their faith and decency. The Pharisees and Sadducees were not traditional Jewish priests, because of the Talmuds, written in Babylon in the fifth century CE. They said that the designation “Jew” belonged exclusively to the southern kingdom of Judah, the very word “Jew” having been derived from “Judah.”  And so technically, only the kingdom of Judah was “Jewish” and the other tribes of Israel have no right to call themselves Jews.
So Jewish history, then, has two poles during and after the exile: the Jew in Babylon and the Jews who remain in Judah. This is how Israel as a race and a nation first split into a division of  'Jews'


Between 332-167 BCE, after the conquest of Alexander, Israel and Judea were ruled first by Egypt and then by Asia Minor. In 167 BCE, Antiochus IV. The Roman general Pompey subdued Judea in 63 BCE (after which it became a client kingdom). In the year 39 BCE. the Idumean, Herod "The Great" (c73-4 BCE) was appointed the "confederate king" of the Jews by the Roman senate. His years of seeking favor with Rome, always siding with the winners of the empire's internal squabbles, finally paid off. Herod then, with some Roman support, took control of Jerusalem two years later and started his reign as King of the Jews in 37 BCE.
At the time of Jesus; Judea was ruled by the Edomite dynasty of the Herods - the Edomites, were descendants of Esau, described as a people God hates (Malachi 1:2,3), which were converted as a group to become 'Jews' by John Hyrcanus in about 120BC.   According to Flavius Josephus the Jewish historian who lived just after the time of Christ, 'They (Edom) were hereafter no other than Jews' (Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, XIII ix 1; XV vii 9).   Cecil Roth in his Concise Jewish Encyclopedia (1980) says ..John Hyrcanus forcibly converted [Edom] to Judaism. From then on they were part of the Jewish people..' (p 154). According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1925) "Edom is in Jewry" (Volume 5 p. 41).   The Pharisees, repeatedly described by Jesus as 'hypocrites' (Matthew 23) and as 'serpents, brood of vipers', were associated with the Herodian Edomites (Matthew 22:15,16).   Ezekiel prophesied that Edom would usurp the place of true Israel (35:10).    Jesus, although born in Bethlehem was not considered a Jew, Jesus was a Galilean (Matthew 26:29, John 7:52) and his disciples were Galileans (Acts 1:11, 2:7).   Galilee was separated from Judea by Samaria. The Samaritans thought he was a Jew (John 4:9), but the Jews thought he was a Samaritan (John 8:48).   Herod and the Jewish leaders were ALL appointed by Rome and despised by the common people who saw them as occupiers and tax collectors.  Pilate at the crucifixion described Jesus of Nazareth as (Jesus the Israeli King of the Judeans).

 

 

Judea was ruled by the Edomite dynasty of the Herods - the Edomites, descendants of Esau, described as a people God hates (Malachi 1:2,3), were converted as a group to become 'Jews' by John Hyrcanus in about 120BC. According to Flavius Josephus the Jewish historian who lived just after the time of Christ, 'They (Edom) were hereafter no other than Jews' (Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, XIII ix 1; XV vii 9). Cecil Roth in his Concise Jewish Encyclopedia (1980) says ..John Hyrcanus forcibly converted [Edom] to Judaism. From then on they were part of the Jewish people..' (p 154). According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1925) "Edom is in Jewry" (Volume 5 p. 41). The Pharisees, repeatedly described by Jesus as 'hypocrites' (Matthew 23) and as 'serpents, brood of vipers', were associated with the Herodian Edomites (Matthew 22:15,16). Ezekiel prophesied that Edom would usurp the place of true Israel (35:10). Jesus called the usurpers, the 'synagogue of satan' (Revelations 2:9, 3:9).

Jesus was not a Jew, a word which meant in the New Testament, 'Judean, person of Judea'. Jesus was a Galilean (Matthew 26:29, John 7:52) and his disciples were Galileans (Acts 1:11, 2:7). Galilee was separated from Judea by Samaria. The Samaritans thought he was a Jew (John 4:9), but the Jews thought he was a Samaritan (John 8:48). Pilate at the crucifixion described him as Jesus of Nazareth (in Galilee, i.e. Jesus the Galilean) King of the Judeans - like Victoria Queen of England, Empress of India.

 They accused him before Pilate. The whole multitude of them arose, when they saw they could go no further with him in their court, and led him unto Pilate, though it was no judgment day, no assizes or sessions; and they demanded justice against him, not as a blasphemer (that was no crime that he took cognizance of), but as one disaffected to the Roman government, which they in their hearts did not look upon as any crime at all, or, if it was one, they themselves were much more chargeable with it than he was; only it would serve the turn and answer the purpose of their malice: and it is observable that that which was the pretended crime, for which they employed the Roman powers to destroy Christ, was the real crime for which the Roman powers not long after destroyed them.
1. Here is the indictment drawn up against him (Luk_23:2), in which they pretended a zeal for Caesar, only to ingratiate themselves with Pilate, but it was all malice against Christ, and nothing else. They misrepresented him, (1.) As making the people rebel against Caesar. It was true, and Pilate knew it, that there was a general uneasiness in the people under the Roman yoke, and they wanted nothing but an opportunity to shake it off; now they would have Pilate believe that this Jesus was active to foment that general discontent, which, if the truth was known, they themselves were the aiders and abettors of: We have found him perverting the nation; as if converting them to God's government were perverting them from the civil government; whereas nothing tends more to make men good subjects than making them Christ's faithful followers. Christ had particularly taught that they ought to give tribute to Caesar, though he knew there were those that would be offended at him for it; and yet he is here falsely accused as forbidding to give tribute to Caesar. Innocency is no fence against calumny. (2.) As making himself a rival with Caesar, though the very reason why they rejected him, and would not own him to be the Messiah, was because he did not appear in worldly pomp and power, and did not set up for a temporal prince, nor offer to do any thing against Caesar; yet this is what they charged him with, that he said, he himself is Christ a king. He did say that he was Christ, and, if so, then a king, but not such a king as was ever likely to give disturbance to Caesar. When his followers would have made him a king (Joh_6:15), he declined it, though by the many miracles he wrought he made it appear that if he would have set up in competition with Caesar he would have been too hard for him.
2. His pleading to the indictment: Pilate asked him, Art thou the king of the Jews? Luk_23:3. To which he answered, Thou sayest it; that is, “It is as thou sayest, that I am entitled to the government of the Jewish nation; but in rivalship with the scribes and Pharisees, who tyrannize over them in matters of religion, not in rivalship with Caesar, whose government relates only to their civil interests.” Christ's kingdom is wholly spiritual, and will not interfere with Caesar's jurisdiction. Or, “Thou sayest it; but canst thou prove it? What evidence hast thou for it?” All that knew him knew the contrary, that he never pretended to be the king of the Jews, in opposition to Caesar as supreme, or to the governors that were sent by him, but the contrary.

 

Luk 23:12 And that day Herod and Pilate became friends with one another, for before they had been against one another.


For it pleased Herod, that Pilate should show such a regard to his authority and power, as to send one that belonged to his jurisdiction to take cognizance of his case; and especially as it was a person that was much talked of, and he had long wanted to see; and Pilate, on the other hand, was pleased with Herod, that though he was one that was under his jurisdiction, and so had a right of trying the cause, and either absolve or condemn, yet chose not to use this his power, but referred the case to the Roman governor:
 

 

 

A further division of the 'Jews resulted from the fact that the Christian Israelis did not fight for the 'Jews' during the Roman and Jewish wars and the destruction of Jerusalem. The destruction of Jerusalem was viewed by the Gentile Christians from a different angle. To them it was proof of God's punishment to the Jews for rejecting the savior. The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War. It was followed by the fall of Masada in 73 AD. The Roman army, led by the future Emperor Titus, with Tiberius Julius Alexander as his second-in-command, besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been occupied by its Jewish defenders in 66 AD. The city and its famous Temple were destroyed.The Roman destruction of Jerusalem made the Jews even more eager to foster unity among themselves to the exclusion of others. The Nazarenes with their associations Gentiles began to be shunned by the orthodox Jews. Eventually a test clause was inserted, around 90 CE, in the Jewish synagogue worship to exclude Nazarenes from them. By the time of the second Jewish revolt in 132-135 CE the break between the Nazarenes and Judaism was completely severed.

In 115, the Levantine Jews revolted against emperor Trajan supposedly when the emperor Hadrian forbade circumcision, Simon bar Kochba started a war, which lasted until 136. which resulted in the end of the Israeli 'Jewish' nation of the first century.


Some 'Edomite Jews' fled to the Black Sea..

The area around the north and northwest coasts of the Black Sea was a great cross roads of commerce at that time and we can conclude from reports and inscriptions that the first permanent Jewish settlements on the territory of present day Romania were established there. Historians all agree that Jews had settled in the Danube region during the epoch of the Dako Romans.

The most likely original home of these Jews was Palestine, from where they went in great numbers to Dacia during the Roman reign and remained after the Romans were defeated by the Goths. Mountain Jews also lived in or near Khazar territory and may have been allied with or subject to Khazar overlordship; it is conceivable that they played a role in the conversion. Jewish communities on what would later become Romanian territory were attested as early as the 2nd century, at a time when the Roman Empire had established its rule over Dacia. Inscriptions and coins have been found in such places as Sarmizegetusa and Orşova. Jewish merchants such as the Radhanites regularly traded in Khazar territory, and may have wielded significant economic and political influence.

In the 7th century CE, the Khazars founded an independent Khaganate in the Northern Caucasus along the Caspian Sea. During the eighth or ninth century the state religion became Judaism. At their height, the Khazar khaganate and its tributaries controlled much of what is today southern Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, large portions of the Northern Caucasus ( Circassia, Dagestan, Chechnya), parts of Georgia and the Crimea.


At some point in the last decades of the 8th century or the early 9th century, the Khazar royalty and nobility converted to Judaism, most scholars believed that only the upper classes converted to Judaism; there is some support for this in contemporary Muslim texts

The Jews of Khazaria  Turkic kingdom of Khazaria, which was located in eastern Europe and flourished as an independent state from about 650 to 1016. As a major world power, Khazaria enjoyed diplomatic and trade relations with many peoples and nations (including the Byzantines, Alans, Magyars, and Slavs)
The royalty of the Khazar kingdom was descended from the Ashina Turkic dynasty. In the ninth century, the Khazarian royalty adopted the 'Jewish' religion. After their conversion, the Khazars were ruled by a succession of Jewish kings and began to adopt the hallmarks of Jewish civilization, including the Torah and Talmud, the Hebrew script, and the observance of Jewish holidays.

Transylvania has always been a center of routes connecting the orient with the west, and southern Europe with northern Europe,. Its location influenced the general development of the region, and in particular Jewish settlement from its beginnings. The first Jews arrived from the south-the Balkans and Turkey-by the trade routes to the north of Transylvania. It has, however, been surmised that a small Jewish settlement existed there during the first and second centuries C.E. when the territory was under Roman rule and constituted Roman Dacia. 


Encyclopedia Judaica mentions the Turkish Khazars as inhabitants of parts of former Dacia. It is likely that some of the Khazars had settled in what later became known as Transylvania as early as the 8th century. They are also known to have been allied with the Byzantine Empire during at least part of the eighth century.

Jewish historian scholars have established that over 93% of all Modern Jews come from a Turkish-Mongol mix of people and are largely sourced from the Khazar Kingdom. The Ashkenazic Jews are the descendants of the non-Semitic converted Khazars. It seems certain to historians that the East European Jews were a mix of Jews from the "Rhineland in Western Germany," the "area of the modern Czech Republic," and from Khazar in what is now the Ukraine. The true facts thoroughly disprove any pretensions that today’s so-called Jews are genealogically “descendants of the prophets,” or a “race” of any kind. These "Jews" have no blood-link to the Israelites of the Bible. Shem, Ham and Japeth were the three race-founding Sons of Noah. To be a Semite one must have descended from Shem, just as to be a Jew, genealogically, one must descend from Judah.
 
In the Bible, God first made his covenant with Abram in Genesis chapters 12-18. In Genesis 17:4-7, God promised Abraham:

``As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God."

In fact, the modern Khazar Jews are not Abraham's descendants
These Jews are not the Hebrews.. this makes the exclusive 'divine covenant' they claim, null and void.
John called the usurpers, the 'synagogue of Satan' (Revelations 2:9, 3:9).
 

And so, the Jews today are not Hebrew and have no Semitic blood.. They are from the areas around Transylvania known as the Dacian empire.


 

the Encyclopedia Judaica mentions the Turkish Khazars as inhabitants of parts of former Dacia. It is likely that some of the Khazars had settled in what later became known as Transylvania as early as the 8th century. The Magyars/Hungarians, coming into the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century are said to have encountered Khazars in the eastern parts.

Encyclopedia Judaica is informed about the Khazars especially because the ruling family and the nobility of the Khazar Empire, between the Volga and Don rivers, accepted Judaism around 740. Hungarian history is also fairly well informed about the Khazars/Kazars/Kabars because in the 8th and 9th centuries the Hungarians lived together with the Khazars in the area of today's southern Russia,

 

The Dacian Draco was the standard of the ancient Dacian military. It had a wolf or dragon head with the mouth open, with a balaur body, made out of bronze and it ended with some linen stripes. It was put on a rod and if held in the air while galloping, it made a whistling sound, due to the air which entered the wolf's mouth.

or

It consisted of a gaping bronze dragon head with a fabric body similar in shape to a short snake behind it. Wind flowed through the bronze dragon mouth and billowed out the cloth tail much like a modern wind-sock.



The draco was originally developed by the Sarmatians and Alans, cavalry peoples of the steppes. The earliest evidence of the Draco in Dacia was found on 4th century BC pottery discovered in the Prahova county of Romania. On Trajan's Column the Dacian soldiers are often represented carrying a Dacian Draco: there are no less than 20 representations of the Draco. The only copy left was found in Germany, which was probably a trophy won by the Roman troops from the wars with the Dacians. After the Dacian wars the draco was adopted by Roman cavalry.
 

 

Revelations 2:9 I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. In order to use the Biblical claims of regaining territories that never belonged to them they HAD TO supplant the natural and legal and spiritual claims of the real inhabitants by co-opting their identity. The people of the Bible are the Palestinians. They knew this and this is the reason for the creation of the Anti-Semitic weapon. It is all a subtle and pervasive fraud. I here declare this truth to be the revelation that ends all phonied up legitimacy to Zionism and the goose-stepping Nazi dance revue whose marching, blood-stained, hobnail boots are crushing the innocent for the profit of the wicked. The true anti-Semites are the ones masquerading as Semites as they torment and murder the people they are pretending to be.

Khazar Jews are Dacian

  The Roman province of Dacia on the Balkans included the modern Romanian regions of Transylvania, Banat and Oltenia, Muntenia, Moldova, and Moesia.  They were a people of advanced material culture, with a tribal organization. It was added to the Roman empire in its earliest days under the war of conquest by the Emperor Trajan, and was ironically, considering its wealth, the first of the Roman provinces from which Rome withdrew.

It was administered under a Roman governor of praetorian rank, and Legio XIII Gemina with numerous auxiliaries had their fixed quarters in the province. Due to a decrease in population of the conquered territory, caused by the Dacian Wars and consequent flight of many Dacians to regions north of the Carpathians, Roman colonists were brought in to cultivate the land and work the gold mines alongside the Dacian population.

Legendary Scythian gold is also Dacian gold

 Known for its rich silver, iron, and gold mines, the region was made a Roman province in AD 107 after two centuries of hostilities. It was abandoned to the Goths in 270 and ultimately divided into the principalities of Walachia and Moldavia.


herod and the jewish leaders were all appointed by rome.. just like today.. all the leaders are NWO.. and 80% OF the jews today are a clan from transylvania

The early "Scythians", the people of the powers, occupied a region spanning The Balkans, Transylvania, Carpathia, the Ukraine and later, Siberia and Takla.

The Scythians were very rich based on the volume of gold found in the kurhany. Their wealth, according to scholars was based on their domination of the wheat trade with the neighboring Greeks. At the height of their power in the fourth century B.C. the Scythians held reign over the vast agricultural communities in areas embracing most of modern-day Ukraine and the plains of southern Russia. These massive mounds rising in the flatness of the steppes have yielded a plethora of gold artifacts, both decorative and utilitarian such as jewelry, weapons, and ceremonial objects.

During the whole of the Middle Ages, Sofia remained known for its goldsmithing, particularly aided by the wealth of mineral resources in the neighbouring mountains. This is evidenced by the number of gold treasures excavated from the period and even from Antiquity

 

The so-called Dacian Riders were associated with a mystery religion of the Getae and the Dacians, peoples of Thracian stock who lived in ancient Dacia (roughly equivalent to modern-day Romania). The cult of the Dacian, or Danubian, Riders began to spread among Roman soldiers soon after 106 CE, when Dacia was conquered by Trajan and made a province of the Roman Empire. Traces of the cult have been found as far away as the Roman provinces of Gaul and Britain.

Numerous reliefs and gems depicting the Dacian Riders are extant.

It is likely that certain beliefs and practices, borrowed especially from Mithraism, were added to a local Dacian cult and that these borrowings changed the cult into a mystery religion. Although the myth of the Danubian Riders remains unknown,
 

 The Balkans belonged to three tribal groups-the Illyrians, Thracians, and Dacians. ... Diocletian was from Dalmatia, Galerius from Dacia, Constantine and his father from Moesia

If we have ever heard about the Greatest Thraco-Dacian Kings, namely BUREBISTA, DECENEUS and DECEBALUS, as being those who decisively contributed to the Dacian Kingdom's forming and longlasting, while of the Roman Emperor TRAJAN as representing the one who actually sought to destroy the Dacian civilization by conquering about 14 % of its territories, stealing its huge thesaurus and promptly transporting it to Rome, where it was melted afterwards (part of the golden coins moulded from it being offered in reward to those soldiers who had taken part in the robbing or, so-called, "conquering" of the Dacian Land), let us see whatever has happened furthermore to the mighty Thracian (Dacian, or Pelasgian) people themselves. Around the year 300 A.D., the Great Thracian population, having their Dacian nucleus as a dominating element, accedes one more time to the head of all European nations as well as of... the World's. Emperor Galenius the Elderly, son of Romula (a Dacian woman from the Recidava fortress), by his real name Vacarul Armentarius, after finally getting the Roman Emperor's mantle and scepter from the Senate in Rome, declares himself to be a resolute opponent of the very "Roman" denomination, considering it as unsuitable and, thus, changing the title of the "Roman Empire" with the one of "Dacian Empire" (Fontes II, pages 6-7). A perfectly accurate decision, should we consider the Empire's population majority as being formed mostly from Dacian-Thracians, just like the Army was as well. The Thracian language is known throughout Ancient history's era as "Coarse Latin", however, actually making the Empire's colloquial speech. Therefore, the Roman writer Lactantius, must be right to complain through his main work, "Romanos Dominarentur" (that is, "Romans Dominated", from Fontes II, same pages 6-7) about the Northern Danubian area's Thracians to have gradually become Roman leaders, while all Galenius the Elderly's "establishment" was having its descent from within Dacians of Northern side of the Danube's background. And thus, FROM CONQUERED, DACIANS ULTIMATELY WERE TO BECOME THE POLITICAL CONQUERORS, CHANGING EVEN THE OLD "ROMAN EMPIRE" 'S NAME INTO THE "DACIAN EMPIRE". Such has also been the conclusion drawn even by the Dacians' most resolute enemy of their time, that was Lactantius himself in the year 325 A.D. As for the Emperor Galenius the Younger, a son of Emperor Galenius the Elderly's sister, the former quoted would be called, before becoming supreme commander at his turn, on his real Dacian name which was Dara (according to the Transylvanian-Romanian Illuminist Petru Major's "History", page 294). These two great rulers of the extended Dacian Empire were to later erect, at Thessaloniki, an Arch of Triumph in order to honor the apogee of Dacian ascent within the ancient Roman Empire.

The Catholic Church is Dacian (Roman).

When the Secular Roman Empire ceased to exist, the Empire was revived miraculously under the political power of the papacy. The organization of the Roman Catholic Church is largely modeled on the Imperial organization of Constantine. The entire history of Catholicism has been shaped by Roman imperialism,

In order for the reader to understand that events do not just happen... The Illuminati Order was not invented by Adam Weishaupt, but rather renewed and reformed. The first known Illuminati order (Alumbrado) was founded in 1492 by Spanish Jews, called ‘Marranos,’ who were also known as ‘crypto-Jews.’... In 1491 San Ignacio De Loyola was born in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa, Spain. His parents were Marranos and at the time of his birth the family was very wealthy. As a young man he became a member of the Jewish Illuminati Order in Spain. As a cover for his crypto Jewish activities, he became very active as a Roman Catholic... In 1539 he had moved to Rome where he founded the ‘Jesuit Order’..

The geographical name "Dacia" was much later also used during the Middle Ages by the Roman Catholic Church for its northernmost province, namely Denmark-Norway-Sweden (Scandinavia) and even for Denmark alone. In some historical documents, members of royalty of that area have been called "of Dacia".

This is also why Romania is named after Rome.

To put it all in context, it is the Crown that controls the global financial system and runs the governments of all Commonwealth countries, and many non-Commonwealth 'Western' nations as well. The Crown traces back to the Vatican, which is headed by the Pope, who is the figurehead for the real powers that be behind the curtain, some of which are known but many of which are completely unknown to the general public.

John's Book of Revelation describes Satan as "a great dragon, flaming red, with seven heads and ten horns". After the Dacian Wars and Parthian War of Trajan in the east, the Draco military standard entered the Legion with the Cohors Sarmatarum and Cohors Dacorum (Sarmatian and Dacian cohorts)  a large dragon fixed to the end of a lance, with large gaping jaws of silver and with the rest of the body formed of colored silk. With the jaws facing into the wind, the silken body inflated and rippled, resembling a windsock.

 
 


CLASSICAL RECORDS OF THE ORIGINS OF THE SCYTHIANS, PARTHIANS,
& RELATED TRIBES
© 2006 William R. Finck Jr.


In the preface to Josephus’ Wars, the historian explains that he originally wrote the book in “the language of our country”, i.e. Hebrew or perhaps Aramaic, and sent it to the “Upper Barbarians”, among whom he then names as “the Parthians ... Babylonians ... remotest Arabians ... and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni.”


Except for the Parthians, Josephus’ designations here are geographical, where it is clear from the pages of his Antiquities that many of the Israelites of the Babylonian deportation still dwelt around Babylonia in his time (15.3.1), and this would include the “remotest” part of Arabia adjacent to Babylonia (cf. Acts 2:11; 1 Pet. 5:13). Also, Josephus attests that many Israelites of the Assyrian deportations were “beyond Euphrates until now”, where they were “an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers” (11.5.2). Adiabene is that part of Assyria which, according to Strabo in his Geography, is not in Mesopotamia but which consists of the plains beyond the Tigris bordering Babylonia to the south and Armenia to the north (16.1.1, 19). Media borders Adiabene on the east.


Herodotus listed Parthians among those who fought under the Persians in Xerxes’ famous invasion of Greece, and like the Arians and Sogdians, says that they were equipped like the Bactrians “in all respects” (7.66). The Parthians had a district immediately east of Media, southeast of the Caspian Sea, which they obtained by force. Strabo says of Parthia that in the Persian and Macedonian periods “in addition to its smallness, it is thickly wooded and mountainous, and also poverty-stricken”, and that at that time its people paid their tribute along with the Hyrcanians to the west (11.9.1). Strabo then says that “Arsaces (Ἀρσάκης), a Scythian, with some of the Däae ... invaded Parthia and conquered it. Now at the outset Arsaces was weak, being continually at war with those who had been deprived by him of their territory, both he himself and his successors, but later they grew so strong, always taking neighboring territory, through successes in warfare, that finally they established themselves as lords of the whole of the country inside the Euphrates ...” (11.9.2). Elsewhere Strabo tells us that the Däae, along with the Massagetae and Sacae, are Scythians (11.8.2). So we see that the Parthians of the Parthian empire were Scythians, and Josephus surely indicates to us that they were Israelites.


In the second century B.C. the Parthians arose over the entire eastern world, ruling over much of the old Persian Empire, a position they held for about four hundred years. All of their kings, according to Strabo, were given the surname “Arsaces” (15.1.36), which seems to come from the words ar and Saka, apparently meaning “highest of the Saka”. While the Euphrates was generally the border between the Parthian and Roman empires, often the two clashed along it, and the Parthians were at various times involved in the affairs of Syria and Judaea (Josephus,Wars 1.13.1 ff.; Antiq. 14.13.1 ff.) and also contended with the Romans for Armenia, where Rome prevailed (Antiq. 18.4.4).


While the Assyrians resettled various groups of deported Israelites along the northern frontiers of their empire (i.e. 2 Kings 17:6), in addition to much of Judah and Benjamin (2 Kings 18:19), and our Biblical records here are far from complete due to the circumstances of the time, the Assyrian records themselves tell us that these tribes began migrating to the north nearly as soon as they were settled, for which see Missing Links Discovered In Assyrian Tablets by E. Raymond Capt, and also the Apocalypse of Ezra, or 2 Esdras in the King James Apocrypha, 13:39-50. One branch of these Israelites, the Kimmerians, ravaged much of Anatolia and destroyed ancient Phrygia before crossing into Europe and settling north of Thrace and around the Black Sea, who later migrated westward where they became known as the Kelts. Here we shall discuss the larger portions, the Scythians, who stayed behind in Asia for some centuries before many of their own descendants began crossing into Europe as the “Germanic” speaking tribes. In my previous pamphlet concerning these people, Herodotus, Scythians, Persians & Prophecy, it was shown that the Scythians fulfilled the roles which the Hebrew prophets had forecast concerning the children of Israel. This discussion is meant to complement that one.


In his Library of History at 2.43.1-5, Diodorus Siculus says of the Scythians: “But now, in turn, we shall discuss the Scythians who inhabit the country bordering upon India. This people originally possessed little territory, but later, as they gradually increased in power, they seized much territory by reason of their deeds of might and their bravery and advanced their nation to great leadership and renown. At first, then, they dwelt on the Araxes River, altogether few in number and despised because of their lack of renown; but since one of their early kings was warlike and of unusual skill as a general they acquired territory, in the mountains as far as the Caucasus, and in the steppes along the ocean and Lake Maeotis (the sea of Azov today) and the rest of that country as far as the Tanaïs River ... But some time later the descendants of these kings ... subdued much of the territory beyond the Tanaïs River as far as Thrace ... for this people increased to great strength and had notable kings; one whom gave his name to the Sacae, another to the Massagetae, another to the Arimaspi, and several other tribes received their names in like manner ...” (Loeb Library edition).


So while Diodorus described the naming of the various related Scythian tribes fancifully, he surely is accurate in the description of the origins and growth of these people, and corroborates Herodotus concerning their relationship and locations. The Araxes river was the ancient boundary between Media and Armenia. Herodotus, describing the Persian King Cyrus’ expedition against the Massagetae, describes the Caspian Sea, the Araxes river which empties into it from the west, and the Caucasus Mountains which bind the Caspian there, and places Cyrus’ expedition in this very place. Herodotus describes the Massagetae: “In their dress and mode of living [they] resemble the Scythians”, and, as he says later that the Scythians carry, “their favorite weapon is the battle-axe” (Histories 1.201, 215). Later Herodotus describes the Persian King Darius’ expedition against the Scythians, where to get there Darius crossed the Bosphoros, and then going through Thrace crossed the Danube to attack them (4.97). He also described how these Scythians had migrated into Europe from Asia (4.11, 48), as Diodorus tells us, and he says that the Scythians of the east who were once subject to the Persians, the Scythians of the Caucasus mountains, and the Scythians of Europe were all related


Herodotus says of the Scythians that “the Persians called them Sacae, since that is the name which they give to all Scythians” (7.64). Strabo says only that the Sacae are of Scythian stock (7.3.9), but elsewhere that the Däae, Massagetae, and Sacae are Scythians, and that the inhabitants of Bactriana and Sogdiana (districts which border upon India), if not Scythians themselves, are ruled over by Scythians, and also that the Asii, Tocharians, and Sacarauli (found east of the Caspian near to Tibet) appear to be Scythians (11.8.2). Note the occurrence of the “saka” sound in so many names related to the Scythian tribes, such as Arsaces, Massagetae, Sacarauli, and also Sacasene as we shall see below.


There was no “Armenia” in the time of the Assyrian deportations of the Israelites. It is apparent that the name may have evolved from a Hebrew phrase meaning “mountain regions”, for which see Strong’s Hebrew lexicon #’s 2022, 4480 and 4482. In earlier times the land was partly occupied by the Urartu, who seem to be related to the Medes, and the upper portions by the Moschi and Tibareni, as attested to by Strabo and others. These tribes are evidently the Meshech and Tubal of Genesis 10:2.


Speaking of the time around the fall of Assyria, Herodotus tells us that the Scythians conquered all of Asia (1.104), of which Strabo relates that “In ancient times Greater Armenia ruled the whole of Asia” (11.13. 5). Yet both men are correct, where we have seen from Diodorus Siculus the Scythian origins along the Araxes river in part of what later became known as Armenia, and their presence there in Persian times as Herodotus describes Cyrus’ expedition against the Massagetae there. Strabo tells us that Sacasene, a district in Armenia, was so named for the Sacae who dwelt there (11.8.4).


While this entire eastern world, once predominately Caucasian (Adamic, or White), has been overrun and mongrelized by Arabs, Edomite-jews, Turks and Mongols over the past 1500 or so years, the Armenians seem to never have forgotten their Israelite background, and an Armenian quarter was maintained in Jerusalem even in the 20th century. The Armenians, the original White Armenians, accepted Christianity even before Constantine, and this was noted by them in later accounts.


In Strabo’s time, sandwiched between Armenia to the south and the Caucasus Mountains to the north were three small districts occupying much of the land known today as Georgia: Colchis which bordered the Black Sea, Iberia which was landlocked, and Albania which bordered the Caspian Sea. The eastern portion of Albania (not to be confused with the later Albania in the Balkans) contained a region called Caspiana.


Colchis was an ancient district, certainly first settled by some of the Japhethite tribes, known to the Greeks at the earliest times, and by their myths even before the Trojan War. Jason and the Argonauts, a story which supposedly took place a couple of generations before the Trojan War, sailed through the Black Sea to Colchis in search of the golden fleece. Here Jason met Medea, daughter of the king, who ran off with him after helping him steal the fleece from her father, and then married him in Greece, as the myth generally goes.


Herodotus tells us that the Colchians practiced circumcision, however there appears the odd statement that the Colchians were black and wooly-headed (2.104), a statement which his most famous translator, George Rawlinson, disputed in a footnote. Herodotus claimed that the Colchians were related to the Egyptians, from whence they received their circumcision custom, and also called the Egyptians black and wooly-headed. Since Egypt was overrun and ruled for nearly a century by Nubians, from about 750-661 B.C., Herodotus, writing about 200 years later, may well have seen some Egyptians of this sort, yet such could not be said of the Colchians. It may be conjectured that Herodotus, if the statement is not an interpolation, only imagined that the Colchians should look like certain “Egyptians”, if they were indeed related. As Rawlinson states in his footnote, the paintings, monuments and mummies show the original Egyptians to be neither black nor wooly-headed. While not mentioning this particular statement of Herodotus’, Strabo scoffed at “some writers, wishing to show forth a kinship between the Colchians and the Egyptians” (11.2.17). Euripides, a contemporary of Herodotus and just as acquainted with the region as the historian was, in his account of Jason’s voyage in his play Medea, described the title character’s “snow-white neck”, a description much more agreeable to the historical and archaeological records. It is possible that the Colchians, if the area was inhabited by deported Israelites in Herodotus’ time, did practice circumcision, a custom which began among them before the sojourn in Egypt. Yet here the testimony found in Herodotus appears to be tainted, and if not by a later hand, his statements concerning the Colchians appear to be one of his graver errors, while most of his other testimonies are worthy of great respect.


Bordering Colchis to the east was Iberia. Strabo calls the Iberians of the Caucasus “both neighbors and kinsmen” of the Scythians and Sarmatians, and “they assemble many tens of thousands, both from their own people and from the Scythians and Sarmatians, whenever anything alarming occurs” (11.3. 3). Strabo also says that “the greater part of Iberia is so well built up in respect to cities and farmsteads that their roofs are tiled, and their houses as well as their market-places and other public buildings are constructed with architectural skill” (11.3.1).


Anciently there were two lands named Iberia, and such is certainly no coincidence: the one the peninsula later known as Spain and settled by Hebrew-Israelite-Phoenicians, and the other this one here in the Caucasus mountains, settled by Hebrew-Israelite-Scythians. In the Hebrew language, “Hebrews” would be “Iberi”, or as Strong’s has it, Ibriy (#5680). Strabo, unsure why Iberia was called such, imagined that both lands were so called from gold mines said to be in each country (11.2.19). Even that would require both peoples, so far apart, to have a common word related to gold mines, which is not the case in any of the regions’ languages, and so Strabo’s conjecture here must be dismissed.


East of Iberia and reaching to the Caspian Sea was Albania, of which the eastern part, Caspiana, sat at the mouth of that same Araxes river where the Scythians are placed at the earliest times. Herodotus mentions the Caspians at 7.67, and in company with the Bactrians in Xerxes’ Persian army at 7.86. In Strabo we have seen the relationship of the Bactrians and Scythians mentioned above (11.8.2). Caspiana must be, as Dr. George Moore agrees in his The Lost Tribes And The Saxons Of The East And The Saxons Of the West, that same district mentioned at Ezra 8:17, Casiphia, to which Ezra sent for Levites to come to Jerusalem after the rebuilding of the Temple. Moore wrote as much in the 1870’s, when his book was first published.


So while we see that the ancient historians surely made some mistakes in certain places, or offered fanciful conjectures where the truth of a matter was obscured by time or language, we have a consistent pattern of testimony among many ancient accounts that the Parthian, Scythian, and other “Indo-European” tribes shared a common origin in and around the regions of ancient Media, Armenia and northern Assyria, and from there soon spread themselves east as far as the borders of India and Tibet, and west to Thrace and the Danube river. And we can tell their descent from the Israelites not only because they first appear in places where the Bible tells us that the Israelites were brought to by the Assyrians, and not only because they fulfilled the many prophecies which were foretold of the Israelites, but also from the testimonies such as those of Ezra (Ezra 8:17; 2 Esdras 13:39 ff.), Josephus (Antiq. 11.5.2), and Paul (Col. 3:11), who certainly wrote to no one but the “lost” Israelites. There was no “immense multitude”, as Josephus and Ezra call them, of “Jews” beyond the Euphrates in the time of either Josephus (say, 70 A.D.), or Ezra (say, 450 B.C.), or the contemporary historians who described those entire regions surely would have noted them (Herodotus about 450 B.C., Diodorus about 50 B.C., Strabo before 25 A.D.). But there was indeed an immense multitude of Scythians in those regions, under the many names that we see the various Scythian tribes had adopted, such as Parthians, Iberians, Massagetae, etc. And these were strong enough not only to withstand the subjugations attempted by the Persians, but that a portion of them came to subjugate Persia, and to keep Rome from bringing its empire north of the Danube or east of the Euphrates.


Josephus’ concern that the Parthians receive an account of the events which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem, since they and the other “Upper Barbarians” were of his nation (in the ethnic, and not in the geographical sense), should certainly seal our assurance of the certainty of these testimonies. The Scythians, who eventually migrated westward as the Saxons and other Germanic tribes, surely were the children of Israel.


While other so-called “Indo-European”, “Caucasian” or “Aryan” tribes were in Europe long before the Kelts and Scythians, it is clear that these also may be traced to Mesopotamia, having come at various times through Palestine, Anatolia, or even Egypt at a much earlier time, and settling the coasts of Europe from Greece all the way around to the British isles and Denmark, and also the Danube, Tiber, Po, Rhone, Seine and other river valleys. The tribes of Japheth and the Lydian Shemites were in western Anatolia and southern Europe for nearly two thousand years before the Israelite exodus, a period which we have virtually no historical and scant archaeological evidence to tell us about. Our historical accounts begin to develop only after the Israelite exodus from Egypt and their settlement of Palestine, Phoenicia, Troy and Greece, and apparently the Greek records weren’t recorded in writing until some time after that, in the 8th century B.C., about the same time that the Assyrians began deporting the Israelites from the Levant!


Yet all of the ancient records concerning our origin (“our” meaning the White Europeans of today) are ignored or scoffed at by modern anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians. There is a book which I have read, but which I can’t recommend, which reflects quite well the debate concerning Indo-European origins among today’s academics: In Search of the Indo-Europeans by one J. P. Mallory, published in the late 1980’s. In it Mallory discusses the many prominent modern theories concerning Indo-European origins and the possible locations of some supposed common, prehistoric Indo-European homeland. Yet none of the theories presented are anywhere near the truth, because none of the theorists even consider Mesopotamia, never mind the ancient land of Israel! Mallory even spends a few pages dismissing any link to the Hebrews, and using the Indo-European and Hebrew words for the numbers one through ten in comparison to somehow prove his point, seven being the only one remotely similar. Yet I can find Hebrew cognates for at least 600 basic English words, and also many in Greek and Latin! But that is well beyond our purpose here.


No academic today could possibly approach the truth without risking his or her career, and who among them would have such nerve or such gumption to challenge the false accounts of history being presented to us by the jews? In earlier times, we were called “Caucasians” because anthropologists knew of our sojourn through the Caucasus mountains. Today our historical accounts are denied, and our academics spend their resources in pursuit of something which does not exist, only to avoid one burning question: If we Germanic, Keltic, Scandinavian and related Whites are the Biblical Israelites, then who are these people calling themselves “Jews” today?

 

 

Herodotus wrote of the Scythians as being an extremely barbaric and bloodthirsty race,skinning and beheading slain adversaries and shaping their skulls into drinking cups. Funerals were highly ceremonial and even more blood-drenched. A fallen warrior's wife and entire household were often killed and placed inside the kurgan to serve in the afterlife. Dozens of the finest horses were sacrificed and staked upright around the outside of the burial mound.


very little concrete archaeological evidence has ever been unearthed to prove that a race of Amazons actually existed. Most stories about them have been dismissed as pure conjecture or wishful thinking, including Herodotus's writings of Amazons in Russia and their possible connection with the ancient Scythian race. Recent excavations by Russian archaeologists, however, have produced new evidence that suggests Herodotus may have been right.

The Scythians were a race of mounted nomadic warriors whose early origins are still a mystery and who lived in Central Asia around the 7-8th centuries BC. Their generals were said to be more cunning military tacticians than Genghis Khan, who, centuries later conquered half the world. Yet the Scythians were illiterate, they left no language and history, other than their large round burial mounds, or kurgans, plundered ruins that are found all over the Russian steppes. Russian archaeologists have found some kurgans that are still intact, a few of them containing the remains of what they believe were Scythian royalty or aristocrats. These tombs also contained a breathtaking array of golden artefacts: jewellery, chalices, weapons, breastplates and other finely crafted masterpieces depicting Scythian life.

THE DACIANS


THE AGATHYRSI

Agathyrsoi is the name of the first people living in Transylvania, that has been historically recorded. They are described by Herodotus (iv. 104) as of luxurious habits, wearing gold ornaments (the district is still auriferous) and having wives in common.

"The Agathyrsi are a race of men very luxurious, and very fond of wearing gold on their persons... In other respects their customs approach nearly to those of the Thracians" (Herodotus - Histories, IV.104).

They tattooed their bodies (picti, Aeneid iv. 136), degrees of rank being indicated by the manner in which this was done, and coloured their hair dark blue. Like the Gallic Druids, they recited their laws in a kind of sing-song to prevent their being forgotten, a practice still in existence in the days of Aristotle (Problemata, xix. 28). Valerius Flaccus (Argonautica, vi. 135) calls them Thyrsagetae, probably in reference to their celebration of orgiastic rites in honour of some divinity akin to the Thracian Dionysus. According to German researcher Eichwald, Thyrsagetae are the ‘Getae of the Tyras River’(Dniester River).
The name Agathyrsus means "Much raging". However, the thyrsus was the staff shown, after 530 BC, as a stalk of giant fennel (narthex) segmented like bamboo, sometimes with ivy leaves inserted in the hollow end. Maenads (Bacchae) were depicted and described using them as weapons. It is believed that the vineyards and the wine preparation were developed by the Agathyrsi.

The Agathyrsi brought into Dacia the cults of the sun-god Apollo, of the fire goddess Tabiti/Vesta and of the war godAres/Mars.

Herodotus also mentioned Spargapeithes, a king who most probably lived during the middle of the 5th century B.C. The Agathyrsi (Agatirsi) supplied neighbouring regions with metal works (mirrors, quiver and more). Aristoteles last mentioned these people in the 4th century B.C. with praise for their strict laws. During the 3rd century B.C. in addition to the Agathyrsi, the name of Dacian "Kotiner" surfaced. Tacitus, a Roman historian (A.D. 100) reported on their iron ore mining.

The original dwellers of the province of Vojvodina, which forms Serbia's most northern border, are believed to be the Agathyrsi and Illyrians, later the Dacians, Thracians and Celts.
Herodotus mentions Schilis, the son of Ariapithes and Ophys, "woman from the Danube" who lived together with the Agathyrsi. (Histories, IV.79).

It is believed that the Agathyrsi were of Iranian origin and became a dominant class ruling the northern Thracians from the Mures valley. Archeological evidence (Vasile Pârvan - Getica, Al.Vulpte - Memoria antiquitatis, II, 1970), confirmed Herodot, proving the existence of associations of Iranian and Thracian forms in the culture of the inhabitants of the central Transylvania.
The main fortress of Agathyrsi, dating from the iron age and covering an area of nearly 30 ha, was discovered on the hills on the right banks of the Mures river, at Teleac, located at 4 km from Alba Iulia.

While was in Skythia, Herakles, according to Herodotos, awoke one morning to find that his chariot-horses had disappeared; he came to the cave of Echidna, a viper-maiden (a woman from the buttocks up and a serpent below), who told him that she had the horses but would not give them back unless he spent the night with her. Herakles stayed long enough to have three sons by the viper-maiden, who finally returned his horses and asked him what she should do with their children. Herakles gave her a bow (he always carried two) and a belt with a small gold cup attached, and showed her how he strung the bow and put on the belt; he then told her to send away any of the boys who could not duplicate what he had done. When the children grew up she named the eldest Agathyrsos, the next Gelonos, and the youngest Skythes, and tested them as Herakles had instructed. The first two failed the tasks, but Skythes succeeded and became the eponymous ancestor of the Skythians, who ever afterwards wore belts with little cups attached, in honor of their ancestor Herakles.
This legend confirms the common origin of the Agathyrsi and Skythes, archeologically proven to be Iranian.

The name of the last Dacian king, Decebal seems to be of Assyrian origin: Baal = lord, Dece = Dacia, thus Decebal = "Lord of Dacia". Another Assyrian word used by Dacians, and preserved into Romanian language is ban, meaning governor, ruler. It appears into the name of an Alan king called Sangibanus and into the name of the Assirian king Assur-ban-ipal known also as Ashur-Ban-Apli (reigned 668 to 627 BC). Assur means country, ban means son, and apli means creates, the meaning of the name being "the country creates a son". The title "ban" probably meant prince in Dacia.

In the 15th century BC the Hurrian area ranging from the Iranian mountains to Syria was united into a state called Mitanni. In the middle of the 14th century, the resurgent Hittite Empire under Suppiluliumas I defeated Mitanni and reduced its king, Mattiwaza, to vassalage, while Assyria seized the opportunity to reassert its independence.

The crescent was frequently represented on the Dacian shields depicted on the Trajan's column.
The Roman nobility wore crescent-shaped ornaments on their shoes (Plutarch, Moralia, 282a).
It was also the symbol of the Assirian god Sin also called Nanna or Nannar.

All the above suggest that Decebal (Decebalus), the Dacian king who fought with Trajan, was of Agathyrs origin and that the Agathyrsi were of Hurrian origin rather than Iranian.

THE SARMATIANS.. not to be confused with samaritans

A way used to identify the presence of Sarmatians was according to the skulls and to the north-south orientation of their tombs. At the Babashov necropolis, located on the right bank of Amu Darya, not far from the Bishkek valley, all graves are oriented to the north and usually they are individual. The objects accompanying the dead are few - one or two earthenware pots, and little meat (almost exclusively mutton). About 50% of the skulls are artificially deformed.
In Romania were found two two Sarmatian cemeteries containing artificially deformed skulls. One was at the site of Tirgsor, which contained a total of twenty skeletons, dated between 300 and 500 AD and identified as Sarmatians. The site presents also the unusual case where 50% of the population have been artificially deformed. This percent raises the question of a gender related practice. The second Sarmatian cemetery, found in Dobrogea (Dobruja), is a necropilis containing 811 tombs, many of them having the skull artificially deformed. This confirms the presence of Sarmatians in the southeastern Romania. It is believed that the Sarmatians settled in Dobrogea served into the Roman army, after 340 AD, contributing to the barbarization of the Roman army.
South of Dobrogea, the excavations of the Old Bulgarian necropolis No 1 near Devnja, Bulgaria found a grave (No 91), strikingly similar to these from the Amu Darya basin.

Between 1992 and 1995, collaborative American-Russian excavations at Pokrovka unearthed over 150 burials in five cemeteries. The skeletal material from the Sauromatians and Sarmatians was aged and sexed by two physical anthropologists. The artifacts were placed in three status categories:
• Hearth person: large quantities of valuable beads and spiral earrings
• Priest or priestess: carved-stone and clay sacrificial altars, fossilized sea shells, carved-bone spoons, colored mineral ores (shades of red, yellow, black and white), complete bronze mirrors, and objects embellished with animal style representations
• Warrior: arrowheads, quivers, swords, daggers, and amulets denoting prowess
The diagnostic artifacts from female burials reveal three female statuses:
(1) Hearth women, 75% of the female population, were noted for their wealth of artifacts. Many females wore earrings; the only type found at Pokrovka was three-spiraled bronze, covered with gold foil. (The Dacians also had hearth women wearing golden spiraled bracelets)
(2) Priestesses, 7% of the total female population.
(3) Warriors, 15% of the total female population. The burial of one young female warrior contained 40 bronze arrowheads in a quiver and an iron dagger. Two amulets provided prowess: a large boar's tusk drilled for suspension (which,based upon modern anthropology, may have been worn around her waist on a special cord), and a single bronze arrowhead in a leather bag around her neck. She also had two sea shells and a natural stone in the shape of a sea shell.

The Greek name Sarmatos (Sarmatian) meant horseman, from "sar" = horse into Sarmatian. The Sarmatian word "sar" was preserved into Romanian compound words:
- armăsar (R) = admissarius (Latin) = stallion. The Romanian word is composed of "armă" (weapon) and "sar" (lost word meaning stallion). The word designates the horse used in combat, capable to carry heavy armed horseman. The Latin correspondent is not a compound word, suggesting it was adopted from Dacian.
- samsar (R) = person who carried the collected tribute (old Romanian sama = tribute, tax) by horse (sar) caravan. The term took later the meaning of middle man, negotiator.
- saragea (R) = mounted (sar) Turkish chieftain (agea/aga).

The draco/dracones Standard was originally developed by the cavalry peoples of the steppes, such as the Sarmatians and the Alans, but also by the Parthians and the Sassanid Persians. It may have been used primarily to determine the wind-direction for the horse archers.
Some Sassanid dracos were represented on the 5th century A.D. on a Coptic wall painting from Kharga Oasis, Egypt.
The one draco standard is represented, on the Trajan's Column, nearby a typical "fish-scale" Sarmatian Lamella armor and close to a Dacian helmet, closely resembling a Dacian cap, known usually as Phrygian cap.
Later representations of the draco standard used by horseman wearing Sarmatian Lamella armor are found on the Arch of Galerius(311AD), on a Roman funeral stele from Chester and on the Bayeux Tapestry, commemorating the Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066), where the draco standard is used in the scene depicting Harold's death by an arrow.
The helmet of the horseman from the Chester stele has the same nose protection like the helmets used by the Saxons in the battle of Hastings.
The above evidence indicates the Sarmatian Cavalry was latter used by the Romans in England, where the Saxons adopted their armor and standard.

Tacitus (c. AD 50), Pliny (AD 69-75) and the 2nd century Geography of Ptolemy (book 5, 9.21) are mentioning the Serboi to designate a tribe dwelling in Sarmatia, probably on the Lower Volga River. This tribe came and settled to the south of the Danube, where it established a kingdom that, after the Slavic migration, became known as Serbia.

By the middle of the 2nd century B.C. the Sarmatians became known in Europe as the Iazyges and Roxolani, and those remaining to the cast, the Alans. It is believed that Sarmatian success against the Scythians was due to the creation of a force of super-heavy cavalry, both man and horse being completely armoured in some of the formations. The Sarmatian Roxolani became firm allies of the Dacians, supplying them with the only heavy cavalry force in the Dacian army.
In the 2nd century AD appears the first references to a low-tech variant of Sarmatian scale armour from horse-hooves or horn. This is mentioned for the first time by the travel writer Pausanias , who states that such materials were employed because of the Sarmatians lack of access to Iron. Pausanias goes on to describe a Sarmatian cuirass made of horse hooves, then preserved at the temple of Aesculapius in Athens:
"They collect hooves and clean them out and split them down to make them like snake-scales you will not go far wrong if you think of this hoof-work like the notches of a pine-cone. They bore holes in these scales and sew them with horse and cattle hair to make breast plates no less good looking then Greek ones, and no weaker: they stand up to striking and shooting from close range."
Similar scale armour of horn is mentioned by Ammianus worn by Sarmatians who were raiding Pannonia and Moesia in AD 358: These people, better fitted for brigandage then for open warfare, have very long spears ( hastae ) and cuirasses made from smooth, polished pieces of horn, fastened like scales to linen shirts. Virtually no trace of amour made from scales of horn , hoof or hardened leather has so far been hound in Sarmatian burials.
The Sarmatians were the main allies of the Dacians. The name of the main Dacian fortress, Sarmizegetusa, means the fortress of the Sarmatians (Sarmize) and Getae (Getusa), suggesting that it was built by Sarmatians and Dacians (Getae). Another similar name is Sargetia: "The treasures of Decebalus were also discovered, though hidden beneath the river Sargetia, which ran past his palace"(Cassius Dio, Roman History, Epitome of Book LXVIII, 14). This is suggesting that the Dacian treasure, buried in the bed of Sargetia river, belonged both to Sarmatians and Getae. Sargetia river is called now Apa Orasului, meaning "the water of the city", being the closest water to the Dacian capital, Sarmizegetusa. Most probably, many Sarmatians belonged to Dacian ruling class.

THE DACIAN TRIBES

Also known as Getae, the Dacians were an amalgamation of Thracian tribes who created a formidable state on the eastern confines of the Greco-Roman world. Their neighbours to the north-west were the Germanic tribes, to the north-east the Scythians, to the west the Celts, in Pannonia and to the south-west of the Danube the Illyrians, and to the south the Greeks. The Dacians were a Thracian people, but Dacia was occupied also by Daco-Germans, and in the north-cast by Celto-Dacians.

The Greek geographer Claudios Ptolemaios mentions twelve Dacian tribes. Of them, the most known is the tribe called Apuli/Apulii, who lived into the center of Transylvania and had their capital at Apoulon (today Piatra Craivii). Their name comes from Apollo, their main god.
Apoulon, the capital of the powerful Dacian tribe called Apuli, is placed in the central part of Transylvania, on the middle course of the Mures River. It is known the name of a king of Apuli, called Rubobostes.
After defeating the Dacians, the Romans built few km away from Apoulon, the castrum of the Legion XIII, Gemina. Around it grew a new city, called Apullum by Romans. Under Septimius Severus it became "municipium Septimius Apulense". Later, it became the capital of Dacia Apullensis and of Dacia Felix, under the name of Chrysopolis (the Golden City). There was discovered a rush light having a cross on it, together with seven rays. These symbols indicate that it belonged to a sun worshipper, probably a worshipper of Mithra. In ancient times, 7 was strongly relater to the Sun, that's why, up to now, Sunday is the seventh day of the week.
In the 9th century A.D. the name of the city name was Balgrad, the "White City", which was later changed into Alba Iulia (White Julia).
At 1st of November 1599, Mihai Viteazul (= the brave) entered the city and established there the capital of the three Wallach principates, united for the first time then, for a brief period.
At 1711 the imperial court of Vienna decides to build a new fortress, following the plans of Giovanni Morando Visconti, who inspired himself from the fortresses built by Vauban. The fortress, shaped as a 7 branched star, was built between 1715 and 1738. Surprisingly, its shape reminds once again the ancient sun worship which was practiced there by the Apuli.

The Dacians inhabited the present territory of Romania and the lands south of the Danube. They were agricultural and those living in the mountains were shepherds. They also worked their rich mines of silver, iron, and gold. According to Strabo, the original name of the Dacians was Daoi. In fact the Daoi was the name of the Dacian warriors, members of the wolves' brotherhood.

The name of Dacians and Getae was of Scythic origin (Vasile Pârvan, Getica, p.286). Dhau means to press, to strangle, to squeeze. It is the root for various words meaning wolf: Phrygian daoi, Illyrian dhaunos, Iranian-Saka dahae. This may refer to the anecdotal belief of pastoral shepherds that the wolf when it came after the sheep would seize them by the throat so that they strangled and could make no sound as it dragged them away from the rest of the flock.
A tradition preserved by Hesychius informs us that Daos was the Phrygian word for "wolf". Still according to Strabo, certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called Daoi. This name was probably brought into Transylvania and Vojvodina by the Scytho-Iranian Agathyrs.
Dacian villages and cities had their names ending with "dava", "deva", "daba", "deba" or "debai". The southern limit of the Dacian territory is marked, on the map, by a dotted line.
A part of the Daoisettled into the Rhodope Mountains. Let us note that Spartacus, the famous ancient gladiator who freed himself only to assemble a huge army of hundred thousands former slaves, who scared even "the eternal city" itself, had been a Thracian, from the Rhodophe Mountains of Bulgaria. TheDaursi lived into the Dalmatian mountains. Dausdava, or the "City of the wolves" is on the map of the Roman geographer Ptolemaios at the south of the Danube river.
Herodotus, wrote about Thracians: "...after the Indians, the Thracian people constituted the largest ethnicity among all the rest of the world's races. Should they benefit from one ruling only and be spiritually united, they might succeed to become, in my opinion, absolutely undefeatable and to surpass, by far, the greatness of all the other Earth's proud races. The Thracians bear many names, each one according to their living regions, yet all of them show, through almost everything, highly similar customs".
Because of their philosophy and beliefs, Herodot described the Dacians as "the bravest and the most righteous of all the Thracians".
Based on the above information, we can understand how was possible to find the basic philosophy and beliefs of the Dacian priests spreaded, throughout the Europe.

GETS AND GOTHS, DACIANS AND DANES

The Gets ( Getae), closely related to the Dacians and said to be one and the same people, were inhabiting the banks of the lower Danube region and nearby plains and are first appearing in the 6th century BC. They were known as expert mounted archers and devotees of the deity Zalmoxis. Emperor Augustus' scribe, Strabon notes that "they speak the same language as the Dacians".
Starting with Jordanes, who borrowed the Getic history for the Goths, because of the similarity of the names, Getae were considered to be the same with the migrating tribes called Goths. In the Middle Age, the Dacians and the Danes were considered one and the same people. A historian wrote in the eleventh century about "Dacia which is called today Denmark" and about its inhabitants, the "Goths" who had "many kings generously gifted with the knowledge of the admirable philosophies, as Zeuta and Dichineus as well as Zalmoxis and many others". But Dichineus is Dicineus as referred by Iordanes, a great Dacian priest and king of the kings. We can also observe that the name Dutch of the inhabitants of Holland has the same pronunciation as the Romanian word "Daci" designating the Dacians.

Because in the Greek alphabet "V" is written "B", the Vesi were also called Bessi. The Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace. Herodotus described them as a sort of priestly-caste among the Satrae, the Bessi being interpreters of the prophetic utterances given by a priestess in an oracular shrine of Dionysus located on a mountain-top, which is thought to be Perperikon.
In Strabo, however, the Bessi are described as the fiercest of the independent Thracian tribes, dwelling on and around the Haemus range, and possessing the greater part of the area around that mountain chain.
Cassiodorus virtually invented the name Visigoth (from the Vesi Goths) in the late fifth century.
The king and the leading strata of the Goths who settled in Aquitaine called themselves Vesi, that is, the "good ones."
In the Notitia Dignitatum the Vesi (later known as the Visigoths) are equated with the Thervingi in a reference to the years 388–391. There is a good deal of scholarly debate on the identification of the Vesi with the Thervingi and the Greuthungi with the Ostrogothi.
That the Thervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi the Ostrogothi is also supported by Jordanes. He identified the Visigothic kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the fourth-century Thervingian king Athanaric and the Ostrogothic kings from Theodoric the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungian king Ermanaric.
Zosimus is referring to a group of "Scythians" north of the Danube who were called "Greuthungi" by the barbarians north of the Ister (Danube). Wolfram concludes that this people was the Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest.
Towards the end of the 4th century ad, Nicetas the Bishop of Dacia brought the gospel to "those mountain wolves", the Bessi. Reportedly his mission was successful, and the worship of Dionysus and other Thracian gods was eventually replaced by Christianity. However many elements of their religious beliefs, as the cult of the virgins and that of Apollo survived in the Christian era, as can be seen in Basilica di San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, and in the "Gothic" church Sant'Apollinare of Classe, near Ravenna.
In the 11th century Strategikon text, Cecaumenos the Byzantine historian described the Vlachs south of the Danube (Aromanians) as being descendants of the Daci and of the Bessi.

Grimm and Müllenhoff were the two great masters of Teutonic philology. Jacob Grimm stoutly maintained that Getae and Daci (Dacians) were identical with Goths and Danes. He had used the word "germanisch" only rarely, and employed more often the word "deutsch". In English the terms "German" (deutsch) and "Dutch" (niederländisch) have acquired in everyday speech a special signification, so that for the whole field the name "Teutonic" has been used.

Ulfilas or Ulfila (Gothic Wulfila, "Little Wolf"), is believed to have descended from 3rd-century Cappadocians, who, captured by the Goths, were displaced and settled north of the Danube River, in Dacia. At the age of 30 he was supposedly sent on an embassy to the Roman emperor and was consecrated (341) bishop of the Gothic Christians by Eusebius of Nicomedia, bishop of Constantinople. He evangelized the Goths, reputedly created the Gothic alphabet (based on Greek, but containing some Latin and runic elements), and wrote the earliest translation of the Bible into a Germanic language.

THE DACIANS AND THE VIKINGS

The chronicler of the Norman dukes, Dudo (ca. 1015), tells that Rollo (Rollon), who founded the Norman dynasty in the 900s AD, was the son of an uncertain king in "Dacia" - which seems to be out of place. This is the presentation of Dacia in Dudo's big work:
"Spread over the plentiful space from the Danube to the neighborhood of the
Scythian Black Sea, do there inhabit fierce and barbarous nations, which are said to have burst forth in manifold variety like a swarm of bees from a honeycomb or a sword from a sheath, as is the barbarian custom, from the island of Scania, surrounded in different directions by the ocean. For indeed there is there a tract for the very many people of Alania, and the extremely well-supplied region of Dacia, and the very extensive passage of Greece. Dacia is the middle-most of these. Protected by very high alps in the manner of a crown and after the fashion of a city. With Mars' forewarning, raging warlike peoples inhabit those tortuous bends of extensive size, namely the Getae, also known as Goths" - [From chapter 2, second paragraph in Gesta Normannorum by the chronicler Dudo of St.Quentin's]

The Dacians leaders and priests, called Pileati (from pileus = cap) or Tarabostes (from tiara = cap), were easily distinguished by their so-called Phrygian cap. The reason of this particular shape of the cap is that Dacians twisted their hair, binding it up in a knot on the top of the head. Their caps and helmets were shaped to accommodate this hair knot beneath. This knot was an Persian custom passed to Dacians through the Scythians / Sarmatians. An Achaemenian relief from Dascylium (Anatolia), showing a female and male Zoroastrian priests, clearly depicts on their heads some soft caps making wrinkles, meaning that the shapes of the caps was given by the hair knots bellow.
Historical depictions of Dacians with their caps and without them, with their hair combed in a knot are found on the Trajan column and an the Tropaeum Traiani relief, from Adamclisi, Romania.
The Romanian word for the hair knot is "moţ" (read "mots"). It comes from proto-Dravidian : *muţ meaning knot (of hair); to tie hair in knots, related also to Tamil muţi, meaning to tie, fasten, make into a knot, put on, adorn.
Today, the land containing the ancient Dacian gold mines is called "Tara Moţilor"(= the country of the "moţi"), and the inhabitants are called "moţi" (pl. "moţii") . The county to which belongs Tara Moţilor is called Bihor, very similar to Bihar region from India.
"Moţii" are blond people with blue eyes, living in villages located at hights above 1400 m, being the highest villages from Romania. The capital city of "Tara Moţilor" is Topani (Topesdorf in German). Because of their capital, "Moţii" (the "moţi") are also known as "topi" ('Die Zopfen' in German).

The only other ancient people known to have hair knots on the top of their heads were the Suevii/Suebi. This is what Tacitus tells about them: "I must now proceed to speak of the Suevians, who are not, like the Cattans and Tencterians, comprehended in a single people; but divided into several nations all bearing distinct names, though in general they are entitled Suevians, and occupy the larger share of Germany. This people are remarkable for a peculiar custom, that of twisting their hair and binding it up in a knot. It is thus the Suevians are distinguished from the other Germans, thus the free Suevians from their slaves. In other nations, whether from alliance of blood with the Suevians, or, as is usual, from imitation, this practice is also found, yet rarely, and never exceeds the years of youth. The Suevians, even when their hair is white through age, continue to raise it backwards in a manner stern and staring; and often tie it upon the top of their head only. That of their Princes, is more accurately disposed, and so far they study to appear agreeable and comely; but without any culpable intention. For by it, they mean not to make love or to incite it: they thus dress when proceeding to war, and deck their heads so as to add to their height and terror in the eyes of the enemy."
In ancient times, the Vikings were called Suevii/Suebi/Suiones/Sueones/Sweonas.
During the middle age, there were Vikings called Dacke, a name that survived until today.
ZALMOXIS, THE GREAT PRIEST

According to Iordanes, Dicineus, a great Dacian priest, ruled also over kings, "selecting amongst them the noblest and wisest men, instructing them in theology ... making priests of them and naming them Pileati" (Iord. Get.XI, 71). Kings and priests came from the ranks of Pileati. Other sources also describe them as the Dacian elite.
Socrates, the great Greek philosopher, had personally learned, straight from one of Zalmoxis' apprentices, an incantation of those "able to make human beings immortals". "Zalmoxis disappeared from the nucleus of Thracian social life and descended to his underground shelter. He lived there for about three or four years. The Thracians thought he had vanished and wanted him back dearly, lamenting his loss as if he were really dead. At the end of his 4th year, Zalmoxisappeared once more to their eyes, thus managing to make his teachings believable through some kind of "personal example". Regarding Zamolxis' background itself and his underground hiding shelter, I personally don't fully reject everything that is said, but don't believe too much in it either. It seems to me, though, that he might have actually lived many years before Phytagoras' time. So let Zamolxis be well, whatever he represents, either a human being or some Demon of the Getae people" (Herodotus, "Histories", volume IV, pages 94-95)

Jordanes speaks about the astronomical knowledge received by the Getae from Zalmoxis: "By explaining theoretical knowledge he urged them to contemplate the progress of the twelve constellations (of the zodiac) and the courses of the planets passing through them, and the whole of astronomy. He told them how the disc of the moon waxes or wanes, and showed them how much the fiery globe of the sun exceeds in size our earthly planet. He explained with which names or designations in the arching heavens the three hundred forty-six stars hurtle from their rising to their setting." (Jordanes, THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, XI, 69)

Diodorus Siculus connects the teaching of the druids with the Pythagorean doctrine because both postulate the immortality of souls. Hippolitus, who wrote around the late second, early third century AD, even reports that the teaching of Pythagoras was introduced to the Celts by a slave of Pythagoras, the Thracian Zalmoxis. However, as Herodot mentioned, Zalmoxis lived, probably, many years before Phytagoras. Pythagoras himself was initiated according to a Thracian ritual!

Herodot tells us about "Zalmoxis, who is called also Gebeleizis by some among them". Gebeleizis stands from the root i.e.*g'heib meaning light (W. Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker, II, p.61). For Walde-Pokorny and Decev, Gebeleizis stands from the root i.e.*guer meaning to shine (A. Wade - J. Pokorny, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indo-Germanischen Sprachen, Berlin, I-III, 1927-32, p. 643). Both interpretations are suggesting that Zalmoxis was surnamed "the enlighted" or "the shining", which happened because he was the priest of the only god of the Dacians: the sun god. Because the same reasons, the Dacian lords were called "tarabostes", "tara" meaning tiara while "bostes" was standing from the root i.e.*bhô-s, meaning shining (A. Wade - J. Pokorny, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indo-Germanischen Sprachen, Berlin, II, p. 122). So the Dacian lords were surnamed the shining ones wearing tiaras. This confirms that the Dacian lords were also priests, because, as Jordanes tells us (THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, XI, 72), while they performed the rituals, the Dacian priests wore tiaras, being called "pilleati" (from pilleus = fur cap) because of that.

HESTIA, THE LAW GIVER

Hestia, the goddess of hearth seems to precede the Greek civilization. Homer describes Hestia as the first born, most honored and chief of the goddesses: "Nor yet does the pure maiden Hestia love Aphrodite's works. She was the first-born child of wily Cronos and youngest too, by will of Zeus who holds the aegis, -- a queenly maid whom both Poseidon and Apollo sought to wed. But she was wholly unwilling, nay, stubbornly refused; and touching the head of father Zeus who holds the aegis, she, that fair goddess, sware a great oath which has in truth been fulfilled, that she would be a maiden all her days. So Zeus the Father gave her an high honor instead of marriage, and she has her place in the midst of the house and has the richest portion. In all the temples of the gods she has a share of honor, and among all mortal men she is chief of the goddesses." (Hymns, V. To Aphrodite, ll. 7-32)

Herodotus gives the following information on the Scythian pantheon: "They worship only the following gods, namely, Hestia, whom they reverence beyond all the rest, Zeus, and Earth whom they consider to be the wife of Zeus; and after these Apollo, Celestial Aphrodite, Heracles, and Ares." At Pokrovka, Russia, was found the skeleton of a middle aged female in horseback riding position, in Kurgan 03. The accoutrements that identified these females as belonging to the special Sauromatian social status of "priestesses of the hearth." (Tabiti – Hestia)

The Dacian Goddess Esta/Eshta (Roman Vesta, or Greek Hestia), whom Plato calls the “soul of the body of the universe," is likely to come from the Hattic Sun Goddess, Estan/Eshtan that evolved into Hittite Istanu, a male Sun God. In Hattic Eshtan/Estan means also Sun and Sunday. Hattic was a language spoken by the Hattians in Asia Minor between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC, before the arrival of Nesian (i.e., "Hittite") speakers.

The Dacian hearth women were led by priestesses of Esta/Vesta/Hestia that wore golden spiraled bracelets, with stylized snakes. These bracelets were unearthed since 1996.

Hestia was an immensely important deity in Thrace, and according to Diodorus Siculus, "there were many Hestias, and one, common to all, who was the goddess of the state hearth." A Thracian tomb, from the first half of the 3rd century B.C., is situated 2,5 km south-west of Sveshtari. It has ten identical figures in high relief of the hearth-goddess Hestia, patroness of the hearth, each standing with raised arms in a caryatid-like pose. The tomb also has a mural with the image of a horseman, being bestowed with a golden wreath by Hestia (Vesta), accompanied by her priestesses (Vestals).
Seven centuries later, the mural painting from Sveshtari is echoed by the Dacian painters on a mural painting from Basilica di San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, where the Vestal virgins are holding crowns and are represented with auras, like the saints, which is totally outstanding and unique. Other Dacian features of the "Gothic" church Sant'Apollinare of Classe, near Ravenna, are the depiction of the three Magi wearing Dacian caps and the depiction of Saint Apollinare accompanied by twelve sheep representing the twelve apostles. Thus, Saint Apollinare replaces Jesus in this depiction, which is again unique. Saint Apollinare was the protector saint of the city of Ravenna. His name (Apollinare) means in Latin "sacred to Apollo", an obvious reference to the worship of Apollo practiced by the Dacians,

"The male-virgin of the Orientals, is, I know, considered the same by Plato as his Ejia, or Vesta, whom he calls the soul of the body of the universe. This Hestia, by the way, is in my view a Sanskrit lady, whose name I take to have been EST, or she that is, or exists, having the same meaning as the great of the Jewish Deity. Est is shown in the Celtic Druids to be a Sanskrit word, and I do not doubt of this her derivation. The A terminal is added by the Greek idiom to denote a female, as they hated an indeclinable proper name, such as HEST or EST would have been." (Extract from a letter from Mackenzie Berverly, Esq.)

The above theory is sustained by Diodorus Siculus, who wrote that Estia (Estia) was a goddess of Getae and that Zalmoxis is said to have claimed that Hestia gave to the Getae their laws (Book 1, 94, 2). Thus, the real name of the Getic Goddess might have been "Esti", meaning "it is"or "you are" in Romanian language. This name is paralleled by the Romanian word for saint: "Sânt", meaning "I am".

"... of all the judges, they shall lay them up at the altar of Hestia. And after doing this thrice, during which proceedings they shall pay full attention to evidence and witnesses, each of the judges shall cast a sacred vote, promising by Hestia to give just and true judgment to the best of his power; and thus they shall bring to its end this form of trial." (Plato, Laws: section 856a)

Vesta, the Roman correspondent of Greek Hestia was also symbolizing the law. The Vestal Virgins from Rome were also in charge of wills and testaments.
In Dacia, the priestesses of Hestia had attributions of judges when men were gone to war. Apparently, this custom was used also by Greeks, in the early times: "Now the great leader in heaven, Zeus, driving a winged chariot, goes first, arranging all things and caring for all things. He is followed by an army of gods and spirits, arrayed in eleven squadrons; Hestia alone remains in the house of the gods." (Plato, Phaedrus, section 246e)
Five Dacian priestesses, wearing head-kerchiefs, are represented on the Trajan's Column, burning with torches three roman prisoners. Into the picture is represented also their temple.

Nestinari is an old Thracian ritual, remained from the cult of Hestia, is still celebrated exactly one month after the Roman Palilia. The coming of summer is traditionally celebrated on St. Konstantin and St. Elena Day on May 21, and in some of the remoter villages in the Stranzha hills fire dancing, dancing on heated coals, is still practised. The nestinari horo, circle dance around the fire, is played barefoot by men and women . Not does the fire burns the evil in the nestinari who are dancing on the embers, but also burns all illnesses and purges them. Dancing on glowing embers brings fertility and health.

The ancient Palladium was a sacred torch, lighted by the fire of the temple of Hestia. The story of the Palladium's fall from heaven, signifies that the Palladium bears the sacred fire brought by the thunders of Zeus. It was founded by the Greek warriors Odysseus and Diomedes, who carried it off from the temple of Athena in Troy, thus making the Greek capture of Troy possible. It was particularly identified with the statue brought to Italy by the hero Aeneas after Troy's destruction and preserved in the shrine of the goddess Vesta at Rome. However, according to Vergil, the Palladium that the Greeks had stolen was a fake.

This temple of Vesta from Rome was undoubtedly burned when the Gauls sacked the city in 390 BC, and again in 241 when Caecilius Metellus rescued the Palladium at the cost of his sight, which was miraculously restored. The burning of the temple had a lesser negative signification than the ceasing of the sacred fire. The fire had to be kept alive at all cost. That's why Caecilius saved the sacred fire by the sacred torch, the Palladium.

Prytaneum (Greek PRYTANEION), was a town hall of a Greek city-state, normally housing the chief magistrate and the common altar or hearth of the community. Ambassadors, distinguished foreigners, and citizens who had done signal service were entertained there. The prytaneum was dedicated to Hestia, goddess of the hearth, and within the building a perpetual fire burned. According to some contemporary sources, when colonizers established a new Greek colony, they brought with them a brand from the prytaneum at Athens, from which the fire in the new colony's prytaneum was kindled.

The ritual of transporting the sacred fire from a place to another has survived up today, into the rituals of the Olimpic games: the fire is brought by a torch (Palladium) to the place where will be held the games. There is lit the fire, which has to burn continuously during the games. At the end of the games, the Palladium was lighted again and the fire was brought to another place.

The Prytaneum from Olympia, contained a hearth on which burned a "perpetual fire" and it also had a banquet room in which the Olympic victors were feasted.

Latin language had four names which were connected to the usage of fire:

Palilia, a festival held on 21-st of April, when were performed purifying fumigations of flocks, beasts, and stalls. It appeared from the early times of Rome, and was officiated by the king himself, which shows that early Romans were shepherds. Even though Palilia did not mean anything in Latin, it is likely to come from the Dacian word Palalaia, remained unchanged to today Romanian. Palalaia means "big fire" into Romanian.

Palibus, a similar festival held on 7-th of July,

Palatine hill, on which was the temple of Vesta, keeping the sacred fire of the city,

Palladium, which was originally a compound word, "Pala"+"Dium" meaning God's (dium) fire (Pala) or divine fire. The point is that the only language in which Pala means fire is the Romanian language. This word was probably inherited from the Dacian language, since it does not appear in Greek or Latin languages.

Since the Dacians were mainly shepherds, and Palilia and Palibus were festivals of shepherds, it makes sense to believe that Romans imported these customs, as well al the traditions regarding the sacred fire, Palladium, from the Dacians!

Before the end of the 4th century BC, it was common to swear by Hestia:
"Blepsidemus:[395] Are you telling the truth?
Chremylus: I am.
Blepsidemus: Swear it by Hestia." (Aristophanes, Plutus, 395)
By 350 BC, Hestia is presented as the goddess of the Greek senate: " On our return, then, after we had rendered to the senate a brief report of our mission and had delivered the letter from Philip, Demosthenes praised us to his colleagues in the senate, and he swore by Hestia, goddess of the senate, that he congratulated the city on having sent such men on the embassy, men who in honesty and eloquence were worthy of the state." (Aeschines, On the Embassy, 2, 45)
"The hearth of the Prytaneum, the headquarters of the standing committee of the senate, was regarded as the common hearth of the state; a statue of Hestia was in this hall, and in the senate-house was an altar of that goddess." (Aeschines, On the Embassy, 2, 45, n1)
The Roman version of Hestia, the goddess Vesta , began by only being worshipped in the homes of Roman families as a household deity. However, Vesta soon evolved into a state goddess. The people of Rome built the Temple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum. The temple was built in the third century B.C. It is said that Numa Pompilius set up the service of Vesta.
By the 1st century BC, Hestia (Vesta) is presented as the goddess of the Roman senate: "[6] Critias, fearing that Theramenes might overthrow the oligarchy, threw about him a band of soldiers with drawn swords. [7] They were going to arrest him, but, forestalling them, Theramenes leaped up to the altar of Hestia of the Council Chamber, crying out, "I flee for refuge to the gods, not with the thought that I shall be saved, but to make sure that my slayers will involve themselves in an act of impiety against the gods." (Diodorus Siculus, Library, book 14, chapter 4)
When Dionysus came to the Olymp, Hestia left her seat to him.
Like Dacians, Romans and Greeks, the Iranians concluded contracts before fires so that they might be made in the presence of Mithra. Like Mitra, Mithra saw all things. The Avestan Yast (hymn) dedicated to him describes him as having a thousand ears, ten thousand eyes, and as never sleeping.
The names Mitra, Mithra and Mithras all derive from the Indo-European root "Mihr," which translates both as "friend" and as "contract."
The friendship or contract offered by Mihr, or Mitra as he became known, was an exchange between unequal partners with Mitra as a just lord. Like any feudal relationship, this "friendship" imposed certain obligations on both sides. Mitra oversaw the affairs of his worshippers. He established justice for them. In return, his worshippers had to be upright in their dealings with others. Mitra was thus "lord of the contract" (a title frequently applied to him).

THE GETAE ADORED MARS

Ares, the god of war is of Scythian origin. Herodotus wrote in his Histories, Book 4, 62 :"Upon this pile of which I speak each people has an ancient iron sword set up, and this is the sacred symbol of Ares. To this sword they bring yearly offerings of cattle and of horses; and they have the following sacrifice in addition, beyond what they make to the other gods, that is to say, of all the enemies whom they take captive in war they sacrifice one man in every hundred, not in the same manner as they sacrifice cattle, but in a different manner: for they first pour wine over their heads, and after that they cut the throats of the men, so that the blood runs into a bowl; and then they carry this up to the top of the pile of brushwood and pour the blood over the sword."
The Scythian Agathyrsi introduced the worship of Ares into Dacia. From there it spread around.

Mars, the god of war, known to be at high esteem among the Romans, was adopted from the Dacians. The historian Jordanes wrote: "so highly were the Getae praised that Mars, whom the fables of poets call the god of war, was reputed to have been born among them. Hence Virgil says: "Father Gradivus rules the Getic fields."
The famous Black Sea exiled Roman poet, Publius Ovidius Naso (43 B.C.-17 A.D.) speaks in his writings about his next door Getae neighbor who was worshipping Ares (Greek equivalent to the Roman Mars). . Iordanes wrote that "the Getae people have always adored Mars through an extremely savage cult, killing war prisoners as sacrifices dedicated to His glory...". Some of the wolf warriors, worshipers of Mars, moved from the Balkan peninsula, crossing the Adriatic Sea, to the Italian Peninsula. Some "wolf warriors" tribes were present among the pre-Romanic inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. They derived their behaviours and beliefs from the Dacians. The legend of the she-wolf who raised Romulusand Remus, said to be the sons of Mars, together with the affirmation of Vegetius, who wrote "the God Mars has been born from within Thracian Land" shows the Thracian origins of the Roman warriors' beliefs and religion.
The Historia Augusta mentions that wolf-snake draco became the Roman imperial flag: the mother of Severus (193-211 AD) dreamt of a purple snake before his birth, something very alike what we later hear of the Imperial standard. (Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Severus 4.1)
The Roman draco developed into a real dragon, without ears but with scales and a crest. The only fully preserved draco was found in the Limes fortress of Niederbieber in Germany, which dates to the 3rd century. This copper alloy object was discovered near the SW edge of the vicus (civilian settlement) outside the fort. It can best be described as a scaled monster's head, measuring 30x12x12 cm, and with some probability is the head of a cohort's draco.
Two holes of similar size are pierced through both the throat and the skull behind the crest. No doubt a staff or the shaft of a spear would pass through here. Two axial slits, 2 cm long, pierce the botom of the lower jaw, probably to attach a lost mechanism that would have produced the hissing effect.
The late 4th c. author Vegetius also mentions the draco as a common standard: "What are the dragonbearers and standardbearers, which hold spears in their left hand, to do in battle, whose heads and breasts are naked?" (Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris 1.20)
Vegetius also mentions that each cohort has a draco/dragon: "Dragons, one each for the individual cohorts, are carried into battle by dragonbearers" (Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris 2.13)

AURELIAN AND THE WORSHIP OF SUN

In 67 B.C., the first congregation of Mithras-worshipping soldiers existed in Rome under the command of General Pompey.
In 69AD, Legio III Gallica, with the rest of the Danubian army, aligned first with Otho, then with Vespasian. They were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum . This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, and when dawn broke at Bedriacum they turned east to do so. The forces of Vitellius thought that they were saluting reinforcements from the east and lost the will to fight.
From 67 to 70 A.D., the legio XV Apollinaris, or Fifteenth Apollonian Legion, took part in suppressing the uprising of the Jews in Palestine. After sacking and burning the Second Temple in Jerusalem and capturing the infamous Ark of the Covenant, this legion accompanied Emperor Titus to Alexandria, where they were joined by new recruits from Cappadocia (Turkey) to replace casualties suffered in their victorious campaigns. After their transportation to the Danube with the veteran legionnaires, they offered sacrifices to Mithras in a semicircular grotto that they consecrated to him on the banks of the river. Soon, this first temple was no longer adequate and a second one was built adjoining a temple of Jupiter. As a municipality developed alongside the camp and the conversions to Mithraism continued to multiply, a third and much larger Mithraeum was erected towards the beginning of the second century. This temple was later enlarged by Diocletian, Emperor from 284-305 A.D. Diocletian rededicated this sanctuary to Mithras, giving him the title "The Protector of the Empire".
In the year 307 A. D., Diocletian, Galerius, and Licinius had a solemn meeting at Carnuntum on the Danube, and there consecrated together a sanctuary "to the Unconquered Sun-god Mithra, the favourer of their empire."
When Commodus (Emperor from 180-192 A.D.) was initiated into the Mithraic religion, there began an era of strong support of Mithraism that included emperors such as Aurelian, Diocletian, and Julian the Apostate, who called Mithras "the guide of the souls". All of these emperors took the Mithraic titles of 'Pius', 'Felix', and 'Invictus' (devout, blessed, and invincible). Emperor Nero adopted the radiating crown as the symbol of his sovereignty to exemplify the splendour of the rays of the sun, and to show that he was an incarnation of Mithras.

From the end of the Syrian rulers, the next group of emperors, all the way to Constantine, were soldiers and not one of them was Roman, in fact, not a single one was even Italian. Most came from humble origins in the Balkans (by the way, the Balkan region was a strong-hold of Mithraic sun-worship). One of these emperors, Aurelian, who reigned from 270 to 275 A. D., was from the Balkans. His father was a farmer while his mother, like the Syrian emperors’ mothers, was a priestess of the Sun (Historians’ History, vol. 6, p. 421). According to the Historia Augusta (Aurel. 4,2; 5,5), his mother was priestess of the Sun-god in the temple of the village where he was born.
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus was born on the 9th of September 214 or 215 in either Dacia ripensis or in Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica, in Pannonia), i.e. in the region of today's northern Serbia, southern Romania, and western
Bulgaria (Birthdate: Chronograph 354, see CIL I2, pp. 255; 272; birthyear 214: Malalas (Bonn), 301; birthyear 215: Synopsis Sathas p. 39, line 16; born in Dacia ripensis: Eutr. 9,13,1; born in Sirmium or Dacia ripensis: SHA, Aurel. 3,1; origins ofMoesia: SHA, Aurel. 3,2; born between Dacia and Macedonia: Epit. de Caes. 35,1.) He was of humble origins, his father being a colonus (tenant) of a senator named Aurelius. Aurelian had a military career; as dux equitum (commander of the cavalry), he joined the conspiracy against the emperor Gallienus in A.D. 268 and supported the new ruler Claudius II Gothicus, under whose reign he continued his career, becoming supreme commander of the whole cavalry of the Roman army. Aurelian was proclaimed emperor by the troops. By reuniting the empire, which had virtually disintegrated under the pressure of invasions and internal revolts, he earned his self-adopted title restitutor orbis ("restorer of the world").
In 271 Aurelian defeated the Goths on the Danube and withdrew Roman occupants from Dacia to an area south of the Danube. Tenths of thousands of colonists were relocated from Dacia to Rome on this occasion, bringing with them their customs and beliefs.
In 274, Aurelian created a new cult of the "Sol Invictus" (Invincible Sun). Worshipped in a splendid temple, served by pontiffs who were raised to the level of the ancient pontiffs of Rome and celebrated every fourth year by magnificent games (just like the Greek Olimpic games!), Sol Invictus was definitely promoted to the highest rank in the divine hierarchy and became the official protector of the Sovereigns and of the Empire. Aurelian established a new college of high priests, under the name Pontifices Dei Solis.
The coins of Aurelian also attest his devotion to the solar deity. On one of them the Sun is seen offering to the emperor a globe as a symbol of the empire of the world, with a captive lying at their feet; some of the inscriptions on the coins proclaim the Sun-god to be the Preserver or Restorer of the World or even Lord of the Roman Empire.

GALERIUS, THE DACIAN EMPEROR

The Roman Emperor Galerius was born near Serdica, Thrace [now Sofia, Bulgaria], of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by the emperor Diocletian, who governed the Eastern part of the empire. Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletanius, was born in Dalmatia Salona in 243 AD and given the Greek name of Diokles ("glory of Zeus").
After fighting hostile tribes along the Danube River for several years, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanids, in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence on Diocletian.
When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus (senior emperor) of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia.
The Arch of Galerius is celebrating the victory over the Sassanid Persians. There are represented warriors with the draco standard and wearing Sarmatian Lamella armors. That strongly suggests that Galerius' army was composed of Dacians.
The Christian apologist Lactantius (240 - 320 AD), speaks about Galerius: "his mother was born beyond the Danube, and it was an inroad of the Carpi that obliged her to cross over and take refuge in New Dacia". This New Dacia was the part of the Balcan Peninsula from the south of the Danube.
Lactantius describes Galerius as an ardent worshiper of Mars: “he cried out, with a stern look and terrible voice, "How long am I to be Caesar?" Then he began to act extravagantly, insomuch that, as if he had been a second Romulus, he wished to pass for and to be called the offspring of Mars; and that he might appear the issue of a divinity, he was willing that his mother Romula should be dishonored with the name of adulteress.”
Galerius was proud of his Dacian origin and despised the Romans. Lactantius wrote about it: "Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire."[ So Lactantius, in De mortibus persecutorum, XXVII.8. (Ed. CERF, Paris, 1954)]

Sir James G. Frazer, tells in "The golden bough", Chapter XII "The Worship of Nature", that

 

in the year 307 A. D., Diocletian, Galerius, and Licinius had a solemn meeting at Carnuntum on the Danube, and there consecrated together a sanctuary "to the Unconquered Sun-god Mithra, the favourer of the empire." This indicates that Galerius was himself a worshipper of the Sun-god.

And promoting a male oriented, celibate, warrior God

Archetype who lives in cold mountain tops

all of which is against the gentle images of the Goddess

(Sir James G. Frazer, The golden bough, Chapter XII The Worship of Nature, 1925)
Galerius put Rome under siege, in an attempt to conquer it, but his dream was accomplished several years later by Constantine the Great.

CONSTANTINE, THE THRACIAN EMPEROR

Constantine was born Flavius Valerius Constantius in 274 A.D. in the Roman province of Moesia (later Serbia) and was the son of the commander Constantius Chlorus (later Constantius I) and Helena.
In his book entitled De Magistratibus Ioannes Lydus reports that Constantine the Great wrote, in his native (oikeia) tongue, some Discourses which he left to posterity. As shown bellow, it was the Thracian language.

Constantine’s grandfather, Eutropius, was a Thracian from Dardania [Trebellius Pollio, Divus Claudius, XIII. 1-2. (In SHA) ];

Constantine himself was born and raised in Nish (Naissus), a Thracian (Dardanian) city [Anonymus Valesianus, Pars Prior, 2. (Printed following Ammianus Marcellinus, in the Loeb edition, t.3.)];

He completed his education in Nicomedia, a Thracian city, at the court of Galerius, a Dacian emperor born in Serdica (the modern Sofia). Galerius was so un-Roman that he is believed to have even thought of dropping from the name of the Empire the adjective “Roman” and replacing it by “Dacian”.[ So Lactantius, in De mortibus persecutorum, XXVII.8. (Ed. CERF, Paris, 1954)];

Julian the Apostate, a nephew of Constantine, says several times over that his family was Thracian, from Mysia [Mysopogon. Passim. (Loeb)];

Constantine himself transferred the Imperial capital away from Rome, to Byzantium, in the heart of Thrace.

Following the example of his father and earlier 3rd-century emperors, Constantine in his early life was a solar henotheist, believing that the Roman sun god, Sol, was the visible manifestation of an invisible "Highest God" (summus deus), who was the principle behind the universe. This god was thought to be the companion of the Roman emperors.
Constantine's father left his mother c. 292 to marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter or step-daughter of Western Roman Emperor Maximian. Theodora would give birth to six half-siblings of Constantine, including Julius Constantius.
Constantine served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father, a general, as one of the two caesares in 293. In 305, the Augustus, Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to the position.
Constantine joined his father in making war on the Scots and Picts in Northern Britain. When his father died in 306, Constantine was proclaimed Emperor by his soldiers at York. His elite warriors, the cavalry, were Dacian/Sarmatian horsemen like the horseman from the Chester stele.
Constantine's Head, marble sculpture found in York, displayed now in the Yorkshire Museum, is the earliest portrait of him, carved shortly after he was proclaimed Emperor.
A mosaic roundel with Constantine’s head and his Chi-Rho sign was found in Hinton St Mary, Dorset, England. On stylistic grounds it has been dated to the 4th century and is attributed to the workshop of the Durnovarian school of mosaic art. The panel is 17ft by 15ft. A central circle surrounds a portrait bust of a man in a white pallium standing before a Chi Rho symbol and two pomegranates. This mosaic suggests that Constantine adopted the chi-rho insignia while he was in Britain.
Constantine's adherence to this faith is evident from his claim of having had a vision of the sun god in 310 while in a grove of Apollo in Gaul. From AD 310, Apollo-Sol dominated Constantine’s coinage.
Constantine invaded Italy in 312 and after a lightning campaign defeated his brother-in-law Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge near Rome, where Constantine's army was fiercely outnumbered . Eusebius, his official biographer, wrote about the vision that Constantine had the day before the battle:
"At broad daylight he claimed to witness a magnificent and radiant figure of a cross above the sun. Above the sign was the inscription In hoc signo vinces "by this sign conquer". The next morning he had his army paint their shields and carry this "sign" that he had seen early into battle."
The labarum symbol was in use long before Constantine choose it as his army's insignia, and X (Chi) probably stood for Great Fire or Sun, and P (Rho) probably stood for Pater or Patah (Father). The word labarum yields everlasting Father Sun. Constantine replaced the eagle from the Roman standard by the labarum with the motto "en touty nika" which was later interpreted into "In hoc signo vinces".
The Labarum had a been Chaldean symbol of the sun, and an emblem of Etruria ages before Constantine and the Christian era.

 

Thus, Constantine set to work placing the solar symbol on the shields of everyone in his army, most of which were of the Mithra/Sol Invictus sentiment. as was his rivals The discipline brought to the military by Aurelian was still very much alive and very much Mithraic. The next day Constantine swept the enemy ( the other roman emperor) into the Tiber River, and entered victoriously into Rome! Constantine's vision refers to a cross on the sky, as it was a symbol for the sun or "Sol Invictus" (Invincible Sun) of the Dacian  Romans.

Demonstrating that the best way to compromise a rivals zealot army is to become one of them..  and then declare the divine right of kings anyway in their new religion.. anyone who disagreed was murdered.. and then the enslaving idea of martyrdom as being that which  happens to saints was promoted and celebrated by state propaganda (RCC) no doubt to eliminate any sane opposition..  of course the threat was real and backed up by the RC Church itself.. The RCC has been about human spiritual enslavement ever since!


Testimony of the Church Fathers

It needs to be emphasized that the claim is not that Horus was a human being thrown to the ground and nailed to a piece of wood. In CIE, I discuss the etymology of the word "crucify," which comes from the Latin crucifigere, composed of cruci/crux and affigere/..figere, meaning "cross" and "to fix/affix," respectively. Crucifigere and its English derivation "to crucify" mean "to fix to a cross," but not necessarily to throw down and nail to a piece of wood. What we are interested in, then, is whether or not pre-Christian gods and goddesses were depicted as fixed to a cross or in cruciform, appearing as a crucifix. TertullianThis motif of a pre-Christian or non-Christian god or man on a cross or cross-shaped is expounded upon by the Church fathers Tertullian (c. 160-c. 200) and Minucius Felix (2nd-3rd cents.). In his Apology (16), Tertullian remarks:



"We have shown before that your deities are derived from shapes modelled from the cross. But you also worship victories, for in your trophies the cross is the heart of the trophy. The camp religion of the Romans is all through a worship of the standards, a setting the standards above all gods. Well, as those images decking out the standards are ornaments of crosses. All those hangings of your standards and banners are robes of crosses." (Roberts, ANCL, 85)

The place where Tertullian had "shown before" his contentions about the Pagan gods being cross-shaped was in his work Ad Nationes (12), in a lengthy treatise which includes the following remarks:

"...The Heathens Themselves Made Much of Crosses in Sacred Things; Nay, Their Very Idols Were Formed on a Crucial [Crosslike] Frame.

"...your gods in their origin have proceeded from this hated cross... if you simply place a man with his arms and hands outstretched, you will make the general outline of a cross...." (Roberts, ANF, III, 122)



In his Octavius (29), Minucius echoes the same sentiment:

"...The Egyptians certainly choose out a man for themselves whom they may worship... Crosses, moreover, we neither worship nor wish for. You, indeed, who consecrate gods of wood, adore wooden crosses perhaps as parts of your gods. For your very standards, as well as your banners, and flags of your camp, what else are they but crosses gilded and adorned? Your victorious trophies not only imitate the appearance of a simple cross, but also that of a man affixed to it." (Roberts, ANF, IV, 191)

In the same passage, Minucius states, "...crucis signum est, et cum homo porrectis manibus deum pura mente veneratur." (Felix, 66) To wit, "...the sign of the cross it is, also when a man stretching out his hands venerates God with a pure mind."

In his First Apology Church father Justin Martyr (c. 150) writes:

"Chapter 21. Analogies to the history of Christ.

"And when we say also that the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter..." (Roberts, ANF, I, 170)

It is evident that the Church fathers did not perceive the configuration of Christ on the cross to be anything unusual. Indeed, they insisted that the Pagans likewise worshipped gods on crosses or in "crucial frame," as Tertullian styles it. With such surprising declarations from early Christian authorities, we are justified in asking which of the "sons of Jupiter," i.e., the Greek and Roman gods, was thus depicted as "crucified?" What we discover is that both the cross and a deity or man on a cross were common sacred motifs long before the Christian era. In reality, there were many depictions of Pagan gods and goddesses in cruciform or in cross shape, with arms outstretched, a motif considered by the Church fathers to represent the "sign of the cross," such as concerns Moses, for example, at Exodus 17:11. Cross posture in the Christian catacombsRegard..ing the repeated statements and reports about the reverential crosslike pose or "cruciform posture" by the Church fathers and elsewhere in Christendom, Rev. William W. Seymour remarks:


"Examples of this posture in prayer are found in the Catacombs....

Greco-Egyptian cross posture with Horus hawk"We find that the ancient Egyptians used this posture in prayer, as is figured in the hieroglyphics on the obelisk before the Church of S. John Lateran at Rome. This also was the custom of the Romans... The Hebrews spread forth their hands before the Lord; in short, this posture in devotion we believe may be traced the world over..." (Seymour, 432-433)

In reality, non-Christian gods were represented in cruciform centuries before Christ was portrayed likewise; in fact, the first depiction of Jesus on a cross in art did not occur until the fifth century AD/CE. As stated by the Catholic Encyclopedia ("Cross and the Crucifix"):

"The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity. It goes back to a very remote period of human civilization......


"...It is also...a symbol of the sun...and seems to denote its daily rotation.... Cruciform objects have been found in Assyria. Shari people in Egypt wearing crucifixes around their necksThe statutes of Kings Asurnazirpal and Sansirauman, now in the British Museum, have cruciform jewels about the neck.... Cruciform earrings were found by Father Delattre in Punic tombs at Carthage.

"Another symbol which has been connected with the cross is the ansated cross (ankh or crux ansata) of the ancient Egyptians.... From the earliest times also it appears among the hieroglyphic signs symbolic of life or of the living... perhaps it was originally, like the swastika, an astronomical sign. The ansated cross is found on many and various monuments of Egypt.... In later times the Egyptian Christians (Copts), attracted by its form, and perhaps by its symbolism, adopted it as the emblem of the cross...

Etruscan ossuary vases with crosses on bottom"...In the proto-Etruscan cemetery of Golasecca every tomb has a vase with a cross engraved on it....





"...On an ancient vase we see Prometheus bound to a beam which serves the purpose of a cross.... In the same way the rock to which Andromeda was fastened is called crux, or cross....

Andromeda chained in a cross shape or crucifix".....The Christian apologists, such as Tertullian (Apol., xvi; Ad. Nationes, xii) and Minucius Felix (Octavius, lx, xii, xxviii), felicitously replied to the pagan taunt by showing that their persecutors themselves adored cruciform objects. Such observations throw light on a peculiar fact of primitive Christian life, i.e. the almost total absence from Christian monuments of the period of persecutions of the plain, unadorned cross...

"...The early years of the fifth century are of the highest importance in this development, because it was then that the undisguised cross first appears.... But the fifth century marks the period when Christian art broke away from old fears, and, secure in its triumph, displayed before the world, now become Christian also, the sign of its redemption....

"...The most ancient text we have relating to a carved cross dates from later than A.D. 362....


"...Although in the fifth century the cross began to appear on public monuments, it was not for a century afterwards that the figure on the cross was shown; and not until the close of the fifth, or even the middle of the sixth century, did it appear without disguise...." (CE, IV, 517ff)

In its article entitled "Images," the Catholic Encyclopedia relates:

Crucifix from Santa Sabina Church, Rome, 5th century"...The first mentions of [Christian] crucifixes are in the sixth century.... The oldest crucifixes known are those on the wooden doors of St. Sabina at Rome and an ivory carving in the British Museum... Both are of the fifth century...." (CE, VII, 667)

As we can see, the cross was a sacred symbol, and cruciform objects were worn Prometheus on stauros or crossaround the neck, long before the Christian era. One such cruciform figurine with a crucifix around its neck from Cyprus dates to the Chalcolithic Age (3900-2500 BCE). On a vase dating from around 350 BCE, we find a tortured Greek god Prometheus chained in cruciform, while another vase dating to the late sixth to early seventh centuries BCE depicts Prometheus on a stake or stauros, as the term is in Greek - the same word used in the New Testament to describe Christ's cross. Moreover, the mythical princess Andromeda too was portrayed essentially as having been crucified, as demonstrated by an image from Pompeii, which was destroyed in 79 AD/CE, several centuries before Christ was depicted on the cross in art. So too was the Egyptian cross or ankh a prevalent sacred symbol for millennia prior to the common era, being adopted as well by Egyptian Christians or Copts.




Horus and the Cross

In this regard, Osiris and Horus both were associated with and/or identified as a cross, such as the ankh, which, like the cross of Jesus, represents eternal life. Horus with the ankh/cross raising OsirisHorus is identified with the cross in several ways, using the ankh, for instance, to raise Osiris from the dead. Providing an example of the Church fathers' contention about gods with arms outstretched making the sign of the cross or being in "crucial frame," i.e., cruciform, Egyptologist Dr. Erik Hornung discusses Horus as the hawk "whose wings span the sky" (CGAE, 124) and "the ancient god of the heavens, whose wings spread over the whole earth" (VK, 59). Winged goddess (Isis) on King Tut's sarcophagusWe find several other Egyptian gods and goddesses in this same cruciform pose, with arms and wings outstretched, including in tombs and on numerous coffins, serving as protection and assistance for a smooth passage into the afterlife, the same role as the cross on Christian coffins. Again, the early Christians considered figures with arms outstretched to be making the sign of the cross, and they compared Pagan gods in cruciform to Christ on the cross.




Horus as the hawk with his wings or arms outstretched reflects his role as the sun god "crossing over" the sky, as depicted in various hymns and Coffin Texts. As I say in Christ in Egypt (342), the significance of asserting the sun god to be "crucified" is not that his myth is imitated exactly in the gospel story but that he was a revered pre-Christian god "on a cross" and that this particular motif was adopted by those who created the Christian myth specifically because it was a popular and venerated theme.

Moreover, in Christ in Egypt, I include an extensive discussion of a mysterious Egypto-Gnostic character named Horos, essentially the same name as "Horus" in Greek, although the two words are spelled slightly differently, the former with an omega and the latter with an omicron. Nevertheless, there is reason to suppose that the Gnostic figure of Horos and the Egyptian god Horus are at root one and the same. The Gnostic Horos not only is associated with but is also identified as "Stauros" - the Cross - again, the same Greek word used in the gospels to describe what Jesus was purportedly crucified upon. Indeed, in Christian writings Jesus is "often assimilated" to Horos-Stauros.

In describing the Gnostic character of Horos-Stauros, the Encyclopedia Britannica ("Valentinus") relates:

"A figure entirely peculiar to Valentinian Gnosticism is that of Horos (the Limiter). The name is perhaps an echo of the Egyptian Horus. The peculiar task of Horos is to separate the fallen aeons from the upper world of aeons. At the same time he becomes...a kind of world-creative power.... He is also called, curiously enough, Stauros (cross), and we frequently meet with references to the figure of Stauros. But we must not be in too great a hurry to conjecture that this is a Christian figure. Speculations about the Stauros are older than Christianity, and a Platonic conception may have been at work here. Plato had already stated that the world-soul revealed itself in the form of the letter Chi (X); by which he meant that figure described in the heavens by the intersecting orbits of the sun and the planetary ecliptic. Since through this double orbit all the movements of the heavenly powers are determined, so all "becoming" and all life depend on it, and thus we can understand the statement that the world-soul appears in the form of an X, or a cross. The cross can also stand for the wondrous aeon on whom depends the ordering and life of the world, and thus Horos-Stauros appears here as the first redeemer of Sophia from her passions, and as the orderer of the creation of the world which now begins. This explanation of Horos, moreover, is not a mere conjecture, but one branch of the Valentinian school, the Marcosians, have expressedly so explained this figure.... Naturally, then, the figure of Horos-Stauros was often in later days assimilated to that of the Christian Redeemer. (EB, 854 [Emph. added])



Here we read that the name Horos is "perhaps an echo of the Egyptian Horus" and that "speculations about the Stauros are older than Christianity." We further learn that the ancient writer Plato (429-347 BCE) had described the "world-soul" in the shape of an X or cross and that this concept also represented the orbits of the sun and earth's ecliptic intersecting. Again, this Gnostic Horos-Stauros character with pre-Christian roots was so similar to the Christ figure that the two were frequently combined.

Plato's World Soul and Just Man Crucified

In his role as the sun crossing over the sky and as the apparent origin of the Horos-Stauros character, Horus has been compared to Plato's world-soul impressed upon a cross in the heavens, as found in the Timaeus (36bc). (Plato, 49) This Platonic figure in turn was commonly taken to be a "..foreshadowing" of the Christ character and cross. As theologian Rev. Dr. Hugo Rahner states:

"...Adapting an old Pythagorean notion, Plato had written in the Timaeus of the world soul revealed in the celestial X; to the early Christian this was a pagan imitation of the world-building crucified Logos who encompasses the cosmos and causes it to revolve around the mystery of the Cross." (Campbell, 372)



One of these early Christians who saw the Cross and Son of God revealed in Plato's writing was Justin Martyr, who in his First Apology (60.1), in a section entitled "Plato's Doctrine of the Cross," remarked:

"And the physiological discussion concerning the Son of God in the Timæus of Plato, where he says, 'He placed him crosswise in the universe," he borrowed in like manner from Moses...'" (Roberts, ANF, I, 183; Justin/..Gildersleeve, 55)

Commenting on this interpretation,.. Dr. Eric Francis Osborn states, "The supremacy of divine love in creation leads Justin to attribute to Plato the concept of the cosmic cross." (Osborn, 51) Moses raising the bronze/brazen serpent/snake as "sign of the cross"Justin's remark about Moses being the originator of the cosmic cross comes from the early Church fathers' interpretation of Numbers 21:6-9, in which Moses is said to raise up a bronze serpent, asserted to be a "type of cross." In consideration of the debate as to Moses's historicity and when exactly the Old Testament texts were written down first, the contention that the biblical writers possessed these or other spiritual notions before other cultures is unfounded, particularly in view of the antiquity of the Egyptian civilization and the abundance of spiritual concepts there.

In any event, centuries before the common era Plato also discussed a "just man" who is "crucified" (Republic 361d), as related by Pope Benedict XVI (Cardinal Ratzinger):



"...according to Plato the truly just man must be misunderstood and persecuted in this world; indeed, Plato goes so far as to write: 'They will say that our just man will be scourged, racked, fettered, will have his eyes burned out, and at last, after all manner of suffering will be crucified.' This passage, written four hundred years before Christ, is always bound to move a Christian deeply." (Ratzinger, 353)

The Pope uses the translation of Plato by Dr. A.D. Lindsay, who specifically renders the Greek as "crucified" in describing the fate of the "just man." This Platonic passage, in fact, much resembles that found at Isaiah 53:4-1 and, along with that OT "messianic prophecy," likely was used as a blueprint in the creation of the Christ character. Again, in Platonic philosophy, the "world soul" or "divine Son of God," as Justin interprets it, is impressed upon a cross in the vault of heaven, representing, as we have seen, the sun crossing over the ecliptic, which was likewise the role not only of Horus in transit across the sky but also of the Gnostic Horos-Stauros, another "cosmic cross."




Osiris and the Djed Pillar

Jesus on the cross with the three MarysOsiris on and as the djed pillar/cross & ankh with the two MertiAs a Platonic ideal, the cosmic cross/stauros precedes the Christian era by centuries; yet, the cross supposedly only gained significance with Jesus's alleged death upon it. In fact, the cross's purpose as bestower of salvation and eternal life already existed as a spiritual concept long before the common era, in Egypt for one. Indeed, Osiris's depiction on or as the djed pillar - surrounded by the two sisters or "the Merti" (Budge, 429), much like Christ on the cross with the three Marys at his feet (Jn 19:25) - served as "sin removal," as related in Christ in Egypt (351):

"...the erection of the djed cross during the celebration also apparently took the place of human sacrifice, which was designed to propitiate the god or God in order to remove sins and bring about continuity of the community as a whole."

Archangel Michael holding djed crossThe correlation between Osiris's pillar and the cross of Jesus was obvious enough to the Egyptian Christians or Copts for them to depict Archangel Michael, for example, holding a "djed cross" in his right hand.

As further stated in CIE (365), in addition to pre-Christian texts depicting the "crucified man in space," we also possess various Egypto-..Christian artifacts connecting Jesus with both Osiris and Horus, including Gnostic gems. As another example, in Ancient Christian Mage: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power, Drs. Marvin W. Meyer and Richard Smith report on a crucifix in the Coptic Museum in Old Cairo "with the crucified figure of Jesus together with a falcon (Horus)." This artifact demonstrates that identifying Horus with the crucified Jesus occurred even in antiquity.

As revealed in my books Christ in Egypt and Suns of God, there is much more to the subject of Pagan gods and goddesses on a cross or in cruciform, serving as crucifixes. The images and descriptions of deities in cruciform include Osiris, Isis and Horus, and the answer to the question of whether or not Horus was ever associated with the cross and depicted on a cross or in cruciform must be a resounding yes. If other gods were shown on a cross or in cruciform, or associated otherwise with a sacred cross, then Christ's depiction on a cross is not unique. If the Pagan personified savior-cross existed first, the whole notion of Christ's redeeming power through the cross becomes derivative. Rather than representing "history," it is more probable that Christ's "crucifixion" constitutes a mythical motif created in order to associate him with the already revered cross and image of a divine figure in cruciform. We must therefore conclude that the figure of Christ on a cross or in the shape of a cross is a johnny-..come-lately in the world of religious iconography, and the story of the crucifixion appears more likely a contrivance based on this important imagery, as well as on Jewish "messianic prophecies" or blueprints, instead of an improbable "historical" tale. Indeed, the crucifixion reveals itself to be another pre-Christian mythical motif with a largely astrotheologica..l meaning.

Along with this interesting evidence concerning the profound importance of the sacred cross in pre-Christian religion, as well as its association and identification with Egyptian gods, we find another "Christian" motif in Egypt, with Horus represented on the cross at the vernal equinox between two "thieves" in a pre-Christian artifact. For much more information on this fascinating subject, see Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection.




 

 

As a result of his victory from 312, fought under the sign of the sun, the cross, in 321 emperor Constantine issued an edict which outlawed work on the "venerable day of the sun," Sunday: "On the venerable Day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed".
Within three years Christianity had become the official religion of the Roman empire. From that, the Roman Catholic Church, and its many Protestant daughter churches, got the commonly-accepted Sunday observance of today.
The triumphal arch of Constantine, built in 315 by the senate of Rome, after his "conversion," contains reliefs of Jupiter, Mars and Hercules, and Constantine apparently associated his victory at the Milvian Bridge with the power of the sun, but no Christian symbol can be found on the structure and there is no reference to Christ; however, there are images and homage paid to Mithras, another sun god whose birthday is December 25th (Emperor's State of Grace).
The Constantinian coinage was marked "Sol Invicto Comiti," or "Committed to Sol Invictus" (Apollo/Helios, Mithra, etc.). He, like many before him and after him, saw Christianity as yet another form of solar allegory.
Eusebius, a father of the Church who was an advisor to emperor Constantine, wrote: "The Logos (Christ) has transferred by the New Alliance the celebration of the Sabbath to the rising of the light. He has given us a type of the true rest in the saving day of the Lord, the first day of light".
Constantine waited until just before his death to be baptized because he believed that baptism washes away sins.
The largest obelisk at Rome was originally transported from Heliopolis to Alexandria by Constantine, and conveyed to Rome by his son Constantius, who placed it in the Circus Maximus (Amm. Marc. XVII.4). Its present position is before the north portico of the Lateran church, where it was placed in 1588. Its whole height is about 149 feet, and without the base about 105 feet. Pliny (23-79 AD) considered that the Egyptian obelisks were dedicated to the Sun ("Solis numini sacratos") and represent an image of the sun.
"[Constantine] diminished none of the privileges of the sacred virgins, he filled the priestly offices with nobles, he did not refuse the cost of the Roman ceremonies, and following the rejoicing Senate through all the streets of the eternal city, he contentedly beheld the shrines with unmoved countenance, he read the names of the gods inscribed on the pediments, he enquired about the origin of the temples, and expressed admiration for their builders. Although he himself followed another religion, he maintained its own for the empire, for everyone has his own customs, everyone his own rites." (Medieval sourcebook: "The Memorial of Symmachus, prefect of the City")
On the top side of the Arch of Constantine, from Rome, can be seen big sculptures representing Dacians, as in the nearby picture, indicating that Dacians had important ranks and a high esteem in the hierarchy of the empire. A painted statue (left) representing a Dacian is found in Boboli. It was brought there from Rome, where it decorated Villa Medici, by the Grand Dukes. The statue represents a Dacian greeting the visitors at the beginning of the alley leading to the top of the hill. In all the sculptures depicting Dacians, they were always portrayed in a very dignified manner and in a proud standing, suggesting that they remained well regarded even after Dacia was defeated by Trajan.
On a coin from 337 AD, Constantine was also represented as the sun-god Helios, proving that he still was a sun worshipper at that time.
In the new city built by him, Constantinople, the Emperor Constantine had a large forum, which was round or oval is shape, built in the centre of the city; in the centre of this forum was his own statue, placed on top of a column of reddish stone. This column is today known as Cemberlitas, meaning "Burnt Column". The statue on the top of the column represented Constantine as Apollo saluting the sun, as seen in an image from the Tabula Peutingeriana.



DACIANS WORSHIPED SUN GOD APOLLO

Long before Aurelian created the new cult of the "Sol Invictus" at Rome, Apollo was called Bonus Deus Puer, or Bonus puer phosphorus, in many inscriptions consecrated to him, found in Dacia, mainly in the Apullum city, the capital of Dacia Apulensis province, called so in the honor of the Dacian sun god, Apollo. Apollo’s sceptre assumes at times the form of a cross (cf. coin of Gallienus reproduced in Victor Duruy’s Hist. des Romains, Paris, 1885, Vol. VIII, p. 42, ERE).

Pliny wrote in 77 AD: "Apollinem serpentemque eius sagittis configi, citharoedum, qui Dicaeus appellatus est" (Pliny, The Natural History, Liber XXXIV, XIX, 59), meaning: Apollo who arrowed the serpent, he who plays the guitar, who is called Dicaeus (the Dacian). Up to now, people in Maramureş still play the so called "cetera", the descendant of Latin "cithara".
Pindar (c.518-c.438) said that Apollo, after the building of Troy, returned to his country on the Ister (Danube) river (Olymp VIII, 47). So both Pliny and Pindar confirm that Apollo was coming from Dacia.

Apollo shared the sanctuary at Delphi with Dionysus. Every fall Apollo departed for his winter quarters in the land of the Hyperboreans, returning in the spring. During his absence the Pythia did not deliver oracles, and Dionysus ruled over Delphi.
Strabo locates the Hyperboreans above the Black Sea (Euxine), the Danube river (Ister) and the Adriatic sea: “Now all the peoples towards the north were by the ancient Greek historians given the general name Scythians or Celtoscythians; but the writers of still earlier times, making distinctions between them, called those who lived above the Euxine and the Ister and the Adriatic Hyperboreans, Sauromatians, and Arimaspians.” (Strabo, Geography, Book XI, Chapter VI.2)
Pliny the Elder locates the Hyperboreans in the area of the Carpathian Mountains (Ripaean Mountains): “the Hyperboreans, who are said by a majority of authorities to be in Europe. After that point the first place known is Lytharmis, a promontory of Celtica, and the river Carambucis, where the range of the Ripaean Mountains terminates” (Pliny, Natural History, 6.34)
Both the above locations are indicating that the Hyperboreans lived somewhere on the Dacian territory.

Not only Apollo, but also Eileithyia, the pre-Hellenic goddess of childbirth, came from the Hyperboreans. She assisted Leto when she gave birth to her son Apollo:
[1.18.5] Hard by is built a temple of Eileithyia, who they say came from the Hyperboreans to Delos and helped Leto in her labour; and from Delos the name spread to other peoples. The Delians sacrifice to Eileithyia and sing a hymn of Olen.
[1.31.2] At Prasiae is a temple of Apollo. Hither they say are sent the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans, and the Hyperboreans are said to hand them over to the Arimaspi, the Arimaspi to the Issedones, from these the Scythians bring them to Sinope, thence they are carried by Greeks to Prasiae, and the Athenians take them to Delos. The first-fruits are hidden in wheat straw, and they are known of none. (Pausanias Description of Greece, Book I: Attica)

Some words are suggesting that the Gets/Getae were worshiping Apollo. The word apologetic (same in Romanian) stands from the Getic way of worshipping Apollo: they used to song into his glory. The Gets, through Aurelian, and later the Goths, who borrowed all Getic traditions and history, spread this way of worshipping throughout entire Europe. That's why the word apologist is the same in Romanian and German: apologet (Apollo worshipping Get), while does not have a close correspondent in Latin or Greek. Apollo is the only God who has the same name both in Greek and Roman pantheon, and that's because they adopted him from the same source, from the Daco-Gets.

Herodotus, wrote about a Dacian custom in Histories [4.94]: "when it lightens and thunders, aim their arrows at the sky, uttering threats against the (thunder) god; and they do not believe that there is any god but their own (sun god)." This tells us that Dacians had only one god, who was the sun god and they sent arrows into the clouds in order to clear the sky and make their god, the sun, to appear and shine. The oldest occurrence of this custom is attested at Yurakare, Semang and Sakai: they aimed their arrows at the sky, uttering threats against the thunder god. (Mircea Eliade, Notes on the symbolism of the arrow, pp. 465, 466). Similarly, the sun god Mithra was represented throwing arrows against the clouds (F. Saxl, Mithras, Berlin, 1931, p. 76; G. Windengren, Die Religionen Irans, p. 44).

In a Dacian relief, Apollo/Mithra is represented standing with his knee on his sacrificial animal, the bull. Into the corners are represented his symbols: a head representing the sun, a head having a crescent above, representing the moon, a wolf, symbolizing the death, jumping at Apollo/Mithra, and a snake, Python, symbolizing the false prophecies, the delusion. The latter two symbols were joined into the Dacian wolf-dragon banner, while the moon and the sun were carved on the Valach funerary crosses, as solar rather than Christian symbols, during the entire middle age. The relief shows Apollo/Mithra, wearing a Dacian bent forward cap, together with the lower symbols, the wolf and the snake, under an arch made of stone blocks, symbolizing the entrance into a cave, the place where his rituals took place, while the upper symbols, the sun and the moon are on the sky out of the cave. Like in the Corycian cave from Delphi, the priests of the sun god, always performed the rituals in caves. The same did Zalmoxis: "he was making for himself meanwhile a chamber under the ground; and when his chamber was finished, he disappeared from among the Thracians and went down into the underground chamber, where he continued to live for three years". (Herodotus, book IV, 96) Strabon gives more information about this in Geographia (VII, 3, 5): "After he secluded himself into a kind of cave, inaccessible to the others, he spent a while there, meeting seldom with those outside, excepting the king and his counselors"... "This custom lasted up to our days; according to the tradition, always was found such a man who helped the king's counselor, and among the Getae, this man was called god." This explains why, the sun god's priest Zalmoxis was also considered a god. Probably the priest was considered as merging with the sun god, just like, latter, in Christianity, Jesus merged with God. The prayers were addressed to Zalmoxis just like in Christianity the prayers are addressed to Jesus.


In a similar bas-relief of white marble found in Italy, at Bologna, are represented, bellow the bull, the wolf, the serpent and scorpion, the two torch-bearers, and above the one to the left the raven. Near each torch-bearer is a pine-tree (?). There were discovered two pairs of statues of these torch-bearers are accompanied by inscriptions, from which we learn that the one who held up his torch was called Cautes, and that the one who held down his torch was called Cautopates. Both names are very old and are coming from the Etruscan mythology, where the name of the sun god was Cautha. He is generally depicted as rising from the sea.
Long ago the learned French antiquary Montfaucon interpreted the three figures of these reliefs as the rising sun (Cautes), the mid-day sun (Mithra), and the setting sun (Cautopates). This would explain why in many reliefs the figure of Cautes, who holds up his torch, is accompanied by a cock, the herald of the dawn. In two Mithraic monuments the torch-bearer who holds up his torch in one hand supports a cock on the other. Hence we infer that this youth, named Cautes, was regarded as an emblem of the rising sun, and we may suppose that in the daily liturgy Cautes was invoked at sunrise, the bull-slaying god Mithra, at noon, and Cautopates at sunset. Therefore, the sacrifice of the bull was performed at the noon. Should be mentioned also that the torch bearers have their legs crossed, the cross being a sign associated to the sun, fact proven also by Constantine's cross.
On the upper border are the busts of the seven planets in the following order from the left: The Sun, Saturn, Venus, Jupiter, Hermes, Mars, and Luna. But the sun was rising from Cauthes (right) and was going to Cautopathes (left), so that the order of the planets is reversed when seen from left to right, following exactly the order of the weekdays: Luna-Monday (Moon’s day), Mars-Tuesday, Hermes-Wednesday, Jupiter-Thursday (Thor’s day), Venus-Friday (Frey’s day), Saturn-Saturday, Sun-Sunday. The seven planets are also corresponding to the degrees of initiation into the mysteries. A text of St. Jerome, confirmed by a series of inscriptions, informs us that there were seven degrees of initiation and that the mystic (sacratus) successively assumed the names of Raven (corax), Occult (cryphius), Soldier Lion (leo), Persian (Perses), Runner of the Sun (heliodromus), and Father (pater). The Dacian tribe called Apuli, also associated number seven to their Sun-God.
The seven planets represented on the Bologna relief raises the question: did Dacians have astronomical knowledge or it came to Roman empire from other populations like the Phoenicians, for instance. The answer is given by Jordanes, who speaks about the astronomical knowledge received by the Getae from Zalmoxis, long time before Romans had any idea about it.
The similarity of the Dacian bas-relief with the one from Bologna, which is more complex might suggest that Dacians borrowed the cult of Mithra from Rome. However, a unique fragmentary relief, discovered at Konjica, in Bosnia, which was part of Dacia, suggests the opposite. It represents six persons and a lion flanked by two columns having spirals carved in opposite directions. These columns suggests that the ritulal took place indoors. The columns are also replacing Cauthes and Cautopates from the other Mithraic reliefs. The right-turned turned spiral corresponds to the rise of the sun (Cauthes) while the left-turned spiral corresponds to the sunset (Cautopates). In the center are two persons sitting at a table on which are loaves. Both have their right arms raised, as for a blessing, attitude in which Mithra and the Sun are regularly represented on the other monuments. The one holding the horn personifies the Moon, just like the horned head from the Dacian relief, while the other personifies the Sun. Before the two persons sitting at the table, is placed a tripod bearing four tiny loaves of bread, each marked with a cross, the sign of the sun. This is suggesting that the bread, symbolizing the food, are a gift offered and blessed by the Sun and the Moon.
The two deities are flanked by a soldier, holding a sword in his right hand, and by a priest having a Dacian cap and holding a big drinking-horn. The drinking horns are typical Scythian, this influence being transmitted to Dacians by the Agathyrsi.
Dacian priests always had fur caps during their rituals, being called "pilleati" (from pilleus = fur cap) because of that. Meanwhile, the Romanian name for the priest's cap is "mitra". Most probably, Dacians used the same word. This explains the origin of the name Mithra. Most probably, Mithra was not the name of the Sun god, but the name of his priest, identified by his cap called "mitra".
The relief shows also two masked persons symbolizing the Raven and the Lion, probably the initiates of the first two degrees.
Some shrines, where Dacians worshiped Apollo, did not have any roof, in order to allow gazing at the sun. Surprisingly, sun worship was revived after 1980, not far from Konjica, where was discovered the above mentioned Mithraic relief. Since then, sun gazing was practiced by many pilgrims, at the holly site from Medjugorje.

The sacrifices, performed to worship Apollo, were at the origin of the epithet "Lykaios" (the wolf) attributed to Apollo, because the wolf was the symbol of death. Apollo was also called the Lykagenet, meaning born from a she-wolf, because was born from Leto transformed into a she-wolf.
The Dacians performed sacrifices on the so called "sun of andesite"of Sarmisegetusa, the main Dacian fortress. It has a diameter of 7 meters and is composed of 10 identical blocks of andesite assembled into a "pie" shape. It is the most massive monument of the Dacian architecture. The blood of the bulls was flowing through the interstices between the 10 blocks into a limestone basin positioned bellow and from there it was drained to a channel. The 10 interstices between the blocks, forming the diameters of the circle or the "rays" of the sun, were precisely oriented towards the points of the rising sun during the solstices.

Tolkien, the author of the "Lord of the rings" placed the action around 4000 BC and "moulded his story accordingly, knowing that this was indeed the founding era of the Ring Lords who governed Euro-Asia (from Transylvania to Tibet) in long distant times."
The Dacian lords, were called Tarabostes, from "tara" meaning tiara while "bostes" was standing from the root i.e.*bhô-s, meaning shining. They were worshipping the sun and were depicted wearing rings in their left hands, exactly like the Faravahar carved on rock at Persepolis, like the Babilonian sun-god Shamash and similar to the Roman god Sol, who had a sphere in his left hand.
In 1925 and 1930 a Parsi scholar, J.M. Unvala, wrote articles which identified the Faravahar as the symbol of the fravashi or "guardian spirit" of Zoroastrian teaching. Fravarti or fravashi, derives from an alternative meaning of "protect," implying the divine protection of the guardian spirit, the fravashi.
As the Winged Sun-disc of Horus it hovered over the Pharaoh of Egypt; it hovered over the Hittite King, and in Assyrian art it is depicted over the Assyrian King, often with weapons in its hands, helping the Assyrian monarch wage war. So when it enters Persian art, it is already a symbol of divine guardianship of the king.
The Dacian Tarabostes had similar prerogatives to the Persian fravashi, being the protectors of the king. The tablet shows two Tarabostes accompanying their king while a foreign delegation is received. The king has in his right hand a ring having a skew cross inside (St. Andreas' cross). Between the king and the delegates is written "VETO", indicating that the Dacian king declined the proposal. As a consequence, the Dacians were attacked, as shown into the next tablet.
The plates are written using a mixture of Greek and Cyrillic alphabets. The second tablet shows the tarabostes outside their fortress, accompanying their king, Diecio, who is represented mounted on a horse, while a foreign army was approaching. Into the lower right corner is written Daci, while behind the foreign army is written Bisino. The plates are probably from the fourth century AD.
The five Tarabostes, having the five rings of Apollo, are the counselors and guardians of the king Diecio and are closely related to the five Hyperborean Perpheres (carriers) described as the servants of Apollo, carriers of wheat straw rings from one community to another. They are mentioned by Herodotus: "at first, they say, the Hyperboreans sent two maidens bearing the sacred offerings, whose names, say the Delians, were Hyperoche and Laodike, and with them for their protection the Hyperboreans sent five men of their nation to attend them, those namely who are now called "Perpheres" and have great honours paid to them in Delos." (Herodotus, Histories, Book IV, 33 )

These five rings were in fact "sacred offerings bound up in wheat straw", mentioned by Herodotus: "sacred offerings bound up in wheat straw are carried from the land of the Hyperboreans and come to the Scythians, and then from the Scythians the neighbouring nations" (Herodotus, Histories, Book IV, 33 ). Most probably, the rings were made from gold and were bounded in straw.
The five sacred rings of Apollo are known today as the Olympic rings and their signification is given by Pausanias:
[5.7.6] As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Cronus was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Dactyls of Ida, who are the same as those called Curetes. They came from Cretan Ida--Heracles, Paeonaeus, Epimedes, Iasius and Idas.
[5.7.7] Heracles, being the eldest, matched his brothers, as a game, in a running-race, and crowned the winner with a branch of wild olive, of which they had such a copious supply that they slept on heaps of its leaves while still green. It is said to have been introduced into Greece by Heracles from the land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of the North Wind. [5.7.8] Olen the Lycian, in his hymn to Achaeia, was the first to say that from these Hyperboreans Achaeia came to Delos. When Melanopus of Cyme composed an ode to Opis and Hecaerge declaring that these, even before Achaeia, came to Delos from the Hyperboreans.
[5.7.9] And Aristeas of Proconnesus--for he too made mention of the Hyperboreans--may perhaps have learnt even more about them from the Issedones, to whom he says in his poem that he came. Heracles of Ida, therefore, has the reputation of being the first to have held, on the occasion I mentioned, the games, and to have called them Olympic. So he established the custom of holding them every fifth year, because he and his brothers were five in number. (Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.7
In the Official 1980 Olympics Guide, it stated that “The interlocking circles found on the altar at Delphi are considered by experts to be at least 3,000 years old.”

THE WARS WITH THE ROMANS

Rome's Antic History (vol. IV) of Th. Mommsen shows that Julius Caesar was prepared to attack the "Danubian wolves", being obsessed by the idea of the destruction of the non-Roman religious centers, which represented major obstacles for the Roman colonization.
During the summertime of the year 87 A.D., one of Rome's most decadent, perverted ancient Emperors, namely Domitianus, sent his armed troops into an attempt to conquer the gold and silver mines from the western Transylvania mountains. The Romans crossed the Danube River, trespassing the Dacian territory on an improvised vessel-made bridge. The Dacian warriors managed to ambush them within the extremely narrow mountain pass of Tapae (a zone also longtime nicknamed "Transylvania's Iron Gates") and to draw an awesome victory over the invaders. As a result, the famous V-th Roman Legion "Aludae" was totally destroyed and its military insignias captured, with its commander- in-chief, veteran General Cornelius Fuscus, being killed on the battlefield. The commander of the Dacians was Diurpaneus, according to the Roman historian Tacitus, a "tarabostes" (namely an aristocrat, according to local denomination) and to whom the king Duras Durbaneus, would grant his throne soon after Tapae's victory. Following deeds, to be carried out during the entire rest of his turbulent life, entitled Thraco-Dacian population to granting him the legendary nickname of Decebal, meaning Lord (Bal) of Dacia (Dece).

Dio Cassius writes in Epitome of Book 67 about Domitian's war: "At this time the Romans became involved in a very serious war with the Dacians, whose king was then Decebalus. This man was shrewd in his understanding of warfare and shrewd also in the waging of war; he judged well when to attack and chose the right moment to retreat; he was an expert in ambuscades and a master in pitched battles; and he knew not only how to follow up a victory well, but also how to manage well a defeat. Hence he showed himself a worthy antagonist of the Romans for a long time. I call the people Dacians, the names used by the natives themselves as well as by the Romans, though I am not ignorant that some Greek writers refer to them as Getae.". Once, Decebalus "cut down the trees that were on the site and put armour on the trunks, in order that the Romans might take them for soldiers and so be frightened and withdraw; and this actually happened."
"Decebalus, the king of the Dacians, was making overtures to Domitian, promising him peace; but Domitian sent Fuscus against him with a large force. On learning of this Decebalus sent to him an embassy anew with the insulting proposal to make peace with the emperor, on condition that every Roman should elect to pay two obols to Decebalus each year; otherwise, he declared, he would make war and inflict great ills upon the Romans." Finally, Domitianus "had given large sums of money to Decebalus on the spot as well as artisans of every trade pertaining to both peace and war, and had promised to keep on giving large sums in the future."

The Dacians were always going to battle under the Dracones, their Wolf-Dragon banner (having a Wolf head ending through a Dragon tail), characteristic for the Thracian armies as well.

"While Rome busies herself with intrigues and disputes, she falls, smitten by the Dacians and by the Ethiopians, the former striking terror because of their fleet, the latter no less because of their arrows." (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Odes, Lib. III, 6.). That’s why before their second Dacian war, the Romans had to build a stone bridge over the Danube: the boat bridges were attacked by the Dacian fleet. The bridge was built between 103-105 AD by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. It had a length of 1,135 m.

In 106 A.D., a large part of the country between Carpathian mountains (Transilvanian Alps) and Danube river, together with a part of Transylvania, were conquered by the Romans. The scenes representing the conquest of Dacia are represented on the Trajan’s Column from Rome. To celebrate the conquest of Dacia, Trajan ordered the longest festivities ever took place in Rome. The celebrations, which lasted for 123 days, while in a year there were only 66 days of festivities, starting from emperor Augustus. It was perhaps the most magnificent spectacle of ancient Rome.
With the the huge amounts of gold taken from Dacia, Trajan built impressive buildings, like Basilica Ulpia and the Trajan's Column.
"The Basilica Ulpia may not have been a building of any profound architectural originality. But there are few monuments of antiquity that enjoyed a greater and more enduring prestige, or that did more to shape the subsequent course of architectural history." - Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture
Numismatic evidence indicates that a quadriga (four-horse chariot) surmounted the central porch and a biga (two-horse chariot) the lateral ones, all presumably of gilt bronze.
The roof of the basilica was covered with tiles of gilded bronze, which especially impressed the traveler Pausanius, who thought it "worth seeing not only for its general beauty but especially for its roof made of bronze" (Description of Greece, V.12.6).
The Vatican archives contain the manuscript of Emperor Trajan's personal doctor, Criton, who was describing, Geta-Dacians, as well. Seemingly he was the one who, after hearing the language commonly spoken by Dacian war-prisoners, is said to have exclaimed: "Why, are these (Dacians) Romans?" And, from then eversince, we were given the nickname of "Romans", today's Romani.
About the year 274 the Roman garrisons withdrew across the river, and took with them all the Daco-Roman colonists who cared to follow them. South of the Danube, in parts of what are now Serbia and Bulgaria, a new home preserved under the name of "Aurelian's Dacia," or Dacia Aureliani, the memory of the old.



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ROMANS' ORIGINS

WOLF TRIBES

The Samnites were the ancient warlike tribes inhabiting the mountainous from the center of southern Italy. These tribes, who spoke Oscan and were probably an offshoot of the Sabini, apparently referred to themselves not as Samnite but by the Oscan form of the word, which appears in Latin as Sabine.
The story recounted by Plutarch that Romulus, the founder of Rome, invited the Sabines to a feast and then carried off (raped) their women, is legendary.
Four cantons formed a Samnite confederation: Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri.
According to Heraclides Ponticus (Fragm. Hist. Gr. 218), the name of the Samnite tribe of the Lucani came from Lykos, meaning wolf. Their neighbors, the Hirpini, took their name from hirpus, the Samnite word for wolf.
At the foot of Mount Soracte lived the Hirpi Sorani, the "wolves of Sora" (the Volscian city). According to the tradition transmitted by Servius, an oracle had advised the Hirpi Sorani to live "like wolves," that is, by rapine. And in fact they were exempt from taxes and from military service, for their biennial rite-which consisted in walking barefoot over burning coals-was believed to ensure the fertility of the country. This ritual was practiced in Thrace and, most probably, in Dacia. It survived up to now in Bulgaria in the form of nestinari circle dance.

The Volscians were living in central Italy, neighbouring the Oscan-speaking Samnites. Volscian was replaced by Latin in the 3rd century BC as the Volsci became Romanized after their submission to Rome (304 BC). Modern knowledge of the language is mostly derived from a single inscription from Velitrae (modern Velletri), Italy, dating from the early 3rd century BC.

The wolf was the symbol of the fugitive, and many gods who protected exiles and outlaws had wolf deities or attributes. Examples like Zeus Lykoreius, Apollo Lykeios, Romulus and Remus, sons of the wolf-god Mars and suckled by the she-wolf of the Capitol, had been "fugitives."

ROMULUS AND REMUS

According to the legend, described by the Roman historian Titus Livius, Rhea Sylvia, beloved sole daughter of the so called "Denominator" King of Alba Longa and, simultaneously, a vestal virgin within God Mars' Temple, is said to have suddenly become pregnant "out of the blue Moon" with Mars, the wolf-god, and eventually delivers twin boys. Her powerful uncle Amelia, apparently not "buying" her explanation, orders his servants to throw the bastards into the Tiber River. However, designated executioners would prove to have a heart and decide to better abandon both babies into a floating basket, going down the wild river's stream only to be, subsequently, found by a "She-wolf", meaning a woman from a neighboring wolf-named tribe, probably the Samanite tribe of the Lucani.
A similar legend is found in Central Asia, in several variants, where the marriage between a supernatural wolf and a princess gave birth to a population or to a dynasty. Most probably, the Romans adopted this legend from east.
According to the legend, Romulus established a place of refuge for exiles and outlaws on the Capitol (F.Altheim, Roman Religion, pp. 260, 261). Most probably, all of them were "wolf people" coming from Thrace and Dacia. Servius informs us that this asylum was under the protection of the god Lucoris who was identified with Lykoreus of Delphi, himself a wolf-god.
Every year on February 15 ancient priests killed a dog and two goats and smeared the foreheads of two boys from noble families with the sacrificial blood as part of the Lupercalia celebration. The ceremony survived until A.D. 494, when Pope Gelasius put an end to the tradition.

Archaeologists have unearthed Lupercale—the sacred cave where, according to legend, a she-wolf nursed the twin founders of Rome and where the city itself was born.
The long-lost underground chamber was found beneath the remains of Emperor Augustus' palace on the Palatine, a 230-foot-tall (70-meter-tall) hill in the center of the city. The 50-foot-deep (15-meter-deep) cavity "show a richly decorated vault encrusted with mosaics and seashells, too rich to be part of a home. That's why we think it could be the ancient sanctuary, but we can't be sure until we find the entrance to the chamber" said Irene Iacopi, the archaeologist in charge of the area.

Rhea Sylvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, being a vestal virgin, lived into the temple of Vesta, located also on the Palatine hill, just as the cave where she give birth to her twins.

The capture of the Sabines originates from the practice of the wolf-people to capture their wives.
After Romans raped their women, the Sabine tribes attacked Rome and in order to survive, the Romans asked their Sabine wives to intervene to prevent the seizing of the city. In accordance with a treaty drawn up between the two peoples, Romulus accepted the Sabine king Titus Tatius as his co ruler. Titus Tatius' early death left Romulus sole king again, and after a long rule he mysteriously disappeared in a storm.
The capture of the Sabines remained in the custom of simulated capture in the Roman marriage ceremony. This custom is present today in the Romanian marriage ceremony, where the groom has to pay for having back the kidnapped bride.

THE WOLF'S PRIESTS

Lupercalia was an ancient Roman festival, conducted annually on February 15 under the superintendence of a corporation of priests called Luperci, from lupus (Latin: "wolf").
Each Lupercalia began with the sacrifice, by the Luperci, of goats and a dog, after which two of the Luperci were led to the altar, their foreheads were touched with a bloody knife, and the blood wiped off with wool dipped in milk; then the ritual required that the two young men laugh. The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs from the skins of the victims and ran in two bands around the Palatine hill, striking with the thongs at any woman who came near them. A blow from the thong was supposed to render a woman fertile.The celebrations of Lupercalia featured wild group dances and orgiastic rites to insure the year's fertility.
In AD 494 the Christian church under Pope Gelasius I appropriated the form of the rite as the Feast of the Purification.

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RITUAL INITIATIONS

WRAPPING IN SKINS

According to Porphirios (Vita Pyth. 16-17), Phytagoras was initiated in Crete in the mysteries of Zeus, being purified by the initiates of Dactylus the Morget, using a meteorite. Then Pythagoras spent the night wrapped into a black sheep skin. This custom is similar to the account of Herodian (232 - 304) from his "Life of Pythagora, relatively to Zalmoxis birth": "Pythagoras had another teenager from Thrace, called Zalmoxis, because, at birth, he was wrapped into a bear skin. The Thracian name for skin is "zalmos"" This confirms that, by being wrapped into a black sheep skin, Pythagoras was initiated into a Thracian ritual. This ritual was considered as a spiritual rebirth. Zalmoxis' (re)birth as a bear, meant that he become a hermit, as bear is a well known solitary animal. Pythagoras was initiated according to a Morget (black Getic) ritual, by the initiates of Dactylus the Morget.
The ritual wrapping into a wolf skin had a similar signification: the person was reborn transformed into a wolf. He lost his previous human behavior and became a blood thirsty warrior. Probably, this practice was brought to Dacia by the Scythians.
Neuri is the name of an ancient tribe placed by Herodotus (iv. 1o5) to the north-east of Scythia. He says of it: "It seems that the Neuri are sorcerers, if one is to believe the Scythians and the Greeks established in Scythia; for each Neurian changes himself, once in the year, into the form of a wolf, and he continues in that form for several days, after which he resumes his former shape." Pomponius Mela (lib. ii. c. 1) says: "There is a fixed time for each Neurian, at which they change, if they like, into wolves, and back again into their former condition."
A similar signification of spiritual transformation was in the custom of the Dacian priests to wear fur caps during their rituals, being called "pilleati" (from pilleus = fur cap) because of that.

The custom of wrapping in skins was preserved until the 20th century among Aromanian shepherds. My grandfather contacted typhus while being a voluntary into the French Army, in the Albanian side of Macedonia, during World War I. He was cured by Aromanian shepherds: they sacrificed two sheep and wrapped his naked body into their fresh skins. He was unconscious the next 48 hours, but after that his fever dropped and he was saved. At the close of World War I the disease caused several million deaths in Russia, Poland, and Romania.

TATTOOING

Some of the oldest evidence on existence of tattooing were left by Herodotus (500 BC) in his "Historia" where he described Thracians: "Stitching was their sign for an aristocrat and who has had no tattoos done - descend from ordinary people." 100 years later Plutarhus wrote "Thracians mark their wives with stitching..."

Dio Christotomus also wrote that "free women in Thracia were covered with signs and scars although they derived from a noble family." Roman poet Valerius Flacus (100 B.C.) wrote in his epic poem "Argonautica" that kidnapped Thracian girl was a participant at barbaric custom called "coloured and stigmatized arms." That should be connected with Thracian tradition to do tattoos, scars and burns.

Artemidos mentioned that Thracians were marking children from noble aristocratic families, but Goths were marking their slaves with tattoos. There is a note about one of the Thracian tribes the Agatirians. "All of the noble had a lot of tattooing on their faces and limbs."
Roman geographer Pomponius Mela (100 B.C.) remarked "the Agathyrs, particularly the noble ones, colour their faces and limbs with colour which can not be washed away." We should almost be certain that those were tattoos. The Agathyrs coloured their hair and the tattoo in blue.

Plinios (100 A.D.) wrote in his "Historia naturalis" that Dacian men were tattooed. The same was mentioned about the neighbouring tribe of the Sarmatians, who were of Iranian origin, being closely related to the Agathyrs.

They did not do only the usual colouring of the body because Plinios reported that those marks and scars can be inherited from father to son for few generations and still remain the same - the sign of Dacian origin. It is a bit exaggerated but at the same time shows that those permanent signs were tattoos. We should believe it because later Hesychios wrote about tattooed men in those areas where among others lived also Dacians. All mentioned peoples were settled at the east of the Balkan peninsula. At the west there were Japodians and Ilirians. Strabo (100 B.C.) wrote about them in his book "Geographica." "Japodians mark themselves with stitching just like other Ilirians and Thracians." So the tattooing was widely spread among ancient Balkan peoples and tribes.

Scythians, according to Herodotus, were a red haired people who practiced tatooing and buried their kings in elaborate tummuli.
Cicero called the marks "punctum notis Thraeciis", meaning pricked with Thracian marks.
Tertullian, in the 3rd century, implied that tattooing was the custom of the Britons, Picts and Scots, and called the marks "Stigmata Britonum."

PSYCHOACTIVE MUSHROOMS

As the distinguished historian Mircea Eliade points out in his essay "Dacians and wolves", the early European warriors - using carefully orchestrated rituals involving wolf-pelts and psychoactive mushrooms - were able to undergo a total psychological transformation into wolves. The Dacians' belief in immortality is the result of the experiences derived from the use of psychoactive mushrooms. During these altered states of consciousness they were able to meet their dead ancestors and to have premonitory visions. The most commonly used mushroom, for ritual purposes, was Amanita Muscaria. It was leading to a feeling of pleasant invigoration, and the individual would be prone to breaking into song, dance and laughter. This was accompanied by a marked increase in physical strength.

Dio Cassius wrote in Roman History, epitome of book LXVIII, 8: "When Trajan in his campaign against the Dacians had drawn near Tapae, where the barbarians were encamped, a large mushroom was brought to him on which was written in Latin characters a message to the effect that the Buri and other allies advised Trajan to turn back and keep the peace. Nevertheless he engaged the foe, and saw many wounded on his own side and killed many of the enemy. And when the bandages gave out, he is said not to have spared even his own clothing, but to have cut it up into strips."
The Dacians warned the Romans that they have plenty of mushrooms to became fearless warriors and the outcome of the battle was a confirmation for that. The use of these mushrooms explains the remark of Trajan: "the Dacians go to their deaths, happier than in any other journey".

THE WOLF AS A SYMBOL

Lup/lupul = wolf/the wolf in Romanian; lup/lupu = to die/dead in Etruscan. Similarly, haita = wolf pack in Romanian; Aita = the god of the underworld the equivalent of Greek Hades, for the Etruscans. Etruscan funerary paintings shows Aita wearing on his head the head and fur of a wolf! It is similar to the Egyptian jackal headed Upuaut/Wepwawet or Greek Ophois. Upuaut had a double role, being the god of war (just like the wolf headed Dacian banners!) and of the funerary worship, opening the way both for the troops and for the spirits of the dead.
Luptã (Romanian) = lucta (Latin) = fight. Note that the Romanian word stands from lup (wolf), the symbol from the banners of the Dacian warriors. It is not the case of the Latin word, which seems to be imported from Dacian, the Romans maintaining themselves the cult of the she-wolf, mother of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome!
In the Balkan folk medicine and apotropaeic magic, the destructive aspect of the wolf's mouth is symbolically turned around and used against demonic forces and diseases.
The magic act of pulling children through the wolf's mouth in the context of birth ritual and infant care shows that the symbolism of the wolf's mouth is connected with the female reproductive organs.
The wolf appears at the most important transitory moments in the human life cycle (birth - marriage - death).

LYCANTHROPY

The ability to change into a wolf by the power of certain rituals is connected with lycanthropy properly speaking-an extremely widespread phenomenon, but more especially documented in the Balkano-Carpathian region-or with a ritual imitation of the behavior and outward appearance of the wolf.
Mount Lycaeus was the scene of a yearly gathering at which the priests were said to prepare a sacrificial feast that included meat mixed with human parts. According to legend, whoever tasted it became a wolf and could not turn back into a man unless he abstained from human flesh for nine years.
Pliny relates from Evanthes, that on the festival of Jupiter Lycaeus, one of the family of Antaeus was selected by lot and conducted to the brink of the Arcadian lake. He then hung his clothes on a tree and plunged into the water, whereupon he was transformed into a wolf. Nine years after, if he had not tasted human flesh, he was at liberty to swim back and resume his former shape, which had in the meantime become aged, as though he had worn it for nine years.
Agriopas relates, that Demaenetus, having assisted at an Arcadian human sacrifice to Jupiter Lycaeus, ate of the flesh and was at once transformed into a wolf, in which shape he prowled about for ten years, after which he recovered his human form and took part in the Olympic games.

The essential part of the military initiation consisted in ritually transforming the young warrior into some species of predatory wild animal. It was not solely a matter of courage, physical strength, or endurance, but "of a magico-religious experience that radically changed the young warriors mode of being. He had to transmute his humanity by an access of aggressive and terrifying fury that made him like a raging carnivore.
The young warrior accomplished his transformation into a wolf by the ritual donning of a wolf-skin, an operation preceded or followed by a radical change in behavior. As long as he was wrapped in the animal's skin, he no longer felt bound by the laws and customs of men.

The wolf-man survived up to now under the image of Saint Cristopher / Hristofor who is represented having a dog/wolf face. Such representations are found in Orthodox Church in icons and an wall-paintings. An icon of Saint Hristofor shows him with a staff that ends with a wolf- head, similarly to the draco/dragon of the Dacian banner. A wall painting from "Sfanta-Maria" monastery from Techirghiol, Romania, shows St. Hristofor having a cross in his hand. That indicates a Christian metamorphosis of a formerly pagan wolf-god.
Saint Cristopher/Hristofor is celebrated by the Orthodox Church on the 8th ofmay.
In the Romanian popular tradition, in January is celebrated the winter St. Peter, also known as the Lame St.Peter, the patron of the wolves, that protects people from wolves. In the Catholic Church, St. Cristopher is protecting the travelers from being attacked and robbed or murdered. That's an interesting similitude with the Lame St.Peter, since the outlaws were called "wolves" since the ancient times.

DRACULA THE DRAGON

The old Dacian Wolf-Dragon banner, having a wolf head ending through a dragon tail had two significations: it showed that the bearer is initiate into the wolves' brotherhood, therefore a brave warrior, and was meant to protect the bearer against the evil forces.
The dragon motif was also common to the Bathory family from Transylvania, whose crest showed a dragon encircling a wolf teeth and biting its tail, this being a symbol of immortality.
The Order of the Dragon was a branch of the "wolfs' brotherhood" constituted by Slavic rulers and warlords and Sigismund of Luxemburg, the king of Hungary and emperor of the romano-germanic empire. All the members were sworn to uphold the Christian faith by fighting off the advancing Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
The famous Vlad "The Impaler" was born in the town of Sighisoara in the early fourteen hundreds. He was the second son of the Prince of Wallachia, Vlad "Dracul" (the Dragon) who was a member of The Order of the Dragon (a position from which he derived his surname). Vlad "Dracul" ruled between 1436 and 1446 AD, when warfare was almost continuous in Wallachia and the surrounding areas and the local nobles (boyars) were fighting for power. He wore the dragon medallion, showing a dragon swallowing its own tail, crucified on a double cross, which is the Slavic cross. Vlad received the three cloaks of the order: green for the dragon's scales, red for the blood of martyrs, and black for the mystery of Christ's passion, all of which he wore proudly.
Two of Vlad "Dracul"'s sons, Vlad and his brother Radu, were kept as hostages in Galipoli where Sultan Mehmed II, conqueror of Constantinople, was trying to indoctrinate them into Islam, making allies of them. He hoped to use their claim to the Wallachian throne to his advantage. Radu converted quickly, and was released from prison. Vlad, however, was far more stubborn. It has been suggested that Vlad's sadistic tendencies started as a result of his imprisonment by the Sultan.
Vlad "Dracul" fought aside of Iancu of Hunedoara, but in 1445 AD he was forced to make peace with the Ottoman Empire, because many local nobles were aside the Turks, who were ready to invade the country. As result,Vlad "Dracul" and his oldest son Mihnea were killed by Dan, who was supported military by Iancu of Hunedoara (John Hunyadi or János Hunyadi), the Vlach Governor of Hungary, the same person who introduced him to Sigismund of Luxemburg, who accepted him into the Order of the Dragon. At the time of his death, his son Vlad was 17 years old and was still the Sultan's hostage.

After his father's death, Vlad was released and is believed that he made a pilgrimage to the Order of the Dragon chapel in the imperial fortress at Nuremberg, where he joined the twenty-three other members of the inner circle, pledging to protect Christendom from the forces of the Muslims.
On July 22, 1456, Iancu of Hunedoara attacked the Ottoman troops having the Belgrade under siege. He won a famous victory, which saved Hungary from Ottoman conquest for 70 years. A few days later Iancu of Hunedoara died of an epidemic that had broken out among the troops. Less than two weeks after his sudden death, Vlad seized the Wallachian throne.

Vlad ruled for six years, spreading the terror among his enemies and was called Vlad "The Impaler" or Dracula (the son of the Dragon). In April 1462 he won a famous victory against Mahomed II, who led "the mightiest army after the conquest of Constantinople", according to the chronicle of Laonic Chalcocondil.



NORTHERN WOLF WARRIORS

The ritual initiations in the Wolves' brotherhood were passed from Dacia to the Germanic tribes through the Celts' Druidsand through the Goths.
An unamalgamated group of Baltic tribes occupied the area from the Warnow to the Rugen, round the Oder mouths and up the Peene. These were given the collective name of the Liutuzians (today's Lithuanians) meaning "terrible" or Wilzians (from which comes today's capital name Vilnius) meaning "wolf" people.
Valhalla or Valhöll, in Norse mythology, was the "hall of the Valks", the wolf warriors, who live there blissfully under the leadership of the god Odin. Their feminine counterparts were the Valkyries also spelled Walkyries, Old Norse Valkyrja, the female wolf warriors, in Norse mythology. They picked up the heroes to fill Valhalla. A man choosen to die was said to see a Valkyrie just before the fatal blow. Valkyria is probably a compound name Valk + kyra meaning Valk lady (from Greek kyra, meaning lady).
The Valkyries also worked as Odin's servants. They served food and drink to the warriors in Valhalla.
Valhalla is depicted as a splendid palace, roofed with shields, and hving 540 doors, each big enough to let 800 armed men through, side by side. There the warriors feasted on the flesh of a boar slaughtered daily and made whole again each evening. They fight one another every day in order to be prepared to join Odin in the final battle against the forces of destruction at the time of Ragnarök.
Valaskjalf (meaning Shelf of the Valasks) was Odin's other hall where his great throne, Hlidskjalf, stood.
The Vedic heaven, the "world of the fathers", called Valak-Hilyah, was inhabited by the 60.000 deities of light, called Valakhilyas and presented in the Mahabharata and in the Puranas. It resembles the Germanic Valhalla, both names coming from the root Valak/Valk that might be of Scythian origin. Valakhilyas, the Lilliputian sages were said to be drinkers of Sun-rays (maricipah). They were worshipping the sun god.

HITLER THE WOLF

Most probable, Adolf Hither was initiated into the Germanic branch of wolves' brotherhood. The following facts are sustaining this assertion.
In an article in his party newspaper written in 1922, Hitler used an unusual metaphor to describe how the crowds began to react to him: they began to realize, he said, 'that now a wolf has been born, destined to burst in upon the herd of seducers and deceivers of the people.' He had his sister Paula change her name to Frau Wolf. The special agent he chose to supervise purchases for his Linz Library and Museum was a Dr Wolfhardt (literally, "hard wolf"). He approved of naming the Volkswagen factory "Wolfsburg". When he telephone Winifred Wagner, he would say "Conductor Wolf"calling!'. The secretary he kept longer than any other (more than 20 years) was Johanna Wolf. She recalled that while Hitler addressed all other secretaries formally as "Frau" or "Fraulein", he invariably called her "Wolfin" (She-Wolf). Hitler named his headquarters in France "Wolfsschluct" (Wolf's Gulch), in the Ukraine his headquarters were "Werwolf (Werewolf)", and in East Prussia "Wolfsschanze" (Wolf's Lair) - as he explained to a servant, "I am the Wolf and this is my den." He called the SS "my pack of wolves". In his book, "Hitler Speaks", published in 1939, Hermann Rauschning writes: "My informant described to me in full detail a remarkable scene - I should not have credited the story if it had not come from such a source. Hitler stood swaying in his room, looking wildly about him. "He! He! He's been here!" He gasped. His lips were blue. Sweat streamed down his face. Suddenly he began to reel off figures, and odd words and broken phrases, entirely devoid of sense. It sounded horrible. He used strangely composed and entirely un-German word formations. Then he stood quite still, only his lips moving ... gradually he grew calm. After that he lay asleep for many hours."

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THE VLACHS

VLACH, A SLAVIC NAME

The old Slavic god with characteristics equal to those shown by the wolves' shepherd is the god of death Veles/Volos. The Kiev Chronicle ("Povest vremennykh let"), a 12th to 13th century account of events and life in the Kievan state--enumerates seven Russian pagan divinities: Perun, Volos, Khors, Dazhbog, Stribog, Simargl, and Mokosh.
In Old Russian texts, Volos has the epithet “cattle god”, and non-Varangian (non Viking or non foreign) Russians had to swear by him. The cult of the Slavonic divinity Volos (or Veles) was, as Christianity spread, transferred to Saint Vlas. Adopting the functions of Volos, Vlas became patron of cattle and as such he appears in icons, normally surrounded by the flocks and herds under his protection. However Vlas is another name for Vlach. This suggests that Volos and his successor, St. Vlas, were divinities associated to the Vlach shepherds.
Vólos is also the name of a Greek city that was the site of ancient Iolcos, inhabited since the beginning of the Bronze Age (c. 2500 BC) and capital of Mycenaean Thessaly while Veles is a name of a city in FYR of Macedonia. Both these cities derive their name from the Vlach communities which are present even today (the Aromanians).

The Romanian population from Romania, Moldova and, as smaller groups, from the Balkan Peninsula, south and west of the Danube River, were named by their Slav neighbours as Volokh. From this name were derived the terms Vlach orWalach together with the name of the country called Valachia or Wallachia, named in Romanian "Tara Romaneasca" and bordered on the north and northeast by the Carpathian mountains, on the west, south, and east by the Danube river, and on the northeast by the Siret river.

The first mention of Volokhs (Volochs), the name given to the Romanian people by their Slav neighbors, appears in the 9th century. In the Russian Chronicle of Nestor (end of the 10th century or the beginning of the 11th) is written: "when the Volochi attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them, the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula, under the name of Leshi". From the Slavs, the name Voloch passed to the Byzantines, Greeks as "Vlachos", Turks as "Ulaghi", Hungarians as "Olah" and Germans as "Walachen". The celtic tribes, which took their beliefs and philosophy from the Dacians, used to call themselves as Volker (latin Volcae). Between the 8th and the 12th century they were named as Walh, Walasg, Walah by the germans and as Walch between the 12th and the 16th century. The corresponding adjectives wal(a)hisc, wel(hi)sch, waelhisch or welsch, are meaning foreigner, speaker of a foreign language. Some of these Celtic tribes kept similar names up to nowadays as the French speakers of Belgium, Walloons and the Welsh of Britain.

Gunther, bishop of Bamberg, describing the passage of the crusaders through the Balkans in 1064, has this to say about the Wallachs: "We suffered from the fury of the Romans (Wallachs) who were cruel and inhuman even more than is the nature of beasts." (GOLUBOVICH, Biblioteca, II, 72, 195, 266 sq., III, 65)

"The Valachs lived not only in the territory of present day Moravia, but also resided throughout the vast regions of the Carpathian mountains. At the closest distance to us, this included the territory of Upper Slovakia, south Tesin and south Poland. History also instructs us that the Valachs, the mountain shepherds, were involved in a special kind of herdsmanship entirely unique in Central Europe and that they originally came from Balcany in what is now Romania." (Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka /Traces of the Past: Chapters From the History of Moravia and Silesia/, by Zdenek Konecny and Frantisek Mainus /Brno, Blok. 1979)

The people from Maramures, a forest covered land with mountains and valleys in the north, north west of Romania, were nicknamed of the "wolf people" in the Middle Age. They have a fierce individuality and they had been an independent State under Decebalus in the first century AD and fought against invasion after invasion to preserve their customs and folklore. They even successfully resisted the communist collectivization of farms. Few other parts of Europe have preserved so distinctively a rural culture.

VALCANS AND VULCANS

In western Romania, and old Vlach name for wolf was "vâlc" and it was related to Czech "vlkov", having the same meaning.
Valcau is name of a river and of several villages from Salaj county. Valcau (today Valeni) village is attested since 1213, when was named " villa Vulchoi". In 1291-94, it is found under the Hungarian name of Wolkou Magyarvalkó. These changes of name are indicating the similarity of the root words: Valc/Vulch/Wolk.
The name of Blachernae, a suburb of Constantinople, which, according to a tenth-century chronicle, was derived from that of a Scythian Duke Blachernos, killed at Constantinople, might, according to Popa-Lisseanu, be connected with the term Blach/Vlach (Blacernoi, descendant or son of Wallach).
Probably, the Vlachs were also called Valkans. From “Valkan”, which is spelled “Balkan” in Cyrillic alphabet, comes the name of the entire area known today as the Balkan Peninsula. Possibly, these Valkans were also called Valk-kyrs ("kir" meaning Sir, in Greek). Let us note that the German word for church, "kirchen" stems from the Greek "kir", the meaning being "the house of the lord". Some of the Valk-kyrs and their women, the Valk-kyries ("kira" meaning Lady, in Greek), moved to the north of Europe, together with the Gothic tribes, where they established the Valk-halla, Old Norse Valhöll, known from the Norse mythology as the hall of the slain warriors.

In 1837 a large number of pieces of very massive gold plate were found at Pietroasa (Petrossa) in Romania; much of this find was unfortunately broken up and melted, but a considerable portion was saved, and is now in the museum at Bucharest. These magnificent objects are all of solid gold, and consist of large dishes, vases, ewers, baskets of open work, and personal ornaments. The most exquisite piece is a patera, 10 in. in diameter, having in the centre is a seated statuette of a woman, holding a cup, while all round, in high relief, are standing figures of various male and female deities.
The only inscription was found on a ring. Most of it's letters are Etruscan. The translation, made by the German scholar Wilhelm Grimm, was presented to the Science Academy of Berlin in 1856. The inscription was translated as: VULCHANOS O FICET, meaning "Vulchanos made it".

The Dacians used Vulcan as the generic name for blacksmith. Since Dacia had the richest gold and silver mines from Europe, it had also a large number of blacksmiths. Vulcan remained as a place name for mountains and cities, up to today.

The chronicler Dudo of St.Quentin's wrote in Gesta Normannorum about the Dacians, naming them also as Vulcans: "For these Dacians, once ejected from their own lands by means of the reported rite, have savagely landed with duke Anstign where Francia extensively spreads out its tracts. He has attacked a powerful lordship in Gaul; he has unlawfully appropriated the Frankish realm for himself. He has profaned the priesthood; he has tread in the sacristy. With words and deeds he has challenged the king of the Franks who, with his followers, has dolefully remained inside the cities. He rages around the walls of the garrisons as does a wolf around the pens of sheep. He accounts the Franks, withdrawn in fear within their garrisons, of slight value. He pursues them all, as a lion does stags. Whomever he meets, discovered distant from the garrisons, he butchers. It becomes a carnage, as the disconsolate are slaughtered by the spear. The clergy is tormented, punished by a cruel death.
The monastery of Dionysius, Christ's champion, has been reduced to ashes by vanquishing Vulcan." [See Gesta Normannorum, Chapter 2, paragraphs 5 and 6]. The Vulcans were named also Valcans or Valkirs. They are the Valkirs who founded the mythical Valhalla of the Vikings. Their homeland was in the Valkan (Balkan) Peninsula.

VLACHS FROM SOUTH OF DANUBE

Describing the state of the Byzantine Empire in the 12th and 13th century, the Cambridge historian Previte Orton is writing: "The Greek unity of the Empire disappeared. Not to mention (..)the Latin-speaking mountaineers from whom Justinian has descended took shape as a separate people, the Vlachs, who ranged from the Adriatic to the mountains of Transylvania beyond the Danube(..)The Vlachs, or Wallachians, a name akin to Welsh, applied to Latins by Germans and Slavs. Their modern name is Rumanians. (in "Outlines of Medieval History" -Cambridge: at the University Press 1924 p.290)
Justinian I was born near Lake Ohrid, Macedonia, and became Emperor of the Byzantine Empire at A.D. 527.

Rumelia (Turkish Rumeli) was the name of the former Ottoman possessions in the Balkans. The name means "land of the Romans".
Ioannis Romanidis (John the Romanian) tells that by "Greece", the Western European intellectuals meant the ancient territory of Hellas alone, and not the entire area referred to as "Rumeli" by Greek Orthodox Christians (IvµnnhV Rvman¤dhV, Rvman¤a, Rvmiosunh, Roumelh. Thessaloniki: Purnara, 1975, p.209). Hence the identification of the "Romans" as "Greeks" was bound to create an important disjuncture between the intellectuals’ version of "Greece" (the so-called Hellenic ideal) and the popular "Romeic" religious and political identity.

In the 15th and 16th centuries Rumelia functioned as a reservoir of the devsirme (levy of Christian boys), who held the highest posts in the Ottoman army and government. The mid-16th century saw the triumph of the devsirme over the Turkish nobility, which lost almost all its power and position in the capital and returned to its old centres of power in southeastern Europe and Anatolia.
In 1885 Bulgaria annexed Eastern Rumelia, by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) and western Rumelia was divided into the Edirne, Salonika, and Monastir ils (provinces). Monastir was ceded to Serbia and Salonika to Greece; only Edirne remained under Ottoman rule.

MACEDO-VLACHS

In 342 BC the daughter of the king of the Getae became the wife of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander of Macedon who, at the age of 7, was rejected from the Olympic Games on grounds that he wouldn't have been a Greek. His parents had brought him Aristotle, the great philosopher, as personal trainer (Aristotle being born from a Greek father and Macedonian mother) in order to teach him the Hellenic language.
The wolf head with dragon tail, the Dacian banner, was also encountered at the Macedonians.
In Macedonian, a Slavic language spoken now in the FYR of Macedonia, the adjective form for Vlach's is "Vlaški", a male Vlach is a "Vlav" and a female Vlach is a "Vlanka".

The Macedo-Vlachs or Aromani/Armâni, who settled in Yugoslavia and on the mountains of Thessaly have generally been identified with the indigenous, pre-Slav populations of Dacian and Thracian origin, many of whom migrated into the less-accessible mountainous areas of Greece and the northern Balkan region because of the Germanic and Avar-Slav invasions and immigration of the 5th-7th centuries.

According to the 12th-century Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, they founded the independent state of Great Walachia, which covered the southern and central Pindus Mountain ranges and part of Macedonia. Another Byzantine historian, Kekaumenos mentions a revolt of Vlachs of Thessaly in 1066, and their ruler Verivoi.

Around 1173, Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, traveling through Thessaly, is mentioning the "nimble as deer" mountaineer Vlachs, and defines the land of the Vlachs as beginning at Lamia. He describes them as living in the mountains like the chamoisses and coming down from them to attack the Greeks. Referring to the Vlachs of Macedonia he said: "no Emperor can conquer them". He visited Constantinople, during the reign of Manuel Comnenus (1143-1180 AD), and writes of the Emperor's special sympathy for the Vlachs because of his origins from that people (Noul Album Macedo-Roman, vol. II, 339). Niketas Honiatis describes a "Great Wallachia" comprising Thesaly, as opposed to other two "Wallachias" quoted by Frantzes: "Little Wallachia" in Acarnania and Aetolia, and an "Upper Wallachia" in Epirus. The existence of these free entities is confirmed by the Western chronicles Geoffroy de Villehardouin, Henri de Valenciennes, Robert de Clary, and by those who wrote about the rebellion of a stem of the Vlachs of the Hemus (Chalhidiki) Peninsula,1196 A.D. .The chronicler of the Ottoman Sultans, Chalcondilas, is mentioning later the Vlachs in filiations with the North Danubian Wallachians.

Choniates wrote, between 1202 and 1214, that the Thessalian mountain region was called "Great Wallachia".
After the establishment of the Latin Empire at Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia was absorbed by the Greek Despotate of Epirus; later it was annexed by the Serbs, and in 1393 it fell to the Turks.) Another Vlach settlement, called Little Walachia, was located in Aetolia and Acarnania (department in west central Greece, with an area of 5,447 sq km).

Moscopole was the second most important city from the Balkans, after Constantinople, and had about 60000 inhabitants in 1760, while Athens had only 10000 inhabitants from whom only 3000 were Greeks! Around Moscopole were other big Aromanian cities like Gramostea, Nicea, Linca, in an area populated exclusively by Aromanians, at altitudes above 1100 m.
Moscopole had 12000 houses from stone plated with marble, 40 churches, an Academy (Hellênikon Frôntistêrion, established in 1744), a big typography, hundreds of workshops and shops and many schools.
In 1769 it was plundered by Turks and Albanians and in 1788, the Albanian troops led by Ali Pasha devastated and burnt it. Many of the Aromanians emigrated in Vienna, Budapest and in Transylvania.

Robert Curzon wrote in 1833, while his lordship was being escorted through the Zigos Pass by a company of mountaineer klephts on leaving the Aromanian city called Mezzovo (Metzovo):
"I was struck by the original manner in which our mountain friends progressed through the country; sometimes they kept with us, but more usually some of them went on one side of the road and some on the other, like men beating for the game, only that they made no noise...They were curious wild animals, as slim as active as cats: their waists were not much more than a foot and a half in circumference, and they appeared to be able to jump over everything". The byzantinists Susan Mountgarret and Desmond Seward wrote: "We had been fortunate to see our Vlach shepherd outside Prizren, although they roam all over the Balkans. They are as common and elusive as wolves. The only other one we saw was tending his sheep up by the source of the river Crni Drim -the "Black Devil"- on the Albanian border, in the back of beyond. He wore a tall shapeless cap of black felt and a long brown homespun cloak. It is hard to imagine a more archaic figure, no doubt a sight well known to Byzantines" (Greek Monitor of Human and Minority Rights vol I. No 3 December 1995). As can be seen in the photo, the shepherd's cane ends with a wolf-dragon shape, similarly to the Dacian banner. This Dacian symbol certifies the Dacian origin of the Aromanian/Vlach shepherds.
The photo was taken, at the beginning of the 20th century, in the Pindus Mountains by Manatia brothers photographers.

Nicholas Trifon wrote one of the most exhaustive researches on the Aromanians, "Les aroumains, un people qui s'en va", Ed. Acratie, Paris, 2005, 470 pg. On the front cover of the book there’s a photo of an Aromanian wolf-snake, with a six petal solar rosette on each side. The wood carved banner is very elaborate and sheds a new light on how might have looked the wolf-dragon Dacian banner, since the only other depictions are the those carved on the Trajan’s Column from Rome.
This Aromanian artifact, called “cariga” (the hook) was used by the shepherds to catch the sheep from the hind legs. This one of the best proofs, that survived up to the 20th century, showing the Dacian origins of the Aromanians and indicating that they were the only population that kept the Dacian banner unchanged for two thousand years!


TOP

BLACK VLACHS

THE MORGETS

Morgetia, meaning black (Moro) Getia, was an ethnical center inhabited by the Morgets (black Gets or Getae), an prehelenic community which remained unchanged until the arrival of Romans.
Robert Leighton, a specialist in Italian prehistory at Edinburgh: "it does not seem possible to distinguish with any accuracy or confidence between Ausonians, Morgetians or Sikels on a purely archaeological basis". Later, in Latin sources are mentioned the Nigri Latini - Black Latins! They are the ‘Maurovlachs’ or Black Latins, who lived west of Macedonia, in the ranges from Mount Sar to Mount Pindus. The Morlachs (Mavrovlachi) described as Nigri Latini are mentioned as inhabiting the coast of southern Dalmatia and the mountains of Montenegro, Herzegovina and southern Albania (c.1150).

Morgantina (eastern Sicily) was already inhabited in the prehistory. The oldest ruins which have been found up to now are on the hill of the Cittadella and are dated back to the 13th c. BC. According to the historical data, during this period the central part of Sicily was occupied by the Morgets, a people coming from the mainland. Morgantina is located off Route 288 near Aidone, in the province of Enna, Morgantina may have been settled by a certain King Morges who arrived with colonists from central Italy around 1300 BC. The early Morgetian culture was therefore somewhat distinct from the native Siculian civilisation. Excavations on the slopes of the Cittadella settlement at Morgantina have revealed nearly seventy tombs dating from the late eighth to the mid-fifth century B.C. Often reused for multiple inhumation and cremation burials, these tombs provide significant documentation of the critical period when immigrant Greeks interacted with the substantial indigenous community, introducing foreign objects and practices that modified the local Iron Age funerary rite.

THE MORS

In 1979 the famous Jat historian B.S.Dehiya published a paper entitled "The Mauryas: Their Identity", Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal, Vol. 17 (1979), p.112-133. In this now classic treatise, B.S.Dehiya proved several points, including the following:

The Mauryas, Muras, or rather Mors, were Jats, and hence Scythian or East Iranic in origin.
The clan name of these people was Mor (pronounced as English more) and, coincidentally, Mor also meant a peacock in Indian languages. But the name is not Indian at all, it is from Central Asia, and means "head" (p.113).
The primordial Jat religion was that of the original Iranic race, namely monotheist Sun-worship, which they and their Maga priests carried wherever they migrated (p.119, 128).
The Jat immigrants are close kin of the ancient Gutians of Sumeria (p.131), and the Goths or Gots (p.125), known in Latin as Getae.
Also there is not any proof that the Mors were the same with the Morgets, this hypotesis can't be ruled out either. When the Ottomans conquered the Balkan peninsula, they found the descendants of the Mors or Morgets (literally meaning black Gets), whom they named Kara-Ulaghi or black Vlachs. Turks used a similar name for Armenians, while Armenia was called Karabakh which is a compound of the Turkish word for black (kara) and a Persian word for garden (bakh).

KARAULA, THE BLACK GUARDS

Some of the Vlachs were named "Kara-Ulaghi" by Turks and "Kara-Ulak" by Serbs and Bulgarians meaning "Black Vlachs". Their land was named "Kara-Iflâh" by the Turks (kara=black, Iflâh=land, in Turkish).
In today's Romanian, "kara-ula" means guard. Probably, the black Vlachs were used as guards.
There are accounts about the "Black King" or "Negru Voda", in Romanian. He is a legendary figure, identified by the historians with "Black Radu". The principality of Wallachia was established in 1290, by Radu Negru (Black Radu) or Rudolf the Black. Câmpulung, on the southern watershed of the Transylvanian Alps (Prahova River Valley) was Wallachia's first capital. Curtea de Arges was the second. By 1310, when Basarab the Great came to the throne of Wallachia as the second prince of the line, a state in being had definitely been established.

Many Aromanians originating from Greek side of Macedonia have their names beginning with "Kara". In Greek, "kara" means "head", just like "mor" in central Asian languages. It is possible that the names of the persons beginning with "kara" to originate rather from "head" than from "black". Looks like the original meaning of the word "kara" was "head", just like in to the case of the word "mor". Because the populations using these names for themselves had darker skins, the meaning of both words was changed to "black".
A part of Cincari are nomadic herdsmen known by various names: Karavunci, Karaguni, Karakacani, Kucivlasi.

MORLACHS FROM MONTENEGRO

Vlachs known as Morlachs, or Mavrovlachi, Greek "Mavrovlachos", meaning "black Vlach" (mavro=black, in Greek), inhabited areas in the mountains of Montenegro, meaning "Black Mountain" in Italian, Hercegovina, and northern Albania as well as on the southern coast of Dalmatia, where they founded Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik). In the 14th century some Morlachs moved northward into Croatia.

Here is what the Yugoslav Encyclopedia (Enciklopedija Leksikografskog Zavoda, Zagreb, 1968, book 4) tells about them: “Morlaki, (Murlaki; from Ital. Morlacco, being shortening of Greek form Mauroblahos - mauros - black, Blahos - Vlah; Maurovlasi or Morovlasi, in latin sources called Nigri Latini - Black Latins), name used for shepherds of Roman origin or romanized, that kept themselves in Balkan peninsula mountains after Slavic colonization in 6th century, keeping some linguistic and somatic characteristics. Morlaki (Morovlasi) are called those Romanian shepherds that, running from Turks towards west, settled in mountains from Skadar lake [on border of Montenegro and Albania] to Velebit [in northern Croatian coast]. So, a group of them came to island Krk 1450-80 (villages Dubasnica and Poljica) where some words and roots of Romanian language, interwove with Slavic words (as in the prayer "Our father"), were kept until beginning of 19th century. Some groups of those Romanians came to Trieste [on Italian-Slovenian border], and very long held themselves in some villages in Istria. The Italian form Morlacco is used already in 15th century, and in 16th century that is the name for (any) local people living in mountains from Kotor [in Montenegro] to Kvarner [around city of Rijeka]. Lots of Morlaks was in Velebit mountains, so that region was by Venetians called Morlachia. The Velebit mountain was called Montagne della Morlacca, and sea way under the mountain, closed by the islands, was Morlakian channel (Canale della Morlacca).”

Prof. John G. Nandris from the University College of London, writes in Ethnoarchaeology and Latinity in the mountains of southern Velebit (in Transhumant pastoralism in Southern Europe -1999): "The Morlachs were a Mediaeval population, whose name has now vanished but is historically attested from Dalmatia. They were Latin speakers, and we can probably equate them with the Aromani (Vlachs, Cincari) of the Balkan peninsula south of Danube (..) It was confirmed during the 1985 fieldwork that although the shepherds of Velebit are Croat speakers, they still employ a system of Latin numerals to enumerate sheep. These are identical to the Romanian or Aromanian numerals. This legacy indicates that the population from whom the present shepherds learned the techniques of pastoralism were certainly Latin speakers."

According to Buschan "Die Volker Europas'', c. 1910, the Maurovlachen (Maurovlachians) were black Vlachians; they were nomadic shepherds, like the Aromunen and Turkish shepherds; their name was mentioned in the 10th century in the Byzantine empire; in the 11th century in Bulgaria and in later times in the western part of the Balkan peninsula.

Krajina region was an area first settled by a pastoral, nomadic people known as Vlachs, or Morlachs because they had darker skin than their Slavic neighbours. From the 16th century, the Austrians invited them to settle the Vojna Krajina (military frontier) where they were free of serfdom in return for defending the border (roughly that of present Bosnia) against the Turks. By this time most of them were Orthodox.
In 1630 Ferdinand II issued the "Statuta Valachorum"; (Law of the Vlachs), which defined the status of the Vlachs.

Allers Illustrerede Konversations-Leksikon' (Copenhagen 1906-10) says that the Morlaks are some of the best sailors in the Austrian navy.

The Croatian census of 1991 revealed 22 persons who declared themselves as "Morlachs"…

 

 

 

Donation of Constantine first appeared during the 8th century and was a document which purported to recognise the Roman popes as Christ's representatives on Earth and to donate to Pope Sylvester and the Roman Church all those Imperial powers formerly invested in the Throne of Byzantium.

The 'Donation', the Church claimed, was written in the 4th century at the insistence of the emperor Constantine. The Church said that he was so grateful for having been cured of leprosy by Pope Sylvester, that he gave into the Church's hand the entire power and wealth of the unified Roman Empire, including the right to crown and dethrone kings. Now that is what you call expensive medical insurance.

Supposedly written before 337 AD - the year of Constantine's death - the Donation of Constantineactually didn't make an appearance on the stage of European history until four hundred years later. So far-reaching are the powers bestowed upon the Church by this document, one would have thought that it would have been made public at the time of its bestowal. Not centuries later.

The provisions of the Donation were enforced in 751 AD following which the Merovingians were deposed by the Church and replaced by their sycophants, the Mayors of the Palace who later became known as the Carolingians. The Church had made a pact with the Mayors and offered to 'recognise' their legitimacy as rulers if they would dispense with the true Dragon Kings. The deal was done and the Carolingians were made the puppet rulers under the Roman Church. 

The Donation, because it was made by a Dragon King, Constantine, legitimised the Church's right to take this action. To all intents and purposes they had the authority of Dragon Kingship given up to them by this Charter. No doubt the Merovingians knew this to be a fraud, which is why they refused to recognise the authority of the Church to meddle in affairs of state. What do we learn from this?

 

 

 

The Draco,
the Late Roman military standard
By Robert Vermaat

Origins: Sarmatians, Alans, Parthians and Persians:
The draco Standard was originally developed by the cavalry peoples of the steppes, such as the Sarmatians and the Alans, but also by the Parthians and the Sassanid Persians. It may have been used primarily to determine the wind-direction for the horse archers. Arrian described it as a long sleeve, 'made by sewing pieces of dyed material together'. This sleeve/tube hung limp when the rider was at rest, but on the move it flew like a serpent and whistled in the wind. The hollow head, in the form of a toothed dragon, was formed from metal and the wind passing through it would extend the cloth tube tail attached to the neck of the head. The draco was also used by the Dacians (or their allies) and no less than 20 of these are shown on Trajan's Column. Other sources mention Parthian and Sassanid Persian dracos.
Not all such standards had dragon heads. The one below on the left from Trajan's Column shows the tubular tail with streamers attached. The head looks more like a dog (with ears) than a dragon. The one beside it has a much more serpentine head, and has scalloped rings attached to the tail. Other standards had no heads at all, just the fabric tube, while some had heads looking like wolves or even fishes. These had protruding ears and fins. The images below show part of the Arch of Galerius with several dracos.


A draco from Trajan's Column.
Another draco from Trajan's Column.
Several dracos on the Arch of Galerius (311AD), carried by infantry as well as cavalry.
4-5th-c. Coptic wall painting from Kharga Oasis, Egypt, showing Sassanid dracos.
Sassanid Persian dracos main have been made of fabric only. From the Historia Augusta we learn that when Aurelianus had reconquered Palmyra (272 AD), amongst the treasure were 'Persian dragon-flags' (Persici dracones)[1], which to me sounds like the standards we're discussing here. What these draco may have looked like we can see below; on the extreme right is a 5th c. AD Coptic wall painting, showing the occupying Sassanid Persian forces carrying two dracos.

The Roman draco

The Draco was adopted first into the Roman cavalry during the 2nd century AD, possibly with the introduction of Sarmatian cavalry into the Roman army. Arrian, who was writing c. 137 AD, described it as a Scythian (he most probably meant Sarmatian) invention which was adopted by Roman cavalry[2]. The Romans first began to use the draco in cavalry games, the so-called 'Hippica Gymnasia'. These were described by Arrian as glamorised versions of training exercises, performed in decorated armour. It is possible that the draco was introduced just because it was 'outlandish', foreign and glamourous. Points in the game were scored for strikes on the tail piece of the dracos carried by a team acting as 'targets', from dummy javelins thrown by another team of riders. Arrian recommended that the standard be colorful, adding to to the spectacle of cavalry parades. One should be given to each unit to maintain order in both displays and battle. The Roman cavalry adopted the draco probably during or after the Dacian wars, in which the equipment of the Roman cavalry was altere to withstand the charged of the lance-armed cavalry. These equipment changes included the adoption of the fully-armed cavalry (alae cataphractiorum) and the long lance. It would be logical to assume that this was the time when also the draco standard was introduced.

The choice for the dragon/serpent as model is not so easy to explain, because the steppe cultures used other animal's heads and continued to do so. However, it has been assumed that it was because of the Thracian dominance in Roman cavalry that the latter adopted the serpent shape. These Thracian horsemen had a deity which resembled a 'flying' serpent with scales, teeth and an upstanding crest, which may well have been a draco or something similar.

It is not documented when exactly the draco was adopted as a normal standard for all troop types. However, sources mention the draco being used with the infantry. The Historia Augusta mentions that the mother of Severus (193-211 AD) dreamt of a puple snake before his birth, something very alike what we later hear of the Imperial standard[3]. But since this source was probably compiled later, we can't be sure this has any bearing on a dating. We are on more solid ground with the entry of the reign of Gallienus (253-268 AD), when legionary troops are said to have paraded with a dracon amongst the standards of the legions[4] and the troops of Aurelianus (270-5 AD) also had draconarii amongst the standard-bearers[5]. This may lead us to conclude that the infantry began using dracos during the late 3rd c. On the Arch of Galerius, which was built before 311 AD to commemorate Galerius' war against Persia in 290 AD, several dracos can be seen to his left and right, carried by infantry as well as cavalry (see the image above, 2nd from right).

We have no good idea about the general appearance of the draco. Some draco heads may have looked like a draco, but some seem to look more like wolves or dogs, or even of an ass (..).

Also, we can't be sure of the lenght of the windsock, or the actual length of the pole on which it was carried.
However, the coins of the Emperor Trajan Decius (AD 249-251) give us some idea as to tall the latter was. If not a representation of a boar-headed trumpet (carnycus), it does not seem to have been taller than a man. In my opinion though, the Emperor would rather be shown with an standard.


The draco head was most probably constructed by first carving a wooden original, then beating a copper alloy sheet around it. This draco head was made of two halves, the bottom jaw being riveted against the top half. Adding a windsock may be a problem, because we have no clear idea how long it would be. However, trial and error will get you there, with of course different lengths and materials possible. I'd go for silk, which may be expensive, but it is light and gets the best result. Possibly, added hoops might keep the tail 'inflated', which can also be used to attach strips of cloth to create the 'streaming' effect of the flying beast described by Arrian (Ars. Tact. 35.3-4). The images below show a 2nd-3rd C. funeral stele from Chester, probably showing a Sarmatian draconarius.


The funeral stele from Chester.


Reconstruction of the stele from Chester.


Reconstruction drawing by Gerry Embleton, showing a Sarmatian in Roman service, based on the Chester stele as well as the 'dog' draco from Trajans Column.


Anoter view of the Niederbieber original.

The Niederbieber draco

The Roman draco developed into a real dragon, without ears but with scales and a crest. The only fully preserved draco was found in the Limes fortress of Niederbieber in Germany, which dates to the 3rd century. This copper alloy object was discovered near the SW edge of the vicus (civilian settlement) outside the fort. It can best be described as a scaled monster's head, measuring 30x12x12 cm, and with some probability is the head of a cohort's draco.
It is formed by the joining of two embossed sheets, the gilded upper one overlapping the lower tinned one, both attached by 5 rivets on each side. At the base of the neck the sheets form a circular flange, riveted together by 2 more rivets. Overlapping scales cover the head and neck, while a series of ridges covers the upper jaw from the nostrils to the eyes, which face sideways. The open mouth shows triangular teeth, but no fangs or canines. A crenellated crest is attached to the top of the head.
Two holes of similar size are pierced through both the throat and the skull behind the crest. No doubt a staff or the shaft of a spear would pass through here. Two axial slits, 2 cm long, pierce the botom of the lower jaw, probably to attach a lost mechanism that would have produced the hissing effect.


The Draco found in Niederbieber, Germany.
Reconstruction drawing by Eiden. The head is about 30 cm long, 12cm high (with comb 17 cm), and 12 cm wide.
The Niederbieber draco.
Another shot of these reconstructions in the Mainz museum.
The draco in the Late Roman army

The late 4th c. author Vegetius also mentions the draco as a common standard. He seems to have been confused about the difference between the old standards and the new dragons though, as he wrote that apparently standard- and draco-bearers differ[6], but also that the standardbearers 'are now named dragonbearers[7], that both are present in a camp[8], but also that each cohort has a draco[9]. if correct it would mean the first overall standard for the cohort (where before none had existed between the legionary aquila and the signa of the centuries). the draco may have foreshadowed the later common practise in the 3rd century to permanently detach cohortes from their parent legions.

By 357 AD, the Emperors Constantius and Julian (who was crowned by a draconarius[10]) had personal dracos sewn from a purple material. Ammianus Marcellinus writes of flags as well as draco being purple[11] and mentions them making a hissing sound in the wind[12]. The Emperor's personal draco standards made them identifyable in the heat of battle and may therefore have been mainly a tactital instrument rather than a personal adornment. Julian's draco at the battle of Argentorate (357) was important in his attempt to regain control of the battle[13]. The early 5th/c. author Zosimus also mentions Julian being extremely cross when one was lost to the enemy during the Persian campaign[14] .
By the fifth century, as may be deduced from inscriptions from Perge and Prusias/Üskübü, Turkey, as well as a poem by Prudentius, there was a rank called magister draconum. This officer was the superior of the draconarii in a unit, ranking immediately below the tribune. However, we don't know if he directed the draconarii in battle, or may just have been the head of the standard bearers' club or scholae. The magister draconum probably replaced the optio signiferorum, whose function unfortunately is equally vague. Other ranks are less clear: from Cagliari/Sardinia we know an optio draconarius, while the bearcus draconarius seems to have been an unusually high-ranking draconarius.
Prudentius also tells us that Late Roman draconarii wore golden torcs as reward for their valor in battle. However, we learn from Ammianus that the torc may have been a badge of office, so possibly standard bearers were selected from those who had earlier received such torcs, marking them for an elite.

The East Roman or 'Byzantine' draconarius

Around the mid-6th century, the historian Johannes Lydos mentioned the draconarius (drakonarioi-drakontophoroi) in a list of ranks and functions[15]. The military manual called the Strategikon of the emperor Maurikios (582-602 AD) shows that draconarii were probably still around in the early 7th. century. However, it is not clear whether the draconarius mentioned there [16] was already anachronistic or if he still had a proper military function - there was a scholae draconariorum, a non-military office staff of 10 clercs attached to a civilian praefectus praetorio. After the 6th century, the draconarius disappeared from the Byzantine army.


Reconstruction drawing by Angus McBride, showing a Parthian 'fish'.
Reconstruction drawing by Peter Conolly, showing the Hippica Gymnasia described by Arrian.
Reconstruction drawing by Angus McBride, after the Villa Maria catacomb fresco.
Reconstruction drawing by Richard Hook, with windsock.
After the Romans

Dracos continued in use in the Caucasus and Georgia, while in the West the Franks under Charlemagne may have adopted them again. This may show continuity, or else Charlemagne's attempts to eminate the Roman Army. We have a miniature from the late 9th-c. Psalterium Aureum (MS St. Gall. Stift-Bib. 22, fol. 140, illustrating Psalm 59), which shows a draco in a formation of heavy cavalry.
We also see it used at the battle of Hastings in 1066 AD, where it is carried by Harold Godwinson's retainer at the moment of his death.
The next image is from a 14th-century manuscript of L'Histoire de Merlin by Robert de Boron, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. It shows King Arthur in combat, brandishing what can only be a Medieval representation of a Late Roman draco. This is not supposed to reflect 14th-c. battle standards, but rather a fanciful idea of ancient use.
The last image shows the flag of modern Wales, in Welsh called Y Draig Goch (The Red Dragon). This red dragon, as the tale goes, would go back to the myth of the red and white dragons fighting on Vortigern's fort at Dinas Emrys in Gwynedd, Wales. These dragons, though, are thought by some to represent the draco of the Late Roman army.
The Dragon of Wessex, like the Red Dragon of Wales, may indeed represent some form of continuity. However, it could also show Francish influence in England and Wales during the early Middle Ages, as well as an antiquity-related Romanticism which has nothing to do with reality any more.


Fectio's reconstruction of what such a fabric draco may have looked like.


The reconstruction from Marcus Junkelmann.


A draco for the Carnuntum Archaeological Park.


Another shot of the Carnuntum draco.


A draco from Joe Piela.


The reconstruction by Michael Simkins.


Another shot of the reconstruction by Michael Simkins.


A reconstruction by Cezary Wysczinski.


The Britannia draco.


Close-up of the Votadini draco.


The Foederati draco, reconstructed by Toni Feldon.


The Timetrotter draco, also by Toni Feldon.


The Time Team draco, made by Tim Blades.


The Comitatus draco, also by Stefan Jaroschinski.


The Fectio draco.


The Fectio draco, made by Stefan Jaroschinski.


Fectio's draco.


Jeroen with the Fectio draco.


Another draco by Stefan Jaroschinski.



The Psalterium Aureum, showing a draco in the Francish army, c. 883.


The Bayeux Tapestry, showing the 'Dragon of Wessex' at the battle of Hastings, 1066.


King Arthur in combat, brandishing a draco. From L'Histoire de Merlin by Robert de Boron (14th C.).
The Welsh flag, still seen by many as going right back to King Arthur and possibly even Roman times.
See also:

How to make a draco by Ros Ereira
How to make a draco's head by Tim Blades
How to make a draco's noise by Peter Taylor
Special thanks to Sander van Dorst for providing the Greek quotes below:

Notes

[1] Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Aurelianus 28.4:

tunc illatae illae vestes, quas in Templo Solis videmus, consertae gemmis, tunc Persici dracones et tiarae, tunc genus purpurae, quod postea nec ulla genus detulit nec Romanus orbis vidit. Then were brought in those garments, encrusted with jewels, which we now see in the Temple of the Sun, then, too, the Persian dragon-flags and head-dresses, and a species of purple such as of nation ever afterward offered or the Roman world beheld.
[2] Arrianus, Tactica 35:

... Sèmeios de diakerimenoi epelaunousin, ou tois Rhoomaikos monon alla kai tois Skythikois, tou poikilooteran te kai hama phoberooteran gignesthai tèn elasi. Ta Skythika de sèmeia estin epi kontoon en mèkei xymmetrooi drakontes apaiooroumenoi. Poiountai de xyrraptoi ek rhakoon bebammenoon, tas te kephalas kai to sooma pan este epi tas ouras eikasmenoi ophesin, hoos phoberootata hoion te eikasthènai. Kai ta sophismata tauta atremountoon men toon hippoon ouden pleon è rhakè an idois pepoikilmena es to katoo apokremamena, elaunomenoon de empneomena exonkountai, hooste hoos malista tois thèriois epeoikenai, kai ti kai episyrizein pros tèn agan kinèsin hypo tèi pnoèi biaiai dierchomenèi. '... They attack separated by standards, not only the Roman but the Scythian ones as well, so the charge becomes more colourful and fearsome at the same time. The Scythian standards are snakes of equal length held up on top of spearshafts. They are made of coloured pieces of cloth sewn together, the heads and their entire body up to the tail resembling serpents, so in order that they appear thus more frightening. And when the horses are not trembling from them the multicoloured bodies can be seen hanging down, however when charging they fill with air through the wind so they are most like the beasts and even hiss when a strong wind flows through much movement.'
[3] Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Severus 4.1:

..mater eius pridie quam pareret somniavit se purpureum dracunculum parere, .. The night before he was born his mother dreamed that she brought forth a purple snake, ..
[4] Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Gallieni ii 8.6:

Hastae auratae altrinsecus quingenae, vexilla centena praeter ea, quae collegiorum erant, dracones et signa templorum omniumque legionum ibant. On each side of him were borne five hundred gilded spears and one hundred banners, besides those which belonged to the corporations, and the flags of auxiliaries and the statues from the sanctuaries and the standards of all the legions.
[5] Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Aurelianus 31.7:

Templum sane Solis, quod apud Palmyram aquiliferi legionis tertiae cum vexilliferis et draconario et cornicinibus atque liticinibus diripuerunt, ad eam formam volo, quae fuit, reddi. Now as to the Temple of the Sun at Palmyra, which has been pillaged by the eagle-bearers of the Third Legion, along with the standard-bearers, the dragonbearer, and the buglers and trumpeters, I wish there is restored to the condition in which it formerly was.
[6] Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris 1.20:

... Quid ipsi draconarii atque signiferi, qui sinistra manu hastas gubernant, in proelio facient, quorum et capita nuda constant et pectora? ... ... What are the dragonbearers and standardbearers, which hold spears in their left hand, to do in battle, whose heads and breasts are naked ? ...'
[7] ibidem 2.7:

... Signiferi qui signa portant, quos nunc draconarios vocant. ... '... Standardbearers who carry the standards, whom they now call dragonbearers. ...'
[8] ibidem 1.23:

... Porta autem, quae appelatur praetoria, aut orientem spectare debet aut illum locum, qui ad hostes respicit, aut, si iter agitur, illam partem debet adtendere, ad quam est profecturus exercitus, intra quam primae centuriae, hoc est cohortes, papiliones tendunt et dracones et signa constitutum. ... '... The gate though, which is called the commander's, must either face east or to that spot, which faces towards the enemies, or, if a march is conducted, must be directed to that part, towards which the army is to march out, at the inside of which the first centuries, that is cohorts, set up tents and dragons and standards are pitched. ...'
[9] ibidem, 2.13:

...Dracones etiam per singulas cohortes a draconariis feruntur ad proelium ... 'Dragons, one each for the individual cohorts, are carried into battle by dragonbearers.'
[10] Ammianus Marcellinus, 20.4.18:

Eoque adfirmante primis auspiciis non congruere aptari muliebri mundo, equi phalerae quaerebantur, uti coronatus speciem saltem obscuram superioris praetenderet potestatis sed cum id quoque turpe esse adseveraret, Maurus nomine quidam, postea comes, qui rem male gessit apud Succorum angustias, Petulantium tunc hastatus, abstractum sibi torquem, quo ut draconarius utebatur, capiti Iuliani inposuit confidenter, qui trusus ad necessitatem extremam iamque periculum praesens vitare non posse advertens, si reniti perseverasset, quinos omnibus aureos argentique singula pondo, promisit. 'But since he insisted that at the time of his first auspices it was not fitting for him to wear a woman's adornment, they looked about for a horse's trapping, so that being crowned with it he might display at least some obscure token of a loftier station. But when he declared that this also was shameful, a man called Maurus, afterwards a count and defeated at the pass of Succi, but then a standard-bearer of the Petulantes, took off the neck-chain which he wore as carrier of the dragon and boldly placed it on Julian's head. He, driven to the extremity of compulsion, and perceiving that he could not avoid imminent danger if he persisted in his resistance, promised each man five gold pieces and a pound of silver.'
[11] ibidem, 15.5.16:

... nihil tutum ex praesentibus ratus in consilia cogebatur extrema et sensim cum principiorum verticibus secretius conlocutus isdemque magnitudine promissae mercedis accensis, cultu purpureo a draconum et vexillorum insignibus ad tempus abstracto ad culmen imperiale surrexit. '... So Silvanus, seeing no safety under present conditions, was driven to extreme measures, and having gradually spoken more boldly with the chief officers, he aroused them by the greatness of the reward he promised; then as a temporary expedient he tore the purple decorations from the dragon standards and vexilla of the cohorts and the companies, and so mounted to the imperial dignity'
[12] ibidem, 16.10.7:

... purpureis subtegminibus texti circumdedere dracones hastarum aureis gemmatisque summitatibus inligati, hiatu vasto perflabiles et ideo velut ira perciti sibilantes caudarumque volumina relinquentes in ventum. '... the dragons, sewn from purple covers and placed on the gilded and jewel-studded tips of spears, letting wind through an enormous opening and in that way hissing as if they had been aroused in anger and the bodies of their tails flowing in the wind.'
[13] bidem, 16.12.39:

Quo agnito per purpureum signum draconis, summitati hastae longioris aptatum velut senectutis pendentis exuvias, stetit unius turmae tribunus et pallore timoreque perculsus ad aciem integrandam recurrit. 'On recognising him by the purple ensign of a dragon, fitted to the top of a very long lance and spreading out like the slough of a serpent, the tribune of one of the squadrons stopped, and pale and struck with fear rode back to renew the battle.'
[14] Zosimus, Historia Nova 3.19:

Meanwhile Surenas, advancing with a large army from a town in Assyria, surprised the reconnoitring party in advance of the army, killed one of the three tribunes and some of his men, and put the remainder to flight, carrying off a military ensign which was in the form of a dragon, such as the Romans usually carry in war. The emperor on learning this was much displeased, and in his anger attacked the forces of Surenas, compelled all to fly that could escape, retook the ensign which the enemy had carried off, and coming immediately to the city where Surenas had surprised the party, stormed, took, and burnt it. As the commander of the party, preferring his own safety to the valour and honour of a Roman, had left his standard in the enemy's hands, he deprived him of his girdle, regarding him as a mean and worthless person, together with all who had accompanied him in his flight

 



 

he term "Gothic" was used in the Renaissance to describe certain types of art (and architecture -- think gargoyles) in the Middle Ages, according to Shelley Esaak's Art History 101. This art was considered inferior, just as the Romans had held themselves superior to the barbarians. In the 18th century the term "Gothic" morphed into a genre of literature that had elements of horror. Esther Lombardi (Classic Literature Guide) describes the genre as "characterized by supernaturalism, melodrama, and sensationalism." In the late 20th century it morphed again into a style and subculture characterized by heavy eyeliner and all-black clothing.
Originally, the Goths were one of the barbarian horseback riding groups that caused trouble for the Roman Empire.

Ancient Source on the Goths - Herodotus
The ancient Greeks considered the Goths to be Scythians. The name Scythian is used in Herodotus (440 B.C.) to describe barbarians who lived on their horses north of the Black Sea and were probably not Goths. When the Goths came to live in the same area, they were considered to be Scythians because of their barbarian way of living. It is hard to know when the people we call Goths began to intrude on the Roman Empire. According to Michael Kulikowski, in Rome's Gothic Wars, the first "securely attested" Gothic raid took place in A.D. 238, when Goths sacked Histria. In 249 they attacked Marcianople. A year later, under their king Cniva, they sacked several Balkan cities. In 251, Cniva routed Emperor Decius at Abrittus. The raids continued and moved from the Black Sea to the Aegean where the historian Dexippus successfully defended a besieged Athens against them. He later wrote about the Gothic Wars in his Scythica. Although most of Dexippus is lost, the historian Zosimus had access to his historical writing. By the end of the 260s the Roman Empire was winning against the Goths.
Medieval Source on the Goths - Jordanes
The story of the Goths generally begins in Scandinavia, as is told by the historian Jordanes in his The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter 4:
" IV (25) Now from this island of Scandza, as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have come forth long ago under their king, Berig by name. As soon as they disembarked from their ships and set foot on the land, they straightway gave their name to the place. And even to-day it is said to be called Gothiscandza. (26) Soon they moved from here to the abodes of the Ulmerugi, who then dwelt on the shores of Ocean, where they pitched camp, joined battle with them and drove them from their homes. Then they subdued their neighbors, the Vandals, and thus added to their victories. But when the number of the people increased greatly and Filimer, son of Gadaric, reigned as king--about the fifth since Berig--he decided that the army of the Goths with their families should move from that region. (27) In search of suitable homes and pleasant places they came to the land of Scythia, called Oium in that tongue. Here they were delighted with the great richness of the country, and it is said that when half the army had been brought over, the bridge whereby they had crossed the river fell in utter ruin, nor could anyone thereafter pass to or fro. For the place is said to be surrounded by quaking bogs and an encircling abyss, so that by this double obstacle nature has made it inaccessible. And even to-day one may hear in that neighborhood the lowing of cattle and may find traces of men, if we are to believe the stories of travellers, although we must grant that they hear these things from afar."

Germans and Goths
Michael Kulikowsi says the idea that the Goths were associated with the Scandinavians and therefore Germans had great appeal in the 19th century and was supported by the discovery of a linguistic relationship between the languages of the Goths and Germans. The idea that a language relationship implies an ethnic relationship was popular but doesn't bear out in practice. Kulikowski says the only evidence of a Gothic people from before the third century comes from Jordanes, whose word is suspect.
Kulikowski on the Problems of Using Jordanes

Jordanes wrote in the second half of the sixth century. He based his history on the no longer extant writing of a Roman nobleman named Cassiodorus whose work he had been asked to abridge. Jordanes did not have the history in front of him when he wrote, so how much was his own invention can't be ascertained. Much of Jordanes' writing has been rejected as too fanciful, but the Scandinavian origin has been accepted.

Kulikowski points to some of the far-fetched passages in Jordanes' history to say that Jordanes is unreliable. Where his reports are corroborated elsewhere, they can be used, but where there is no supporting evidence, we need other reasons for accepting. In the case of the so-called origins of the Goths, any supporting evidence comes from people using Jordanes as a source.

Kulikowski also objects to using archaeological evidence as support because artifacts moved around and were traded. In addition, archaeologists have based their attribution of Gothic artifacts to Jordanes.

So, if Kulikowski is right, we don't know where the Goths came from or where they were before their third century excursions into the Roman Empire.


The Goths were a German people. They originated in Scandinavia, but by the 2nd century of the Christian Era had moved into what is now Southern Russia. The Goths had adopted the habit of fighting on horseback. This arose from the fact that the first area the Goths invaded in the 2nd century AD were the vast plains of Eastern Europe and southern Russia. This was horse country and Goths quickly took to mounted warfare. This was aided by the fact that the stirrup was just being introduced into Europe and, more importantly, because the Goths considered warfare the ultimate experience, preferable to any other undertaking. Doing it on horseback was a lot more efficient. With horses, they could wage war faster and farther than they ever had in the past. While the Goths had speed, they did not have mass. They became like nomads, always on the move.


There were actually two groups of Goths, the Visigoths (meaning the "West Goths") and the Ostrogoths (the "East Goths"). The Goths first burst upon the scene of history in the 3rd Century, when they swarmed out of Southern Russia by both land and sea to beset the Roman Empire. After an heroic struggle, the Romans managed to drive them back to work on their military techniques a little more. In the mid-4th century the Goths were attacked by even wilder peoples, like the Huns The Visigoths sought security within the boundries of the Roman Empire, offering to help defend the Balkans in return for land, but the Emperor Valens spurned their offer. So they invaded, and in 378 overwhelmed a Roman army at Adrianople, using cavalry in combination with a fortified camp. The victory seems to have surprised the Visigoths almost as much as it did the Romans, for they agreed to settle in the Balkans and help defend them against other tribes. Within a century, the Visigoths had drifted westwards, to settle in southern Gaul (modern France) and Spain, where they set up a kingdom of their own.


Meanwhile, the Ostrogoths found themselves subjects of the Huns, and participated in the Hunnish invasions of Europe during the first half of the 5th century, fighting under Attila against their Visigothic cousins and the Romans at the great battle of Chalons in 451. The Huns and their allies lost this battle and thus began their rapid decline. With the collapse of the Hunnish empire, the Ostrogoths for a time settled in the Balkans, where they were more or less subject to the authority of the Eastern Roman Emperor. In 493 the Emperor "authorized" the Ostrogoths to occupy Italy, which was then under the control of still other Germanic babarians. Under their able king Theoderic, the Goths accomplished this in surprisingly short order, and established a kingdom of their own. This came to grief in the mid 6th century, when the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian decided to reestablish Imperial control over Italy: The war lasted over 20 years and brought absolute ruination to Italy. Thus did the Ostrogoths exit the scene.


The Visigothic kingdom in Spain (the Franks drove them out of most of France in the 6th century), proved a vigorous one. A more or less stable government was established, the province was rich, and Roman institutions remained pretty much intact. The knigdom flourished, producing such worthies as St. Isidore of Seville. But in 711 the Islamic warrior chief Taric led a raid across the Straits of Hercules (now the Straits of Gibraltar). This came at a time when there considerable disorder in Visigothic Spain, a civil war just then being in progress. The raid was reinforced, and within just a few years Visigothic Spain was no more, submerged beneath an Islamic tide. However, Roman and Visigothic fugitives established small states in the mountains of northern Spain, which became the nuclei from which the reconquista was undertaken.


The Goths left a considerable heritage. Perhaps their most lasting influence was linguistic, for both Italian and Spanish are strongly influenced by Gothic words, one of the reasons that the two diverge so greatly from French.



Goths

Goths, ancient Teutonic people, who in the 3rd to the 6th century AD were an important power in the Roman world. The Goths were the first Germanic peoples to become Christians. According to the 6th-century Gothic historian Jordanes, the Goths came from Sweden across the Baltic Sea to the basin of the Wis³a (Vistula) River. By the 3rd century AD they had migrated as far south as the lower Danube, around the Black Sea. During that century Gothic armies and fleets ravaged Thrace, Dacia, and cities in Asia Minor and along the Aegean coast. They captured and plundered Athens in 267 to 268, and threatened Italy. For about a century, wars between the Roman emperors and Gothic rulers devastated the Balkan territory and the northeastern Mediterranean region. Other tribes joined the Goths, and under the great king Ermanaric in the 4th century, a kingdom was established that extended from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.


About 370 the Goths divided into two separate groups. The Ostrogoths (Low Latin Ostrogothae,"the eastern Goths") inhabited a large kingdom east of the Dniester River on the shores of the Black Sea (part of modern Ukraine and Belarus). The Visigoths (Low Latin Visigothi,"the good Goths" or "the noble Goths") were the western Goths, with a domain extending from the Dniester to the Danube rivers.

About 100 years after the birth of Christ an ancient Teutonic people began moving out of northern Europe. In time they overran the Roman Empire. The first of these barbarians to conquer Rome were the Visigoths, or West Goths.

Where the Goths first came from is not definitely known. According to their folklore, their people had once lived far to the north, on the shores and islands of what is now Sweden. After long, slow wanderings through the forests of western Russia, the Goths reached the shores of the Black Sea. In 100 years of contact with the Romans, they learned many things, especially the Christian religion.

Christianity was spread among them by a converted Goth, a saintly scholar named Ulfilas. For more than 40 years he labored, first making a Gothic alphabet so that he could translate the Bible and then teaching his people the new faith. This Bible translated by Ulfilas has great historical value because it is centuries older than the earliest writing to survive in any other Teutonic language.

For a time the Goths ruled a great kingdom north of the Danube River and the Black Sea. Then, in AD 375, the Huns swept into Europe from Asia. They conquered the Ostrogoths, or East Goths, and forced the Visigoths to seek refuge across the Danube within the boundaries of the Roman Empire.

In a battle fought near the city of Adrianople in 378, the Visigoths defeated and murdered Emperor Valens. For a time they lived peaceably on Roman territory. On the death of Emperor Theodosius in 395, they rose in rebellion under their ambitious young king Alaric and overran a large part of the Eastern Empire. Rome itself fell into the hands of the Visigoths in 410. Alaric led the attack.

Alaric's successors led their people out of Italy and set up a powerful kingdom in southern Gaul and Spain. In the year 507 the Visigoths in Gaul were defeated by the Franks and were forced beyond the Pyrenees. For 200 years their kingdom in Spain flourished. In 711, when the Moors crossed to Spain from Africa, the Visigothic kingdom was destroyed.

The Ostrogoths for a time formed part of the vast horde that followed the king of the Huns, Attila. They settled in the lands south of Vienna when the Hunnish kingdom fell apart. Their national hero was Theodoric the Great, a powerful and romantic figure who became king in 474. As a boy he had been sent as a hostage to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and had been educated there. In 488 he invaded Italy with the permission of the emperor at Constantinople. After several years of warfare, Theodoric captured and killed Odoacer. Odoacer was a barbarian who had usurped the Roman power and had founded a powerful kingdom that included all Italy together with lands north and east of the Adriatic Sea. Theodoric's reign was one of the ablest and best in this period. He failed, however, largely because no permanent union was effected between the barbarians and the Christian-Roman population. All his wise plans for bringing this about proved futile because the Ostrogoths, in common with most German barbarians, had been converted to Arianism, a heretical form of Christianity, and so were hated by the orthodox.

After Theodoric died in 526, the generals of the Eastern Roman Empire reconquered Italy (see Justinian I). After fighting a last battle near Mount Vesuvius in 553, the Ostrogoths marched out of Italy. They merged with other barbarian hordes north of the Alps and disappeared as a people from history.

VISIGOTHS
In 376 the Visigoths, threatened by the Huns, sought the protection of the Roman emperor Valens, and they were given permission to settle into the empire's province of Moesia, which was south of the Danube. When Gothic soldiers were maltreated by Roman officers, the Goths revolted, and the resulting war climaxed in a decisive battle in 378 near Adrianople (now Edirne, Turkey), in which Valens was killed. The victorious Goths then threatened Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul). Theodosius I, who succeeded Valens as emperor in the East, made peace with the Goths and incorporated their army into the Roman forces. From that time on, the Visigoths were an important influence in the Roman Empire. Many who had settled in Moesia became farmers and were known as Moeso-Goths. Ulfilas, bishop of the Goths, translated the Bible into Gothic and was largely responsible for the conversion of the Goths to a form of Christianity called Arianism.

On the death of Theodosius in 395, the Visigoths renounced their allegiance to Rome and chose Alaric I as their ruler. Alaric invaded Greece and then Italy, and in 410 he captured and pillaged the city of Rome. In that same year he was succeeded by Ataulf, who led the Visigoths across the Pyrenees mountain range into Spain.

From 415 to 418, under the next ruler, Wallia, the Visigoths extended their realm over a great part of Spain and southern Gaul, with Toulouse as their capital. Wallia was succeeded by the reputed son of Alaric, Theodoric I, who died fighting as an ally of Rome against the Huns at the Battle of Châlons. The most notable of the Spanish Visigothic kings was Euric, who reigned from about 420 to 484. He was a son of Theodoric I. Under Euric, who declared his rule to be independent of any federation with Rome, the kingdom of Toulouse included almost all of Spain and most of Gaul west of the Rhône River and south of the Loire River. Euric introduced many aspects of Roman civilization and drew up a code of law combining Roman and German elements. The kingdom was, however, continually beset by both internal and external difficulties. The kingship was nominally elective, and the powerful Visigothic nobles stood against attempts to found a hereditary royal house. Externally, the Byzantine Empire and the Franks menaced the Visigothic lands. In order to instill greater loyalty in his rebellious Roman and Christian subjects, Alaric II in 506 introduced the collection of laws known as the Breviary of Alaric. A year later, Clovis I, king of the Franks, defeated the Visigoths at the Battle of Vouillé, in which Alaric II was killed. Most of Provence was separated from the Gothic lands, and the Visigothic kingdom was confined almost entirely to Spain. Despite the attempts of a long line of Gothic kings to hold the kingdom together, the power of the Visigoths steadily declined. The last king, Roderick, was defeated and probably killed by the Muslims in the Battle of Río Barbate in 711. By 713 Spain was partially conquered by the Moors, and the Visigothic power survived in the independent Christian kingdom of Asturias.

The Visigoths

The first Germanic people to penetrate the frontiers of the empire were the West Goths , or Visigoths. The Goths had originally lived in southern Scandinavia and around the Baltic. But moving south in the second century they had split into two groups, the East Goths, or Ostrogoths, who had remained in southern Russia to live off the land as an army of conquerors, and the West Goths, or Visigoths, who drove the Romans out of Dacia (modern Rumania). The Goths were receptive to Roman ways of life, developed a taste for Roman luxuries, and adopted the Arian form of Christianity. Many were recruited into the Roman army, and even took offices of state in Constantinople itself. Thus, when the westward drive of a Mongolian people called the Huns from the steppes of Russia overwhelmed the Ostrogoths, the emperor Valens of Constantinople was not unwilling to permit the Visigoths to move into the empire in 376 to defend its Danube frontier. Apparently outraged at the treatment they had received from imperial officials, the Visigoths took up arms against the emperor, who was defeated and killed at the battle of Adrianople in 378. His successor Theodosius I placated the Visigoths with gifts of land and payment of tribute, and they in return furnished recruits to the imperial army. Relations with the Visigoths deteriorated after the death of Theodosius I in 395, when the empire was divided again between his two sons, Arcadius (reigned 395-408) who inherited the Eastern Roman Empire and Honorius (reigned 395-423) who inherited the Western Roman Empire. Furious at the conditions of military service imposed on his people, Alaric, the leader of the Visigoths, led his troops against Constantinople in 395, but was persuaded to divert his army into Greece, capturing Athens. Alaric, after declaring himself king of the Visigoths, led them north into Illyricum ( Yugoslavia ). In Italy , Honorius sought seclusion and luxury in the city of Ravenna , which was well protected by broad marshes, leaving his regent, the Vandal soldier Stilicho, to deal with Alaric's invasion of Italy after 403. Stilicho used strategic cunning as well as bribery to keep the Visigoths away from Rome; but, after Stilicho was unjustly executed on charges of treason, Alaric was able to besiege and finally in August 410 to capture and sack Rome. It was eight hundred years since a foreign invader had broken through the walls of Rome . "The world sinks into ruin," wrote St. Jerome . "Yes! but shameful to say our sins still live and flourish. The renowned city, the capital of the Ro- man Empire, is swallowed up in one tremendous fire; and there is no part of the earth where Romans are not in exile." Fortunately, Jerome was exaggerating. Few people were killed; the houses of nobles were plundered. The Forum was set ablaze, but all the churches were spared. Alaric even organized a fine procession to Saint Peter's to present the treasures he had saved for the pope. Alaric died shortly afterwards, and a river was temporarily diverted to provide a secure grave for him in its bed. The Visigoths then moved on to southern France and Spain , where they finally settled. Al- though they were tolerant of the Catholic worship in the areas they con- trolled, they were isolated from the Latin population for almost two centuries by their refusal to give up Arianism. They were finally converted toward the end of the sixth century

OSTROGOTHS

When the Huns swept into Europe about 370, many of the Ostrogoths were conquered and compelled to aid their conquerors. They joined the king of the Huns, Attila, in his expedition against Gaul in 451 and many Ostrogoths were killed by the Visigoths at the Battle of Châlons. When the Huns were finally forced back, the Ostrogoths again became independent. With the permission of Rome, they settled in Pannonia, an area now including western Hungary, northern Croatia, Slovenia, and eastern Austria. They were joined by other Ostrogoths who had taken refuge within the Roman Empire at the coming of the Asians. In 474Theodoric, the greatest of the Ostrogothic kings, was elected to the throne. After various periods of warfare and alliance with Zeno, the Byzantine emperor, Theodoric invaded Italy in 488 (with the consent and advice of the emperor), slew Odoacer, the first barbarian ruler of Italy, and became ruler himself. He held the power although not the title of the Western Roman emperors. A Roman consul was given nominal authority, and the two peoples lived together amicably, with Roman culture greatly influencing the Teutons.

The unity of Romans and Goths could be preserved only by a ruler of the stature of Theodoric. After his death in 526, disruption in Italy became so violent that in 535 the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent his general Belisarius to conquer the peninsula. The Byzantines broke the Gothic power in 555, and the throne of Italy was filled by the exarchs (Byzantine governors) of Ravenna.

The Ostrogoths themselves gradually became absorbed into other tribes, such as the Alani, Vandals, Franks, and Burgundians, who had established themselves in the dominions of the old Roman Empire.

The Ostrogoths

Once they had broken loose from Hun control, the Ostrogoths moved slowly toward northern Italy . Their leader was Theodoric, one of the most talented leaders of all the Germanic peoples. He had spent ten years in Constantinople as a hostage, knew both Latin and Greek, and had developed a profound admiration for the ancient civilization he had been forcibly acquainted with. He had not, however, lost his tribal skills, for after conquering most of northern Italy , he demonstrated his ability with the broad- sword by slicing in two his rival for control of Italy and his ruthlessness by exterminating the rival's family. Theodoric then showed more constructive statesmanship. From 493 till his death in 526, he governed Italy and large parts of the Balkans as the regent of the emperor in Constantinople and as King of the Goths, establishing both in title and in actuality a successful policy of racial coexistence. The Goths took one-third of the land and houses and all military duties. The Romans kept the rest, and devoted themselves to peaceful pursuits. Gothic law applied to Goths, Roman law to Romans. Intermarriage was forbidden. Although Theodoric was an Arian Christian, he tolerated the Catholic religion and even the Jewish and other faiths. "Religion is not something we can command," he said. "No one can be forced into a faith against his will." He showed great concern for Roman culture. He restored monuments that had fallen into ruin, including the Coliseum in Rome , where circuses were still presented. But it was at the capital of Ravenna that the Ostrogothic king showed the heights of civilization that could be achieved with the fusion of Germanic and Roman skills.

Ravenna had been made the capital of the western part of the Roman Empire because of its excellent harbor and because it was protected by wide marshes. It was a city of islands, canals, bridges, and causeways, looking across lagoons to the Adriatic Sea . Here Theodoric found that the Roman artists had brought to perfection one of the most demanding and un- compromising of all artistic forms, the art of mosaic; and it was for this achievement that his Ravenna would be principally remembered. In mosaic the artist must set enormous numbers of tiny bits of marble, enamel, glass, and colored stone into damp cement. He cannot produce those subtleties of expression possible in an oil painting, but must seek an overall effect usually visible only from a distance. But in return he is able to use the play of light not only upon the many different angles of the tiny mosaic stones but within the mosaic itself. In Ravenna , the artists were developing new materials for this art, applying gold leaf to glass cubes and covering them again with a thin film of glass, using metallic oxides to produce variations of color, or employing mother of pearl to produce just the right effect of creamy perfection. In the windows, they often used thick sheets of alabaster, so that the entering light already had a soft opacity before playing upon the planes of yellow marble and the complexity of the mosaic surface. In Ravenna, they constructed buildings as though they were galleries meant to display mosaics, with bare wafls designed to permit the artist to create the largest, most complex compositions yet attempted in that exacting form of art. One last advantage is still evident today; the process is almost permanent. Unlike frescoes, which fade fairly rapidly, many of the mosaics in Ravenna have required no restoration, and shine as brightly today as in the sixth century.

The building that turned Theodoric to the use of mosaic for his churches and palaces was the tiny mausoleum of Gaila Placidia, probably the tomb of an emperor's daughter who had been married to a Visigothic prince. The architecture was simple, a cross of unadorned brick with very small windows. Its mosaics however are the loveliest possible introduction to the art that was the glory of Ravenna and later of Constantinople itself. The mosaic over the entrance to the mausoleum represents the good shepherd, a kindly protector, not feeding his sheep but patting them benevolently on the nose. He is dressed in a stunning robe with red piping and deep blue stripes that could appear unchanged at a present-day fashion show. In the center of the tiny chapel, one turns to look upward to the dome, the Dome of Heaven, lit up by almost eight hundred golden stars; these become smaller as the dome rises, increasing the sensation of the swirling distance wherein a gold cross symbolizes Redemption.


Theodoric called on the skilled mosaic artisans to decorate one of the most beautiful basilicas in Europe , Sant' Apollinare Nuovo. The church consists of a central aisle, with a narrow nave on each side separated by a line of columns, with a small semicircular apse at the east end. As one steps inside the central nave one at once feels the rushing, forward motion built up by the long line of columns surmounted by the figures in the mosaics above. On each side are twelve columns of Greek marble, topped by delicately carved capitals. The mosaic carries on the forward motion of the pillars. On the north side is a procession of twenty-two virgin martyrs, pre- ceded by a very lifelike group of the three Wise Men bringing gifts to the Madonna and the child Jesus. Again the clothes are amazingly modem. The three kings seem to be wearing stretch pants decorated with the most imaginative designs in orange and deep vermilion. Indeed, King Caspar seems to be wearing a pair of leopard-skin tights. We are a long way from the impersonality of Greek sculpture, and the three men, one brown-bearded, one white-bearded, and one clean-shaven, are hardly idealized pictures of piety. On the opposite side of the church, above a line of twenty-two male martyrs, there is a whole panoply of scenes, each one worth looking at in detail. Perhaps most moving of all is the scene of the paralytic being lowered on ropes from a roofless building to be healed by Christ below.



Theodoric died in 526. His successors lacked his skills, and in less than forty years, the Ostrogoths were driven from Italy by the army of the Eastern Roman emperor; they moved north of the Alps , and rather surprisingly disappeared from history. Thus, the Visigoths, the Ostrogoths, and the Vandals, who were largely responsible for the disappearance of the Roman Empire in the West, left little lasting trace. The Franks and the Anglo- Saxons, however, were to become the principal creators of medieval civilization.



or the House of Habsburg-Lorraine,

please see House of Lorraine.

 

For other uses, please see Habsburg (disambiguation).
House of Habsburg







Country

Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain-Italy, Hungary-Croatia, Bohemia, England-Ireland (Jure uxoris), Portugal, Bosnia and Slovenia



Titles

Emperor of the Romans
Emperor of Austria
King of Germany
Emperor of Mexico
King of Spain
King of Aragon
King of Sicily
King of Naples
King of Castile
King of Hungary
King of Bohemia
King of Croatia
King of England and Ireland
King of Portugal
King of Dalmatia
King of Galicia and Lodomeria
Archduke of Austria



Founding

11th century - Radbot, Count of Habsburg



Dissolution


Spain:
1700 - Charles II died without issue
Austria and Bohemia:
1780 - Maria Theresa, being the last member, died and succeeded by her son of the House of Lorraine


Cadet branches

Habsburg-Lorraine
Leopoldian line
Albertine line
Habsburg-Itúrbide


The House of Habsburg ( /'hæps.b?rg/; German pronunciation: ['ha?ps.b??k]), also incorrectly found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, but the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries.

A series of dynastic marriages[1] enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.

As a result of generations of Habsburg inbreeding, the House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century: The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V. The Austrian branch went extinct in the male person in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female person in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg.






Contents
[hide] 1 Principal roles
2 History 2.1 Counts of Habsburg
2.2 Kings of the Romans
2.3 Holy Roman Emperors
2.4 Division of the house: Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs
2.5 Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

3 Family tree
4 Main line 4.1 Ancestors
4.2 Counts of Habsburg
4.3 Dukes of Austria
4.4 Albertine line: Dukes of Austria
4.5 Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol


4.6 Reuniting of Habsburg possessions



4.7 Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria














5 Kings of Hungary 5.1 Albertine line: Kings of Hungary
5.2 Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary
5.3 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary

6 Kings of Bohemia 6.1 Main line
6.2 Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia
6.3 Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia
6.4 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

7 Queens Consort of France 7.1 Pre-division Habsburgs
7.2 Austrian Habsburgs
7.3 Spanish Habsburgs
7.4 Habsburg-Lorraine

8 Queens Consort of Portugal 8.1 Pre-division Habsburgs
8.2 Austrian Habsburgs
8.3 Habsburg-Lorraine

9 Empress Consort of Brazil 9.1 Habsburg-Lorraine

10 In popular culture
11 See also
12 Notes
13 Further reading
14 External links


[edit] Principal roles

Their principal roles were as:
King of the Romans
Holy Roman Emperors
King of Germany
Rulers of Austria (as Dukes 1282–1453, Archdukes)
Kings of Bohemia (1306–1307, 1437–1439, 1453–1457, 1526–1918),
Kings of Hungary and Croatia (1437–1439, 1445–1457, 1526–1918),
Kings of Spain (1516–1700),
Kings of Portugal (1580–1640),
Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772–1918), and
Grand Princes of Transylvania (1690–1867).

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

[edit] History

[edit] Counts of Habsburg





The Habsburg dominions around AD 1200 are shown as Habsburg, among the houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg




The Habsburg dominions within the Holy Roman Empire acquired before AD 1378 are shown as Habsburg, among the houses of Luxembourg and Wittelsbach
The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in Breisgau who lived in the 10th century. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. Most people assume the name to be derived from the High German Habichtsburg (Hawk Castle), but some historians and linguists are convinced that the name comes from the Middle High German word 'hab/ hap' meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.[2][3][4] The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.[5]

[edit] Kings of the Romans

By the second half of 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between Vosges mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273 Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.[5]

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged Privilegium Maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's descendants ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379.[5]

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans and received the name Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

[edit] Holy Roman Emperors

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. After several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. The Pope found in Frederick III an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement. While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. In contrast to Frederick, who was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.[5]

As Emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tirolian branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from Rhine to Murr and Leitha.[5]

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian.[5] The wedding, which took place on the evening of August 16, 1477, ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493. After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French, who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor", and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530, Emperor Charles V, became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.[6]

Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, including their colonies in America; Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries.[7] The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother, Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter, Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. As all the children were still minors, the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor became the King of Bohemia.

By the time of Charles V the "World Emperor" and his "empire on which the sun never sets", the Habsburg dynasty achieved, for the first and only time in their history, the position of a true world power.

[edit] Division of the house: Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs

After the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I by his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516–1556), the dynasty split into the junior branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the senior branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles' death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, while the senior Spanish branch ruled over the Spain and its colonial empire, the Netherlands, the Habsburgs' Italian possessions, and, for a time, Portugal. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699.





A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, and particularly in America.
In the secret Oñate treaty, the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs (Maria Theresa) had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine,[8] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) and their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

[edit] Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs





Charles II's family tree showing the large amount of inbreeding
The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages, with ultimately disastrous results for their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, likely due to "remote inbreeding".[9] The infamous Habsburg jaw was one such prominent manifestation of inbreeding.[10]

On August 6, 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on August 11, 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on May 18, 1804.

Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".

Under the terms of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 effective autonomy was given to Hungary (see Austria-Hungary). Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor. This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

On November 11, 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, Emperor Charles' eldest son, renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty's motto[citation needed] is "Let others wage wars, but you, happy Austria, marry!" (Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria, nube!), which indicates the knack of the Habsburgs to have their members intermarry into other royal houses, to make alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the "Great-Grandmother of Europe"[citation needed].

[edit] Family tree

This family tree only includes male scions of the direct House of Habsburg who survived to adulthood.



[edit] Main line

Before Rudolph rose to German king, the Habsburgs were Counts in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland.

[edit] Ancestors
Guntram the Rich (ca. 930–985 / 990) Father of:
Lanzelin of Altenburg (died 991). Besides Radbot, he had sons named Rudolph I, Wernher, and Landolf.

[edit] Counts of Habsburg
Radbot of Klettgau, built the Habsburg Castle (ca. 985–1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albrecht I.
Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025 / 1030–1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, who was reeve of Muri from 1111–1141 after the death of Otto II.
Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (died 1111) Father of:
Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; died 1167) Father of:
Albrecht III of Habsburg (the Rich), died 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Father of:
Rudolph II of Habsburg (b. c. 1160, died 1232) Father of:
Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (died 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

[edit] Dukes of Austria

In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they often ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria and the eastern part of Upper Austria. The Habsburg possessions also included Styria, and then expanded west to include Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria. The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.
Rudolph II, son of Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons.
Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also below.
Rudolph III, oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307
Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled.
Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308–1326.
Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326–1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335.
Otto the Jolly (der Fröhliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335.
Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358–1365, Duke of Tirol after 1363.

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

[edit] Albertine line: Dukes of Austria
Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions.
Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria 1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV.
Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria 1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438–1439 as Albert II. See also below.
Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.

[edit] Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol
Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach.
William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria)
Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria

[edit] Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line
Ernest the Iron (der Eiserne), 1406–1424 duke of Inner Austria, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV.
Frederick V (Friedrich), son of Ernst, became emperor Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund 1439–1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus 1440–1452. See also below.
Albert VI (Albrecht VI), brother of the above, 1446–1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 1458–1463
Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918

[edit] Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line
Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria
Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

[edit] Reuniting of Habsburg possessions

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.

[edit] King Consort of England
Philip II of Spain (King Consort with Mary I of England 1554–1558)

[edit] King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors previous to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions
Rudolph I, emperor 1273–1291 (never crowned)
Albert I, emperor 1298–1308 (never crowned)
Albert II, emperor 1438–1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia
Frederick III, emperor 1440–1493

[edit] Kings of Hungary previous to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions
Albert, king of Hungary 1437–1439
Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary 1444–1457

[edit] Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Maximilian I, emperor 1508–1519
Charles V, emperor 1519–1556





Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1580-1621 Version)
[edit] Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1580–1640)

See also: Portuguese House of Habsburg
Philip I of Castile, second son of Maximilian I, founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son:
Charles I 1516–1556, aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines
Philip II of Spain 1556–1598, also Philip I of Portugal 1580–1598 and Philip I of England and his wife Mary I of England 1554–1558
Philip III, also Philip II of Portugal 1598–1621
Philip IV 1621–1665, also Philip III of Portugal 1621–1640
Charles II 1665–1700

The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.

[edit] Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Ferdinand I, emperor 1556–1564 (?Family Tree)
Maximilian II, emperor 1564–1576
Rudolf II, emperor 1576–1612
Matthias, emperor 1612–1619
Ferdinand II, emperor 1619–1637
Ferdinand III, emperor 1637–1657 (?Family Tree)
Leopold I, emperor 1658–1705
Josef I, emperor 1705–1711
Charles VI, emperor 1711–1740
Maria Theresa of Austria, Habsburg heiress and wife of emperor Francis I Stephen, reigned as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia 1740–1780.

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Francis I Stephen, emperor 1745–1765 (?Family Tree)
Joseph II, emperor 1765–1790
Leopold II, emperor 1790–1792 (?Family Tree)
Francis II, emperor 1792–1806 (?Family Tree)

Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.

A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragança} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany
Francis Stephen 1737–1765 (later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor)

Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.
Peter Leopold 1765–1790 (later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor)
Ferdinand III 1790–1800, 1814–1824 (?Family Tree)
Leopold II 1824–1849, 1849–1859
Ferdinand IV 1859–1860

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy
Ferdinand IV 1860–1908
Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1908–1942
Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1942–1948
Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany 1948–1984
Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany 1948–1993
Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1993–Present

See Line of succession to the Tuscan Throne

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Dukes of Modena

The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification.
Francis IV 1814–1831, 1831–1846 (?Family Tree)
Francis V 1846–1848, 1849–1859

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy
Francis V (1859–1875)
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (1875–1914)
Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este (1914–1917)
Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1917–1996)
Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este (1996–Present)

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France
Marie Louise of Austria 1810–1814

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.
Maria Luisa 1814–1847 (?Family Tree)

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico

Maximilian, an adventurous younger son, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in "Cerro de las Campanas" in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.
Maximilian I (1864–1867) (?Family Tree)

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria
Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804–1835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (?Family Tree)
Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 1835–1848
Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 1848–1916.
Charles I, Emperor of Austria 1916–1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished.
Charles I (1918–1922) (?Family Tree)
Otto von Habsburg (1922–2007)
Zita of Bourbon-Parma, guardian, (1922–1930)
Karl von Habsburg, (2007–present)

see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne

[edit] Burials

Main article: Imperial Crypt, Vienna

[edit] Kings of Hungary

The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.

[edit] Albertine line: Kings of Hungary
Albert, king of Hungary 1437–1439
Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary 1444–1457

[edit] Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary
Ferdinand I, king of Hungary 1526–1564
Maximilian I, king of Hungary 1563–1576
Rudolf I, king of Hungary 1572–1608
Matthias II, king of Hungary 1608–1619
Ferdinand II, king of Hungary 1618–1637
Ferdinand III, king of Hungary 1625–1657
Ferdinand IV, king of Hungary 1647–1654
Leopold I, king of Hungary 1655–1705
Joseph I, king of Hungary 1687–1711
Charles III, king of Hungary 1711–1740

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary





Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary 1741–1780
Joseph II, king of Hungary 1780–1790
Leopold II, king of Hungary 1790–1792
Francis, king of Hungary 1792–1835
Ferdinand V, king of Hungary and Bohemia 1835–1848
Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 1867–1916
Charles IV, king of Hungary 1916–1918

[edit] Kings of Bohemia

The kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles.[citation needed] As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until rule of the Ferdinand I Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were shifted by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately.

[edit] Main line
Rudolph I, king of Bohemia 1306–1307

[edit] Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia
Albert, king of Bohemia 1437–1439
Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 1453–1457

[edit] Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia
Ferdinand I, king of Bohemia 1526–1564
Maximilian I, king of Bohemia 1563–1576
Rudolph II, king of Bohemia 1572–1611
Matthias, king of Bohemia 1611–1618
Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia 1621–1637
Ferdinand III, king of Bohemia 1625–1657
Ferdinand IV, king of Bohemia 1647–1654
Leopold I, king of Bohemia 1655–1705
Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1687–1711
Charles VI, king of Bohemia 1711–1740
Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia 1743–1780

[edit] House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

From the accession of Maria Theresa, the kingship of Bohemia became united with the Austrian possessions.
Joseph II, king of Bohemia 1780–1790
Leopold II, king of Bohemia 1790–1792
Francis, king of Bohemia 1792–1835
Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 1835–1848
Francis Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1848–1916
Charles III, king of Bohemia 1916–1918

[edit] Queens Consort of France

From the 16th through the 18th centuries, the greatest non-Habsburg power in Europe was usually France. As a result, in usually futile attempts to either unite Europe under the Habsburg family or to prevent French enmity, Habsburg daughters were wed to successive kings of France.

[edit] Pre-division Habsburgs
Eleanor of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1498–1558), wife of King Francis I of France.

[edit] Austrian Habsburgs
Elisabeth of Austria (1554–1592), wife of King Charles IX of France

[edit] Spanish Habsburgs
Anne of Austria, infanta of Spain, (1601–1666), wife of King Louis XIII
Maria Theresa of Spain (1638–1683), wife of King Louis XIV

[edit] Habsburg-Lorraine
Marie Antoinette (1755–1793), wife of King Louis XVI
Marie Louise (1791–1847), second wife of Emperor Napoleon I.

[edit] Queens Consort of Portugal

Due to its proximity (geographic, strategic and religious) the Habsburgs always consolidated their alliances with the Portuguese Royal House of Aviz, which gave them this Kingdom in 1580. When the Braganzas expelled the Spanish Habsburgs (1640), new alliances were set-up, this time with the Austrian Habsburgs.

[edit] Pre-division Habsburgs
Eleanor of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1498–1558), third wife of King Manuel I of Portugal. When she became a widow, she remarried, this time with King Francis I of France.
Catherine of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1507–1578), wife of King John III of Portugal

[edit] Austrian Habsburgs
Marie Anne, Archduchess of Austria (1683–1754), wife of King John V of Portugal

[edit] Habsburg-Lorraine
Marie Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797–1826), first wife of Peter I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Peter IV, King of Portugal. Marie Leopoldina was Marie Louise's younger sister.

[edit] Empress Consort of Brazil

[edit] Habsburg-Lorraine
Marie Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797–1826), first wife of Peter I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Peter IV, King of Portugal. Maria Leopoldina was also briefly Queen consort of Portugal, see above. She was politically active and acted as regent of the Empire of Brazil during her husband's absence from the imperial court in Rio de Janeiro. She had direct participation in the Brazilian Independence. Her son Dom Pedro II ruled Brazil as emperor and her daughter ruled Portugal as Queen Maria II of Portugal.

[edit] In popular culture

In the NBC sitcom 30 Rock episode "Black Tie" a "Gerhardt Habsburg" is presented as the last living member of the family. Gerhardt is wheelchair-bound and appears to be strongly afflicted with hereditary frailties and multiple medical conditions. In the episode the 25th birthday party for the prince is termed the social event of the year in New York City. Unfortunately the prince is inadvertently served champagne, and having a metabolism that is unable to handle grapes, Gerhardt dies, thus making the house of Habsburg extinct.

[edit] See also
A.E.I.O.U.
Austria-Hungary
Austrian Empire
Dukes of Lorraine family tree
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Habsburg family tree
Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Spain
Kings of Germany family tree. The Habsburgs were the 8th dynasty to rule Germany and were related by marriage to all the others.
Line of succession to the Tuscan Throne
List of rulers of Austria
List of rulers of Lorraine
Royal intermarriage
Mandibular prognathism ("Habsburg lip")
Mayerling Incident
Ottoman–Habsburg wars
Thirty Years' War

[edit] Notes

1.^ Paula Sutter Fichtner, "Dynastic Marriage in Sixteenth-Century Habsburg Diplomacy and Statecraft: An Interdisciplinary Approach," American Historical Review Vol. 81, No. 2 (April 1976), pp. 243-265 in JSTOR
2.^ "Habsburger-Gedenkjahr im Aargau", Neue Zürcher Zeitung, (page 17) 23 May 2008.
3.^ art-tv.ch
4.^ Kanton Aargau (German)
5.^ a b c d e f Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN 3406447546.
6.^ Erbe, Michael: Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa. W. Kohlhammer, 2000. ISBN 3170118668
7.^ Great Events from History, The Renaissance & Early Modern Era, Vol I, p. 112–114, author-Clare Callaghan, ISBN 1-58765-214-5.
8.^ Maria Theresa was originally engaged to Léopold Clément of Lorraine, older brother of Francis Stephan
9.^ Gonzalo Alvarez, Francisco C. Ceballos, Celsa Quinteiro, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Francisco C.; Quinteiro, Celsa; Bauchet, Marc (April 15, 2009). Bauchet, Marc. ed. "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLoS ONE (PLoS ONE) 4 (4): e5174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. PMC 2664480. PMID 19367331. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
10.^ https://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/333/fall/hapsburglip.html

[edit] Further reading
Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Clearfield, 1996.
Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (first published by Longmans in 1963)
Evans, Robert J. W. The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation. Clarendon Press, 1979.
McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. The Habsburgs. Doubleday, 1966.
Palmer, Alan. Napoleón and Marie Louise Ariel Mexico, 2003.
Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Press, 1975).







Wikimedia Commons has media related to: House of Habsburg

http://habsburg.yolasite.com/ The Habsburg Family Association
"Erzherzog Dr. Otto von Habsburg" (Autorisierte Ehrenseite) in German
Habsburg Biographies
Habsburg History
Habsburg Resource Centre on SurnameWeb
http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~stephan/Rulers/hapsburg3.html
Genealogical tree of the house of Habsburg (up until Maria Theresia)
The Hapsburg Monarchy (Wickham Steed, 1913)) eLibrary Austria Project full text (ebook)
Genealogy of the Habsburgs from Genealogy.eu
"Inbreeding caused demise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, new study reveals" (15 April 2009)
Family tree of the Kings of the House of Habsburg
 

 


Roman walls in Dacia




Sestertius minted to celebrate Dacia province and its legions
See also: Military of ancient Rome, Roman army, Roman legion, and Auxiliaries (Roman military)

An estimated 50,000 troops were stationed in Dacia at its height.[147][55]

At the close of Trajan’s first campaign in Dacia in 102, he stationed one legion at Sarmizegetusa Regia.[55] With the conclusion of Trajan’s conquest of Dacia, he stationed at least two legions in the new province – the Legio IV Flavia Felix positioned at Berzobis, and the Legio XIII Gemina stationed at Apulum.[55] It has been conjectured that there was a third legion stationed in Dacia at the same time, the Legio I Adiutrix. However, there is no evidence to indicate when or where it was stationed. Debate continues[timeframe?] over whether the legion was fully present, or whether it was only the vexillationes who were stationed in the province.[55]

Hadrian, the subsequent emperor, shifted the fourth legion (Legio IV Flavia Felix) from Berzobis to Singidunum in Moesia Superior, suggesting that Hadrian believed the presence of one legion in Dacia would be sufficient to ensure the security of the province.[55] The Marcomannic Wars that erupted north of the Danube forced Marcus Aurelius to reverse this policy, permanently transferring the Legio V Macedonica from Troesmis (modern Iglita in Romania)[148] in Moesia Inferior to Potaissa in Dacia.[55]

Epigraphic evidence attests to large numbers of auxiliary units stationed throughout the Dacian provinces during the Roman period; this has given the impression that Roman Dacia was a strongly militarized province.[55] Yet it seems to have been no more highly militarized than any of the other frontier provinces, like the Moesias, the Pannonias, and Syria, and the number of legions stationed in Moesia and Pannonia were not diminished after the creation of Dacia.[149][150] However, once Dacia was incorporated into the empire and the frontier was extended northward, the central portion of the Danube frontier between Novae and Durostorum was able to release much-needed troops to bolster Dacia’s defences.[151] Military documents report at least 58 auxiliary units, most transferred into Dacia from the flanking Moesian and Pannonian provinces, with a wide variety of forms and functions, including numeri, cohortes milliariae, quingenariae, and alae.[55] This does not imply that all were positioned in Dacia at the same time, nor that they were in place throughout the existence of Roman Dacia.[55]

[edit] Settlements

See also: Colonia (Roman), Municipium, Vicus (Rome), and Roman villa

When considering provincial settlement patterns, the Romanized parts of Dacia were composed of urban satus settlements, made up of coloniae, municipia, and rural settlements, principally villas with their associated latafundia and villages (vici).[152] The two principal towns of Roman Dacia, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Apulum, are on par with similar towns across the western empire in terms of socio-economic and architectural maturity.[153]





The amphitheatre at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa
The province had up to 12 Roman towns,[154][clarification needed] all originating from the military camps that Trajan constructed during his campaigns.[155] There were two sorts of urban settlements. Of principal importance were the coloniae, whose free-born inhabitants were almost exclusively Roman citizens. Of secondary importance were the municipia, which were allowed a measure of judicial and administrative independence.[156]
Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa was established by Trajan, was first to be given colonia status, and was the province’s only colonia deducta.[157] Its pre-eminence was guaranteed by its foundation charter and by its role as the administrative centre of the province, as well as its being granted Ius Italicum.[158]
Apulum began as one of Trajan’s legionary bases.[157] Almost immediately, the associated canabae legionis was established nearby, while at some point during the Trajanic period a civilian settlement sprang into existence along the Mures River, approximately four kilometres from the military encampment.[158] The town evolved rapidly, transforming from a vicus of Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa into a municipium during Marcus Aurelius’s reign, with the emperor Commodus elevating it to a colonia.[159] Transformed into the capital of Dacia Apulensis, its importance lay in being the location of the military high command for the tripartite province.[64] It began to rival Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa during the reign of Septimius Severus, who allocated a part of Apulum’s canabae with municipal status.[159]
Drobeta was the most important town of Dacia Inferior. Springing up in the vicinity of a stone camp housing 500 soldiers and established by Trajan to guard the northern approaches to Trajan's Bridge, the town was elevated by the emperor Hadrian to a municipium, holding the same rights as an Italian town.[160] During the middle 190s, Septimius Severus transformed the town into a fully-fledged colonia.[161]
Romula was possibly the capital of Dacia Malvensis. It held the rank of municipium, possibly under the reign of Hadrian, before being elevated to colonia status by Septimius Severus.[162]
Napoca was the possible location of the military high command in Dacia Porolissensis.[163] It was made a municipium by Hadrian, and Commodus transformed it into a colonia.[148]
Potaissa was the camp of the Legio V Macedonica during the Marcomannic Wars.[163] Potaissa saw a canabae established at the gates of the camp.[148] Granted municipium status by Septimius Severus, it became a colonia under Caracalla.[148]





The reconstructed gateway of the castrum in Porolissum Porolissum was situated between two camps, and laid alongside a walled frontier defending the main passageway through the Carpathian mountains. It was transformed into a 'municipium during Septimius Severus’s reign.[164]
Dierna (Orsova, Romania), Tibiscum (Jupa, Romania), and Ampelum (Zlatna, Romania) were important Roman towns.[165] Although the biggest mining town in the region, Ampelum’s legal status is unknown.[166] Dierna was a customs station which was granted municipium status by Septimus Severus.[167]
Sucidava (modern Corabia, Romania) was a town located at the site of an earthwork camp. Erected by Trajan, Sucidava was neither large enough nor important enough to be granted municipium or colonia status. The town remained a pagus or perhaps a vicus.[167]

It is often difficult to define the boundary between “Romanized” villages and sites that fall under the category of “small towns”.[168] Therefore, identifying such sites has tended to focus on those beyond a purely subsistence economic level and, at least in part, involved in trade and industry.[169][clarification needed] Additional settlements along the principal route within Roman Dacia are mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana. These include Brucla, Blandiana, Germisara, Petris, and Aquae.[170] Both Germisara and Aquae were sites where natural thermal springs were accessible, and each are still functioning today.[171] The locations of Brucla, Blandiana, and Petris are not known for certain.[171] In the case of Petris however, there is good reason to suppose it was located at Uroi in Romania. If this were the case, it would have been a crucial site for trade, as well as being a vital component in facilitating communication from one part of the province to another.[172]

It is assumed that Roman Dacia possessed a large number of military vici, settlements with connections to the entrenched military camps.[172] This hypothesis has not been tested, as few such sites have been surveyed in any detail. However, in the mid-Mures valley, associated civilian communities have been uncovered next to the auxiliary camps at Orastioara de Sus, Cigmau, modern Ocna Mures, and Micia.[172] A small amphitheatre was discovered at Micia.[62]

The pattern of settlement in the Mures valley demonstrates a shift towards nucleated settlements.[173][further explanation needed] In central Dacia, somewhere between 10 and 28 villages have been identified as aggregated settlements whose primary function was agricultural.[174] The settlement layouts broadly fall between two principal types.[174] The first are those constructed in a traditional fashion, such as Radesti, Vintu de Jos, and Obreja. These show generally sunken houses in the Dacian manner, with some dwellings having evolved to becoming surface timber buildings. The second settlement layout followed Roman settlement patterns.[174]

The identification of villa sites within central Dacia is incomplete, as it is for the majority of the province.[175] There are under 30 sites[clarification needed] throughout the province which appear on published heritage lists, but this is felt to be a gross underestimation.[175]

[edit] Economy

With the Roman army ensuring the maintenance of the Pax Romana, Roman Dacia prospered until the Crisis of the Third Century. Dacia evolved from a semi-barbarized (in relative terms), principally rural society and economy to one of material advancement comparable to other Roman provinces.[147] There were more coins in circulation in Roman Dacia than in the adjacent provinces.[176]

The region’s natural resources generated considerable wealth for the empire, becoming one of the major producers of grain, particularly wheat.[120] Linking into Rome’s monetary economy, bronze Roman coinage was eventually produced in Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa[154] by about 250 AD (previously Dacia seems to have been supplied with coins from central mints).[176] The establishment of Roman roads throughout the province facilitated economic growth.[154]

Local gold mines provided another incentive for Dacia’s incorporation into the empire.[100] Dalmatian miners were brought in to operate the gold mines in the Bihor Mountains, adding to the imperial coffers.[120] At Alburnus Maior the gold mines flourished between 131 and 167 AD, but over time they began to see diminishing returns as the local gold reserves were exploited.[58] Evidence points to the closure of the gold mines around the year 215 AD.[167]

Dacia also possessed salt, iron, silver, and copper mines dating back to the period of the Dacian kings[120]. The region also held large quantities of building-stone materials, including schist, sandstone, andesite, limestone, and marble.[58]

Towns became key centres of manufacturing.[177] Bronze casting foundries existed at Porolissum, Romula, and Dierna; there was a brooch workshop located in Napoca, while weapon smithies have been identified in Apulum.[177] Glass manufacturing factories have been uncovered in Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Tibiscum.[177] Villages and rural settlements continued to specialise in craftwork, including pottery, and sites such as Micasasa could possess 26 kilns and hundreds of moulds for the manufacture of local terra sigillata.[177]

[edit] Religion

See also: Religion in ancient Rome, Imperial cult (ancient Rome), and Interpretatio Romana

Inscriptions and sculpture in Dacia reveal a wide variety in matters of religion. Deities of the official state religion of Rome appear alongside those originating in Greece, Asia Minor, and Western Europe;[178] of these, 43.5% have Latin names.[1] The major gods of the Roman pantheon are all represented in Dacia:[178] Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Venus, Apollo, Liber, Libera, and others.[179] The Roman god Silvanus was of unusual importance, second only to Jupiter.[180] He was frequently referred to in Dacia with the titles silvester and domesticus, which were also used in Pannonia.[181]

About 20% of Dacian inscriptions refer to Eastern cults such as that of Cybele and Attis, along with more than 274 dedications to Mithras, who was most popular among soldiers.[182] The cult of the Thracian Rider was imported from Thrace and Moesia.[182] The Gallic horse goddess Epona is attested in Dacia, as are the Matronae.[182]

While the Dacians worshiped local divinities,[129] there is no evidence of any Dacian deity entering the Roman pantheon of gods,[129] and there is no evidence of any Dacian deity worshiped under a Roman name.[183] It may be that the Dacians lacked an anthropomorphic conception of deity,[178] and that the Thraco-Dacian religion was characterized by aniconism comparable to that of Judaism and Islam.[dubious – discuss] Dacian citadels dated to the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus have yielded no statues in their sanctuaries.[178] With the destruction of the main Dacian sacred site during Trajan’s wars of conquest, no other site took its place. However, there were other cult sites of local spiritual significance, such as Germisara, which continued to be used during the Roman period, although religious practices at these sites were somewhat altered by Romanization, including the application of Roman names to the local spirits.[129]

Highly Romanized urban centres brought with them Roman funerary practices, which differed significantly from those pre-dating the Roman conquest.[184] Archaeological excavations have uncovered funerary art principally attached to the urban centres. Such excavations have shown that stelae were the favoured style of funerary memorial. However, other more sophisticated memorials have also been uncovered, including aediculae, tumuli, and mausoleums. The majority were highly decorated, with sculptured lions, medallions, and columns adorning the structures.[185]

This appears to be an urban feature only – the minority of cemeteries excavated in rural areas display burial sites that have been identified as Dacian, and some have been conjectured to be attached to villa settlements, such as Deva, Salasu de Sus, and Cincis.[184]

Traditional Dacian funerary rites survived the Roman period and continued into the post-Roman era,[42] during which time the first evidence of Christianity begins to appear.[178]

[edit] Last decades of Dacia Traiana (235–271/275)

See also: Maximinus Thrax, Philip the Arab, Gallienus, Aurelian, and Dacia Aureliana

The 230s saw the end of the final peaceful period experienced in Roman Dacia.[186] The discovery of a large stockpile of Roman coins (around 8,000) at Romula, issued during the reigns of Commodus and Elagabalus, who was killed in 222 AD, has been taken as evidence that the province was experiencing problems before the mid-3rd century.[187] Traditionally, the accession of Maximinus Thrax (235-238) marks the start of a 50-year period of disorder in the Roman Empire, during which the militarization of the government inaugurated by Septimius Severus continued apace and the debasement of the currency brought the empire to bankruptcy.[188] As the 3rd century progressed, it saw the continued migration of the Goths, whose movements had already been a cause of the Marcomannic Wars,[189] and whose travels south towards the Danubian frontier continued to put pressure on the tribes who were already occupying this territory.[190] Between 236 and 238, Maximinus Thrax campaigned in Dacia against the Carpi,[191] only to rush back to Italy to deal with a civil war.[192] While Gordian III eventually emerged as Roman Emperor, the confusion in the heart of the empire allowed the Goths, in alliance with the Carpi, to take Histria in 238 AD[193] before sacking the economically important commercial centres along the Danube Delta.[194]





Emperor Philip the Arab (244-249)
Unable to deal militarily with this incursion, the empire was forced to buy peace in Moesia, paying an annual tribute to the Goths; this infuriated the Carpi who also demanded a payment subsidy.[193] Emperor Philip the Arab (244-249) ceased payment in 245 AD[195] and the Carpi invaded Dacia the following year, attacking the town of Romula in the process.[187] The Carpi probably burned the camp at Racari between 243 and 247.[100] Evidence suggests the defensive line of the Limes Transalutanus was probably abandoned during Philip the Arab’s reign, as a result of the incursion of the Carpi into Dacia.[100] Ongoing raids forced the emperor to leave Rome and take charge of the situation.[196] The mother of the future emperor Galerius fled Dacia Malvensis at around this time before settling in Moesia Inferior.[197]


But the other Maximian (Galerius), chosen by Diocletian for his son-in-law, was worse, not only than those two princes whom our own times have experienced, but worse than all the bad princes of former days. In this wild beast there dwelt a native barbarity and a savageness foreign to Roman blood; and no wonder, for his mother was born beyond the Danube, and it was an inroad of the Carpi that obliged her to cross over and take refuge in New Dacia.

—Lactantius: Of the Manner in which the Persecutors Died – Chapter IX[198]

At the end of 247 the Carpi were decisively beaten in open battle and sued for peace;[199] Philip the Arab took the title of Carpicus Maximus.[200] Regardless of these victories, Dacian towns began to take defensive measures. In Sucidava, the townspeople hurriedly erected a trapezoidal stone wall and defensive ditch, most likely the result of a raid by the barbarian tribes around 246 or 247 AD. In 248 AD, Romula enhanced the wall surrounding the settlement, again most likely as an additional defensive barrier against the Carpi.[187] An epigraph uncovered in Apulum salutes the emperor Decius (reigned 249-251 AD) as restitutor Daciarum, the “restorer of Dacia”.[201] On July 1, 251 Decius and his army were killed by the Goths during their defeat in the Battle of Abrittus (modern Razgard, Bulgaria).[202] Firmly entrenched in the territories along the lower Danube and the Black Sea’s western shore, their presence affected both the non-Romanized Dacians (who fell into the Goth's sphere of influence)[203] and Imperial Dacia, as the client system that surrounded the province and supported its existence began to break apart.[204]


Decius appeared in the world, an accursed wild beast, to afflict the Church, – and who but a bad man would persecute religion? It seems as if he had been raised to sovereign eminence, at once to rage against God, and at once to fall; for, having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia and Moesia, he was suddenly surrounded by the barbarians, and slain, together with great part of his army; nor could he be honored with the rites of sepulture, but, stripped and naked, he lay to be devoured by wild beasts and birds, – a fit end for the enemy of God.

—Lactantius: Of the Manner in which the Persecutors Died – Chapter IV[205]





Emperor Gallienus (260-268)
Continuing pressures during the reign of the emperor Gallienus (253-268 AD) and the fracturing of the western half of the empire between himself and Postumus in Gaul after 260 meant that Gallienus’s attention was principally focused on the Danubian frontier.[206] Repeated victories over the Carpi and associated Dacian tribes enabled him to claim the title Dacicus Maximus.[207] However, literary sources from antiquity (Eutropius,[208][209] Aurelius Victor,[210] and Festus[26]) write that Dacia was lost under his reign.[211] He transferred from Dacia to Pannonia a large percentage of the cohorts from the fifth Macedonica and thirteenth Gemina legions.[190] The latest coins at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Porolissum bear his effigy, [212] and the raising of inscribed monuments in the province virtually ceased in 260 AD,[213] the year that marked the temporary breakup of the empire.[214]


Even the territories across the Danube, which Trajan had secured, were lost.

—Aurelius Victor: De Caesaribus[210][215]





Emperor Aurelian (270-275)
Coins were minted during the restoration of the empire circa 270 under Aurelian which bear the inscription “DACIA FELIX” (“Happy Dacia”).[216] The pressing need to deal with the Palmyrene Empire meant Aurelian needed to settle the situation along the Danube frontier.[217] Reluctantly, and possibly only as a temporary measure, he decided to abandon the province.[217] The traditional date for Dacia's official abandonment is 271;[218] another view is that Aurelian evacuated his troops and civilian administration during 272-273,[219] possibly as late as 275.[220]


The province of Dacia, which Trajan had formed beyond the Danube, he gave up, despairing, after all Illyricum and Moesia had been depopulated, of being able to retain it. The Roman citizens, removed from the town and lands of Dacia, he settled in the interior of Moesia, calling that Dacia which now divides the two Moesiae, and which is on the right hand of the Danube as it runs to the sea, whereas Dacia was previously on the left.

—Eutropius: Abridgement of Roman History[208][209]

The end result was that Aurelian established a new province of Dacia[219] called Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica, previously belonging to Lower Moesia.[221][222] A portion of the Romanized population settled in the new province south of the Danube.[223]

[edit] After the Roman withdrawal

Main articles: Romania in the Early Middle Ages and Origin of the Romanians

See also: Diocletian and Constantine I

[edit] Settlement of the Tervingi





Emperor Diocletian (284-305)
The emperor Galerius once voiced a complaint which the Romans had long been aware of: that the Danube was the most challenging of all the empire’s frontiers.[224] Aside from its enormous length, great portions of it did not suit the style of fighting which the Roman legions preferred.[225] To protect the provinces south of the Danube, the Romans retained military forts on the northern bank of the Danube long after the withdrawal from Dacia Traiana.[112] Aurelian kept a foothold at Drobeta, while a segment of the Thirteenth Legion (Legio XIII Gemina) was posted in Desa until at least 305 AD.[112] Coins bearing the image of emperor Gratian (reign 375-383 AD) have been uncovered at Dierna, possibly indicating that the town continued to function after the Roman withdrawal.[226]

In the years immediately after the withdrawal, Roman towns survived, albeit on a reduced level. [227] The previous tribes which had settled north of the Danube, such as the Sarmatians, Bastarnae, Carpi, and Quadi were increasingly pressured by the arrival of the Vandals in the north, while the Gepids and the Goths pressured them from the east and the northeast.[225] This forced the older tribes to push into Roman territory, weakening the empire’s already stretched defences further. To gain entry into the empire, the tribes alternated between beseeching the Roman authorities to allow them in, and intimidating them with the threat of invasion if their requests were denied.[225] Ultimately, the Bastarnae were permitted to settle in Thrace, while the Carpi which survived were permitted to settle in the new province of Pannonia Valeria west of their homeland.[224] However, the Carpi were neither destroyed by other barbarian tribes, nor fully integrated into the Roman imperium. Those who survived on the borders of the empire were apparently called Carpodacae (“Carps from Dacia”).[228]

By 291 AD the Goths had recovered from their defeat at the hands of Aurelian, and began to move into what had been Roman Dacia.[229] When the ancestors of the Tervingi migrated into north-eastern Dacia, they were opposed by the Carpi and the non-Romanized Dacians. Defeating these tribes, they came into conflict with the Romans, who still attempted to maintain control along the Danube. Some of the semi-Romanized population remained and managed to co-exist with the Goths.[141] By 295 AD, the Goths had managed to defeat the Carpi and establish themselves in Dacia, now called Gothia;[230] the Romans recognised the Tervingi as a Foederatus.[231] They occupied what was the eastern portion of the old province and beyond, from Bessarabia on the Dniester in the east to Oltenia in the west.[232] Until the 320s the Goths kept the terms of the treaty and proceeded to settle down in the former province of Dacia, and the Danube had a measure of peace for nearly a generation.[231]

Around 295 AD, the emperor Diocletian reorganized the defences along the Danube, and established fortified camps on the far side of the river, from Sirmium to Ratiaria and Durostorum.[233] These camps were meant to provide protection of the principal crossing points across the river, to permit the movement of troops across the river, and to function as observation points and bases for waterborne patrols.[234]

[edit] Late Roman incursions





Emperor Constantine I (306-337)
During the reign of Constantine I, the Tervingi took advantage of the civil war between him and Licinius to attack the empire in 323 AD from their settlements in Dacia.[235] They supported Licinius until his defeat in 324; he was fleeing to their lands in Dacia when he was apprehended.[235] As a result, Constantine focused on aggressively pre-empting any barbarian activity on the frontier north of the Danube.[236] By 328 AD, he had constructed at Sucidava a new bridge across the Danube,[237] and repaired the road from Sucidava to Romula.[238] He also erected a military fort at Daphne (Spantov).[239]

In early 336, Constantine personally led his armies across the Danube and crushed the Gothic tribes which had settled there, in the process recreating a Roman province north of the Danube.[240] In honor of this achievement, the Senate granted him the title of Dacicus Maximus, and celebrated it along with the 30th anniversary of his accession as Roman Emperor in mid 336.[240] The granting of this title has been seen by scholars such as Timothy Barnes as implying some level of reconquest of Roman Dacia.[241] However, the bridge at Sucidava lasted less than 40 years, as the emperor Valens discovered when he attempted to use it to cross the Danube during his campaign against the Goths in 367 AD.[237] Nevertheless, the castra at Sucidava remained in use until its destruction at the hands of Attila the Hun in 447 AD.[237]

Driven off their lands in Oltenia, the Tervingi moved towards Transylvania and came into conflict with the Sarmatians.[242] In 334, the Sarmatians asked Constantine for military help, after which he allowed the majority of them to settle peacefully south of the Danube.[243] The Roman armies inflicted a crushing defeat on the Tervingi.[242] The Tervingi signed a treaty with the Romans, giving a measure of peace until 367.[244]

The last major Roman incursion into the former province of Dacia occurred in 367 AD, when the emperor Valens used a diplomatic incident to launch a major campaign against the Goths.[245] Hoping to regain the trans-Danubian beachhead which Constantine had successfully established at Sucidava,[246] Valens launched a raid into Gothic territory after crossing the Danube near Daphne around May 30; they continued until September without any serious engagements.[247] He tried again in 368 AD, setting up his base camp at Carsium, but was hampered by a flood on the Danube.[248] He therefore spent his time rebuilding Roman forts along the Danube. In 369, Valens crossed the river into Gothia, and this time managed to engage the Tervingi, defeating them, and granting them peace on Roman terms.[249]

This was the final attempt by the Romans to maintain a presence in the former province. Soon after, the westward push by the Huns put increased pressure on the Tervingi, who were forced to abandon the old Dacian province and seek refuge within the Roman Empire.[250] Mismanagement of this request resulted in the death of Valens and the bulk of the eastern Roman army at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 AD.

[edit] Controversy over the fate of the "Daco-Romans"

It had long[quantify] been conjectured that the population of Dacia Traiana was moved south when Aurelian abandoned the province.[251][252] The fate of the Romanized Dacians, and the subsequent origin of the Romanians became mired in controversy, stemming from political considerations originating during the 18th and 19th centuries between Romanian nationalists and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[253][42]

One theory states that the process which formed the Romanian people began with the Romanization of Dacia and the existence of a Daco-Roman populace which did not completely abandon the province after the Roman withdrawal in 275 AD.[254] Archaeological evidence obtained from burial sites and settlements supports the contention that a portion of the native population continued to inhabit what was Roman Dacia.[255] Pottery remains dated to the years after 271 AD in Potaissa,[148] and Roman coinage of Marcus Claudius Tacitus and Crispus (son of Constantine I) uncovered in Napoca demonstrate the continued survival of these towns.[256] In Porolissum, Roman coinage began to circulate again under Valentinian I (364-375); meanwhile, local Daco-Romans continued to inhabit Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, fortifying the amphitheatre against barbarian raids.[212] According to this theory, the Romanian people continued to develop under the influence of the Roman empire until the beginning of the 6th century, and as long as the empire held territory on the southern bank of the Danube and in Dobrudja, it influenced the region to the river’s north.[254] This process was facilitated by the trading of goods and the movement of peoples across the river.[254] Roman towns endured in Dacia’s middle and southern regions, albeit reduced in size and wealth.

The competing theory states that the transfer of Dacia’s diminished population overlapped with the requirement to repopulate the depleted Balkans.[257] Although it is possible that some Daco-Romans remained behind, these were few in number.[258] Toponymic changes tend to support a complete withdrawal from Roman Dacia, as the names for Roman towns, forts, and settlements fell completely out of use.[259] Nearly two centuries[timeframe?] of archaeological investigations have failed to uncover definitive proof that a large proportion of the Daco-Romans remained in Dacia after the evacuation;[260] for example, traffic in Roman coins in the former province after 271 show similarities to modern Slovakia and the steppe in what is today Ukraine.[261] On the other hand, linguistic data and place names[262] attest to the beginnings of the Romanian language in Lower Moesia, or other provinces south of the Danube of the Roman Empire.[263] Toponymic analysis of place-names in Dacia suggests that the Slavs possibly took at least some place-names from an un-Romanized Dacian population.[264][dubious – discuss]

According to those who posit the continued existence of a Romanized Dacian population after the Roman withdrawal, Aurelian’s decision to abandon the province was solely a military decision with respect to moving the legions and auxiliary units to protect the Danubian frontier.[265] The civilian population of Roman Dacia did not treat this as a prelude to a coming disaster; there was no mass emigration from the province, no evidence of a sudden withdrawal of the civilian population, and no widespread damage to property in the aftermath of the military withdrawal.[265]




THE DACIANS


THE AGATHYRSI

Agathyrsoi is the name of the first people living in Transylvania, that has been historically recorded. They are described by Herodotus (iv. 104) as of luxurious habits, wearing gold ornaments (the district is still auriferous) and having wives in common.

"The Agathyrsi are a race of men very luxurious, and very fond of wearing gold on their persons... In other respects their customs approach nearly to those of the Thracians" (Herodotus - Histories, IV.104).

They tattooed their bodies (picti, Aeneid iv. 136), degrees of rank being indicated by the manner in which this was done, and coloured their hair dark blue. Like the Gallic Druids, they recited their laws in a kind of sing-song to prevent their being forgotten, a practice still in existence in the days of Aristotle (Problemata, xix. 28). Valerius Flaccus (Argonautica, vi. 135) calls them Thyrsagetae, probably in reference to their celebration of orgiastic rites in honour of some divinity akin to the Thracian Dionysus. According to German researcher Eichwald, Thyrsagetae are the ‘Getae of the Tyras River’(Dniester River).
The name Agathyrsus means "Much raging". However, the thyrsus was the staff shown, after 530 BC, as a stalk of giant fennel (narthex) segmented like bamboo, sometimes with ivy leaves inserted in the hollow end. Maenads (Bacchae) were depicted and described using them as weapons. It is believed that the vineyards and the wine preparation were developed by the Agathyrsi.

The Agathyrsi brought into Dacia the cults of the sun-god Apollo, of the fire goddess Tabiti/Vesta and of the war god Ares/Mars.

Herodotus also mentioned Spargapeithes, a king who most probably lived during the middle of the 5th century B.C. The Agathyrsi (Agatirsi) supplied neighbouring regions with metal works (mirrors, quiver and more). Aristoteles last mentioned these people in the 4th century B.C. with praise for their strict laws. During the 3rd century B.C. in addition to the Agathyrsi, the name of Dacian "Kotiner" surfaced. Tacitus, a Roman historian (A.D. 100) reported on their iron ore mining.

The original dwellers of the province of Vojvodina, which forms Serbia's most northern border, are believed to be the Agathyrsi and Illyrians, later the Dacians, Thracians and Celts.
Herodotus mentions Schilis, the son of Ariapithes and Ophys, "woman from the Danube" who lived together with the Agathyrsi. (Histories, IV.79).

It is believed that the Agathyrsi were of Iranian origin and became a dominant class ruling the northern Thracians from the Mures valley. Archeological evidence (Vasile Pârvan - Getica, Al.Vulpte - Memoria antiquitatis, II, 1970), confirmed Herodot, proving the existence of associations of Iranian and Thracian forms in the culture of the inhabitants of the central Transylvania.
The main fortress of Agathyrsi, dating from the iron age and covering an area of nearly 30 ha, was discovered on the hills on the right banks of the Mures river, at Teleac, located at 4 km from Alba Iulia.

While was in Skythia, Herakles, according to Herodotos, awoke one morning to find that his chariot-horses had disappeared; he came to the cave of Echidna, a viper-maiden (a woman from the buttocks up and a serpent below), who told him that she had the horses but would not give them back unless he spent the night with her. Herakles stayed long enough to have three sons by the viper-maiden, who finally returned his horses and asked him what she should do with their children. Herakles gave her a bow (he always carried two) and a belt with a small gold cup attached, and showed her how he strung the bow and put on the belt; he then told her to send away any of the boys who could not duplicate what he had done. When the children grew up she named the eldest Agathyrsos, the next Gelonos, and the youngest Skythes, and tested them as Herakles had instructed. The first two failed the tasks, but Skythes succeeded and became the eponymous ancestor of the Skythians, who ever afterwards wore belts with little cups attached, in honor of their ancestor Herakles.
This legend confirms the common origin of the Agathyrsi and Skythes, archeologically proven to be Iranian.

The name of the last Dacian king, Decebal seems to be of Assyrian origin: Baal = lord, Dece = Dacia, thus Decebal = "Lord of Dacia". Another Assyrian word used by Dacians, and preserved into Romanian language is ban, meaning governor, ruler. It appears into the name of an Alan king called Sangibanus and into the name of the Assirian king Assur-ban-ipal known also as Ashur-Ban-Apli (reigned 668 to 627 BC). Assur means country, ban means son, and apli means creates, the meaning of the name being "the country creates a son". The title "ban" probably meant prince in Dacia.

In the 15th century BC the Hurrian area ranging from the Iranian mountains to Syria was united into a state called Mitanni. In the middle of the 14th century, the resurgent Hittite Empire under Suppiluliumas I defeated Mitanni and reduced its king, Mattiwaza, to vassalage, while Assyria seized the opportunity to reassert its independence.

The crescent was frequently represented on the Dacian shields depicted on the Trajan's column.
The Roman nobility wore crescent-shaped ornaments on their shoes (Plutarch, Moralia, 282a).
It was also the symbol of the Assirian god Sin also called Nanna or Nannar.

All the above suggest that Decebal (Decebalus), the Dacian king who fought with Trajan, was of Agathyrs origin and that the Agathyrsi were of Hurrian origin rather than Iranian.

THE SARMATIANS

A way used to identify the presence of Sarmatians was according to the skulls and to the north-south orientation of their tombs. At the Babashov necropolis, located on the right bank of Amu Darya, not far from the Bishkek valley, all graves are oriented to the north and usually they are individual. The objects accompanying the dead are few - one or two earthenware pots, and little meat (almost exclusively mutton). About 50% of the skulls are artificially deformed.
In Romania were found two two Sarmatian cemeteries containing artificially deformed skulls. One was at the site of Tirgsor, which contained a total of twenty skeletons, dated between 300 and 500 AD and identified as Sarmatians. The site presents also the unusual case where 50% of the population have been artificially deformed. This percent raises the question of a gender related practice. The second Sarmatian cemetery, found in Dobrogea (Dobruja), is a necropilis containing 811 tombs, many of them having the skull artificially deformed. This confirms the presence of Sarmatians in the southeastern Romania. It is believed that the Sarmatians settled in Dobrogea served into the Roman army, after 340 AD, contributing to the barbarization of the Roman army.
South of Dobrogea, the excavations of the Old Bulgarian necropolis No 1 near Devnja, Bulgaria found a grave (No 91), strikingly similar to these from the Amu Darya basin.

Between 1992 and 1995, collaborative American-Russian excavations at Pokrovka unearthed over 150 burials in five cemeteries. The skeletal material from the Sauromatians and Sarmatians was aged and sexed by two physical anthropologists. The artifacts were placed in three status categories:
• Hearth person: large quantities of valuable beads and spiral earrings
• Priest or priestess: carved-stone and clay sacrificial altars, fossilized sea shells, carved-bone spoons, colored mineral ores (shades of red, yellow, black and white), complete bronze mirrors, and objects embellished with animal style representations
• Warrior: arrowheads, quivers, swords, daggers, and amulets denoting prowess
The diagnostic artifacts from female burials reveal three female statuses:
(1) Hearth women, 75% of the female population, were noted for their wealth of artifacts. Many females wore earrings; the only type found at Pokrovka was three-spiraled bronze, covered with gold foil. (The Dacians also had hearth women wearing golden spiraled bracelets)
(2) Priestesses, 7% of the total female population.
(3) Warriors, 15% of the total female population. The burial of one young female warrior contained 40 bronze arrowheads in a quiver and an iron dagger. Two amulets provided prowess: a large boar's tusk drilled for suspension (which,based upon modern anthropology, may have been worn around her waist on a special cord), and a single bronze arrowhead in a leather bag around her neck. She also had two sea shells and a natural stone in the shape of a sea shell.

The Greek name Sarmatos (Sarmatian) meant horseman, from "sar" = horse into Sarmatian. The Sarmatian word "sar" was preserved into Romanian compound words:
- armasar (R) = admissarius (Latin) = stallion. The Romanian word is composed of "arma" (weapon) and "sar" (lost word meaning stallion). The word designates the horse used in combat, capable to carry heavy armed horseman. The Latin correspondent is not a compound word, suggesting it was adopted from Dacian.
- samsar (R) = person who carried the collected tribute (old Romanian sama = tribute, tax) by horse (sar) caravan. The term took later the meaning of middle man, negotiator.
- saragea (R) = mounted (sar) Turkish chieftain (agea/aga).

The draco/dracones Standard was originally developed by the cavalry peoples of the steppes, such as the Sarmatians and the Alans, but also by the Parthians and the Sassanid Persians. It may have been used primarily to determine the wind-direction for the horse archers.
Some Sassanid dracos were represented on the 5th century A.D. on a Coptic wall painting from Kharga Oasis, Egypt.
The one draco standard is represented, on the Trajan's Column, nearby a typical "fish-scale" Sarmatian Lamella armor and close to a Dacian helmet, closely resembling a Dacian cap, known usually as Phrygian cap.
Later representations of the draco standard used by horseman wearing Sarmatian Lamella armor are found on the Arch of Galerius (311AD), on a Roman funeral stele from Chester and on the Bayeux Tapestry, commemorating the Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066), where the draco standard is used in the scene depicting Harold's death by an arrow.
The helmet of the horseman from the Chester stele has the same nose protection like the helmets used by the Saxons in the battle of Hastings.
The above evidence indicates the Sarmatian Cavalry was latter used by the Romans in England, where the Saxons adopted their armor and standard.

Tacitus (c. AD 50), Pliny (AD 69-75) and the 2nd century Geography of Ptolemy (book 5, 9.21) are mentioning the Serboi to designate a tribe dwelling in Sarmatia, probably on the Lower Volga River. This tribe came and settled to the south of the Danube, where it established a kingdom that, after the Slavic migration, became known as Serbia.

By the middle of the 2nd century B.C. the Sarmatians became known in Europe as the Iazyges and Roxolani, and those remaining to the cast, the Alans. It is believed that Sarmatian success against the Scythians was due to the creation of a force of super-heavy cavalry, both man and horse being completely armoured in some of the formations. The Sarmatian Roxolani became firm allies of the Dacians, supplying them with the only heavy cavalry force in the Dacian army.
In the 2nd century AD appears the first references to a low-tech variant of Sarmatian scale armour from horse-hooves or horn. This is mentioned for the first time by the travel writer Pausanias , who states that such materials were employed because of the Sarmatians lack of access to Iron. Pausanias goes on to describe a Sarmatian cuirass made of horse hooves, then preserved at the temple of Aesculapius in Athens:
"They collect hooves and clean them out and split them down to make them like snake-scales you will not go far wrong if you think of this hoof-work like the notches of a pine-cone. They bore holes in these scales and sew them with horse and cattle hair to make breast plates no less good looking then Greek ones, and no weaker: they stand up to striking and shooting from close range."
Similar scale armour of horn is mentioned by Ammianus worn by Sarmatians who were raiding Pannonia and Moesia in AD 358: These people, better fitted for brigandage then for open warfare, have very long spears ( hastae ) and cuirasses made from smooth, polished pieces of horn, fastened like scales to linen shirts. Virtually no trace of amour made from scales of horn , hoof or hardened leather has so far been hound in Sarmatian burials.
The Sarmatians were the main allies of the Dacians. The name of the main Dacian fortress, Sarmizegetusa, means the fortress of the Sarmatians (Sarmize) and Getae (Getusa), suggesting that it was built by Sarmatians and Dacians (Getae). Another similar name is Sargetia: "The treasures of Decebalus were also discovered, though hidden beneath the river Sargetia, which ran past his palace"(Cassius Dio, Roman History, Epitome of Book LXVIII, 14). This is suggesting that the Dacian treasure, buried in the bed of Sargetia river, belonged both to Sarmatians and Getae. Sargetia river is called now Apa Orasului, meaning "the water of the city", being the closest water to the Dacian capital, Sarmizegetusa. Most probably, many Sarmatians belonged to Dacian ruling class.

THE DACIAN TRIBES

Also known as Getae, the Dacians were an amalgamation of Thracian tribes who created a formidable state on the eastern confines of the Greco-Roman world. Their neighbours to the north-west were the Germanic tribes, to the north-east the Scythians, to the west the Celts, in Pannonia and to the south-west of the Danube the Illyrians, and to the south the Greeks. The Dacians were a Thracian people, but Dacia was occupied also by Daco-Germans, and in the north-cast by Celto-Dacians.

The Greek geographer Claudios Ptolemaios mentions twelve Dacian tribes. Of them, the most known is the tribe called Apuli/Apulii, who lived into the center of Transylvania and had their capital at Apoulon (today Piatra Craivii). Their name comes from Apollo, their main god.
Apoulon, the capital of the powerful Dacian tribe called Apuli, is placed in the central part of Transylvania, on the middle course of the Mures River. It is known the name of a king of Apuli, called Rubobostes.
After defeating the Dacians, the Romans built few km away from Apoulon, the castrum of the Legion XIII, Gemina. Around it grew a new city, called Apullum by Romans. Under Septimius Severus it became "municipium Septimius Apulense". Later, it became the capital of Dacia Apullensis and of Dacia Felix, under the name of Chrysopolis (the Golden City). There was discovered a rush light having a cross on it, together with seven rays. These symbols indicate that it belonged to a sun worshipper, probably a worshipper of Mithra. In ancient times, 7 was strongly relater to the Sun, that's why, up to now, Sunday is the seventh day of the week.
In the 9th century A.D. the name of the city name was Balgrad, the "White City", which was later changed into Alba Iulia (White Julia).
At 1st of November 1599, Mihai Viteazul (= the brave) entered the city and established there the capital of the three Wallach principates, united for the first time then, for a brief period.
At 1711 the imperial court of Vienna decides to build a new fortress, following the plans of Giovanni Morando Visconti, who inspired himself from the fortresses built by Vauban. The fortress, shaped as a 7 branched star, was built between 1715 and 1738. Surprisingly, its shape reminds once again the ancient sun worship which was practiced there by the Apuli.

The Dacians inhabited the present territory of Romania and the lands south of the Danube. They were agricultural and those living in the mountains were shepherds. They also worked their rich mines of silver, iron, and gold. According to Strabo, the original name of the Dacians was Daoi. In fact the Daoi was the name of the Dacian warriors, members of the wolves' brotherhood.

The name of Dacians and Getae was of Scythic origin (Vasile Pârvan, Getica, p.286). Dhau means to press, to strangle, to squeeze. It is the root for various words meaning wolf: Phrygian daoi, Illyrian dhaunos, Iranian-Saka dahae. This may refer to the anecdotal belief of pastoral shepherds that the wolf when it came after the sheep would seize them by the throat so that they strangled and could make no sound as it dragged them away from the rest of the flock.
A tradition preserved by Hesychius informs us that Daos was the Phrygian word for "wolf". Still according to Strabo, certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called Daoi. This name was probably brought into Transylvania and Vojvodina by the Scytho-Iranian Agathyrs.
Dacian villages and cities had their names ending with "dava", "deva", "daba", "deba" or "debai". The southern limit of the Dacian territory is marked, on the map, by a dotted line.
A part of the Daoi settled into the Rhodope Mountains. Let us note that Spartacus, the famous ancient gladiator who freed himself only to assemble a huge army of hundred thousands former slaves, who scared even "the eternal city" itself, had been a Thracian, from the Rhodophe Mountains of Bulgaria. The Daursi lived into the Dalmatian mountains. Dausdava, or the "City of the wolves" is on the map of the Roman geographer Ptolemaios at the south of the Danube river.
Herodotus, wrote about Thracians: "...after the Indians, the Thracian people constituted the largest ethnicity among all the rest of the world's races. Should they benefit from one ruling only and be spiritually united, they might succeed to become, in my opinion, absolutely undefeatable and to surpass, by far, the greatness of all the other Earth's proud races. The Thracians bear many names, each one according to their living regions, yet all of them show, through almost everything, highly similar customs".
Because of their philosophy and beliefs, Herodot described the Dacians as "the bravest and the most righteous of all the Thracians".
Based on the above information, we can understand how was possible to find the basic philosophy and beliefs of the Dacian priests spreaded, throughout the Europe.


GETS AND GOTHS, DACIANS AND DANES

The Gets ( Getae), closely related to the Dacians and said to be one and the same people, were inhabiting the banks of the lower Danube region and nearby plains and are first appearing in the 6th century BC. They were known as expert mounted archers and devotees of the deity Zalmoxis. Emperor Augustus' scribe, Strabon notes that "they speak the same language as the Dacians".
Starting with Jordanes, who borrowed the Getic history for the Goths, because of the similarity of the names, Getae were considered to be the same with the migrating tribes called Goths. In the Middle Age, the Dacians and the Danes were considered one and the same people. A historian wrote in the eleventh century about "Dacia which is called today Denmark" and about its inhabitants, the "Goths" who had "many kings generously gifted with the knowledge of the admirable philosophies, as Zeuta and Dichineus as well as Zalmoxis and many others". But Dichineus is Dicineus as referred by Iordanes, a great Dacian priest and king of the kings. We can also observe that the name Dutch of the inhabitants of Holland has the same pronunciation as the Romanian word "Daci" designating the Dacians.

Because in the Greek alphabet "V" is written "B", the Vesi were also called Bessi. The Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace. Herodotus described them as a sort of priestly-caste among the Satrae, the Bessi being interpreters of the prophetic utterances given by a priestess in an oracular shrine of Dionysus located on a mountain-top, which is thought to be Perperikon.
In Strabo, however, the Bessi are described as the fiercest of the independent Thracian tribes, dwelling on and around the Haemus range, and possessing the greater part of the area around that mountain chain.
Cassiodorus virtually invented the name Visigoth (from the Vesi Goths) in the late fifth century.
The king and the leading strata of the Goths who settled in Aquitaine called themselves Vesi, that is, the "good ones."
In the Notitia Dignitatum the Vesi (later known as the Visigoths) are equated with the Thervingi in a reference to the years 388–391. There is a good deal of scholarly debate on the identification of the Vesi with the Thervingi and the Greuthungi with the Ostrogothi.
That the Thervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi the Ostrogothi is also supported by Jordanes. He identified the Visigothic kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the fourth-century Thervingian king Athanaric and the Ostrogothic kings from Theodoric the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungian king Ermanaric.
Zosimus is referring to a group of "Scythians" north of the Danube who were called "Greuthungi" by the barbarians north of the Ister (Danube). Wolfram concludes that this people was the Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest.
Towards the end of the 4th century ad, Nicetas the Bishop of Dacia brought the gospel to "those mountain wolves", the Bessi. Reportedly his mission was successful, and the worship of Dionysus and other Thracian gods was eventually replaced by Christianity. However many elements of their religious beliefs, as the cult of the virgins and that of Apollo survived in the Christian era, as can be seen in Basilica di San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, and in the "Gothic" church Sant'Apollinare of Classe, near Ravenna.
In the 11th century Strategikon text, Cecaumenos the Byzantine historian described the Vlachs south of the Danube (Aromanians) as being descendants of the Daci and of the Bessi.

Grimm and Müllenhoff were the two great masters of Teutonic philology. Jacob Grimm stoutly maintained that Getae and Daci (Dacians) were identical with Goths and Danes. He had used the word "germanisch" only rarely, and employed more often the word "deutsch". In English the terms "German" (deutsch) and "Dutch" (niederländisch) have acquired in everyday speech a special signification, so that for the whole field the name "Teutonic" has been used.

Ulfilas or Ulfila (Gothic Wulfila, "Little Wolf"), is believed to have descended from 3rd-century Cappadocians, who, captured by the Goths, were displaced and settled north of the Danube River, in Dacia. At the age of 30 he was supposedly sent on an embassy to the Roman emperor and was consecrated (341) bishop of the Gothic Christians by Eusebius of Nicomedia, bishop of Constantinople. He evangelized the Goths, reputedly created the Gothic alphabet (based on Greek, but containing some Latin and runic elements), and wrote the earliest translation of the Bible into a Germanic language.

THE DACIANS AND THE VIKINGS

The chronicler of the Norman dukes, Dudo (ca. 1015), tells that Rollo (Rollon), who founded the Norman dynasty in the 900s AD, was the son of an uncertain king in "Dacia" - which seems to be out of place. This is the presentation of Dacia in Dudo's big work:
"Spread over the plentiful space from the Danube to the neighborhood of the Scythian Black Sea, do there inhabit fierce and barbarous nations, which are said to have burst forth in manifold variety like a swarm of bees from a honeycomb or a sword from a sheath, as is the barbarian custom, from the island of Scania, surrounded in different directions by the ocean. For indeed there is there a tract for the very many people of Alania, and the extremely well-supplied region of Dacia, and the very extensive passage of Greece. Dacia is the middle-most of these. Protected by very high alps in the manner of a crown and after the fashion of a city. With Mars' forewarning, raging warlike peoples inhabit those tortuous bends of extensive size, namely the Getae, also known as Goths" - [From chapter 2, second paragraph in Gesta Normannorum by the chronicler Dudo of St.Quentin's]

The Dacians leaders and priests, called Pileati (from pileus = cap) or Tarabostes (from tiara = cap), were easily distinguished by their so-called Phrygian cap. The reason of this particular shape of the cap is that Dacians twisted their hair, binding it up in a knot on the top of the head. Their caps and helmets were shaped to accommodate this hair knot beneath. This knot was an Persian custom passed to Dacians through the Scythians / Sarmatians. An Achaemenian relief from Dascylium (Anatolia), showing a female and male Zoroastrian priests, clearly depicts on their heads some soft caps making wrinkles, meaning that the shapes of the caps was given by the hair knots bellow.
Historical depictions of Dacians with their caps and without them, with their hair combed in a knot are found on the Trajan column and an the Tropaeum Traiani relief, from Adamclisi, Romania.
The Romanian word for the hair knot is "mot" (read "mots"). It comes from proto-Dravidian : *mut meaning knot (of hair); to tie hair in knots, related also to Tamil muti, meaning to tie, fasten, make into a knot, put on, adorn.
Today, the land containing the ancient Dacian gold mines is called "Tara Motilor"(= the country of the "moti"), and the inhabitants are called "moti" (pl. "motii") . The county to which belongs Tara Motilor is called Bihor, very similar to Bihar region from India.
"Motii" are blond people with blue eyes, living in villages located at hights above 1400 m, being the highest villages from Romania. The capital city of "Tara Motilor" is Topani (Topesdorf in German). Because of their capital, "Motii" (the "moti") are also known as "topi" ('Die Zopfen' in German).

The only other ancient people known to have hair knots on the top of their heads were the Suevii/Suebi. This is what Tacitus tells about them: "I must now proceed to speak of the Suevians, who are not, like the Cattans and Tencterians, comprehended in a single people; but divided into several nations all bearing distinct names, though in general they are entitled Suevians, and occupy the larger share of Germany. This people are remarkable for a peculiar custom, that of twisting their hair and binding it up in a knot. It is thus the Suevians are distinguished from the other Germans, thus the free Suevians from their slaves. In other nations, whether from alliance of blood with the Suevians, or, as is usual, from imitation, this practice is also found, yet rarely, and never exceeds the years of youth. The Suevians, even when their hair is white through age, continue to raise it backwards in a manner stern and staring; and often tie it upon the top of their head only. That of their Princes, is more accurately disposed, and so far they study to appear agreeable and comely; but without any culpable intention. For by it, they mean not to make love or to incite it: they thus dress when proceeding to war, and deck their heads so as to add to their height and terror in the eyes of the enemy."
In ancient times, the Vikings were called Suevii/Suebi/Suiones/Sueones/Sweonas.
During the middle age, there were Vikings called Dacke, a name that survived until today.


ZALMOXIS, THE GREAT PRIEST

According to Iordanes, Dicineus, a great Dacian priest, ruled also over kings, "selecting amongst them the noblest and wisest men, instructing them in theology ... making priests of them and naming them Pileati" (Iord. Get.XI, 71). Kings and priests came from the ranks of Pileati. Other sources also describe them as the Dacian elite.
Socrates, the great Greek philosopher, had personally learned, straight from one of Zalmoxis' apprentices, an incantation of those "able to make human beings immortals". "Zalmoxis disappeared from the nucleus of Thracian social life and descended to his underground shelter. He lived there for about three or four years. The Thracians thought he had vanished and wanted him back dearly, lamenting his loss as if he were really dead. At the end of his 4th year, Zalmoxis appeared once more to their eyes, thus managing to make his teachings believable through some kind of "personal example". Regarding Zamolxis' background itself and his underground hiding shelter, I personally don't fully reject everything that is said, but don't believe too much in it either. It seems to me, though, that he might have actually lived many years before Phytagoras' time. So let Zamolxis be well, whatever he represents, either a human being or some Demon of the Getae people" (Herodotus, "Histories", volume IV, pages 94-95)

Jordanes speaks about the astronomical knowledge received by the Getae from Zalmoxis: "By explaining theoretical knowledge he urged them to contemplate the progress of the twelve constellations (of the zodiac) and the courses of the planets passing through them, and the whole of astronomy. He told them how the disc of the moon waxes or wanes, and showed them how much the fiery globe of the sun exceeds in size our earthly planet. He explained with which names or designations in the arching heavens the three hundred forty-six stars hurtle from their rising to their setting." (Jordanes, THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, XI, 69)

Diodorus Siculus connects the teaching of the druids with the Pythagorean doctrine because both postulate the immortality of souls. Hippolitus, who wrote around the late second, early third century AD, even reports that the teaching of Pythagoras was introduced to the Celts by a slave of Pythagoras, the Thracian Zalmoxis. However, as Herodot mentioned, Zalmoxis lived, probably, many years before Phytagoras. Pythagoras himself was initiated according to a Thracian ritual!

Herodot tells us about "Zalmoxis, who is called also Gebeleizis by some among them". Gebeleizis stands from the root i.e.*g'heib meaning light (W. Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker, II, p.61). For Walde-Pokorny and Decev, Gebeleizis stands from the root i.e.*guer meaning to shine (A. Wade - J. Pokorny, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indo-Germanischen Sprachen, Berlin, I-III, 1927-32, p. 643). Both interpretations are suggesting that Zalmoxis was surnamed "the enlighted" or "the shining", which happened because he was the priest of the only god of the Dacians: the sun god. Because the same reasons, the Dacian lords were called "tarabostes", "tara" meaning tiara while "bostes" was standing from the root i.e.*bhô-s, meaning shining (A. Wade - J. Pokorny, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indo-Germanischen Sprachen, Berlin, II, p. 122). So the Dacian lords were surnamed the shining ones wearing tiaras. This confirms that the Dacian lords were also priests, because, as Jordanes tells us (THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, XI, 72), while they performed the rituals, the Dacian priests wore tiaras, being called "pilleati" (from pilleus = fur cap) because of that.

HESTIA, THE LAW GIVER

Hestia, the goddess of hearth seems to precede the Greek civilization. Homer describes Hestia as the first born, most honored and chief of the goddesses: "Nor yet does the pure maiden Hestia love Aphrodite's works. She was the first-born child of wily Cronos and youngest too, by will of Zeus who holds the aegis, -- a queenly maid whom both Poseidon and Apollo sought to wed. But she was wholly unwilling, nay, stubbornly refused; and touching the head of father Zeus who holds the aegis, she, that fair goddess, sware a great oath which has in truth been fulfilled, that she would be a maiden all her days. So Zeus the Father gave her an high honor instead of marriage, and she has her place in the midst of the house and has the richest portion. In all the temples of the gods she has a share of honor, and among all mortal men she is chief of the goddesses." (Hymns, V. To Aphrodite, ll. 7-32)

Herodotus gives the following information on the Scythian pantheon: "They worship only the following gods, namely, Hestia, whom they reverence beyond all the rest, Zeus, and Earth whom they consider to be the wife of Zeus; and after these Apollo, Celestial Aphrodite, Heracles, and Ares." At Pokrovka, Russia, was found the skeleton of a middle aged female in horseback riding position, in Kurgan 03. The accoutrements that identified these females as belonging to the special Sauromatian social status of "priestesses of the hearth." (Tabiti – Hestia)

The Dacian Goddess Esta/Eshta (Roman Vesta, or Greek Hestia), whom Plato calls the “soul of the body of the universe," is likely to come from the Hattic Sun Goddess, Estan/Eshtan that evolved into Hittite Istanu, a male Sun God. In Hattic Eshtan/Estan means also Sun and Sunday. Hattic was a language spoken by the Hattians in Asia Minor between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC, before the arrival of Nesian (i.e., "Hittite") speakers.

The Dacian hearth women were led by priestesses of Esta/Vesta/Hestia that wore golden spiraled bracelets, with stylized snakes. These bracelets were unearthed since 1996.

Hestia was an immensely important deity in Thrace, and according to Diodorus Siculus, "there were many Hestias, and one, common to all, who was the goddess of the state hearth." A Thracian tomb, from the first half of the 3rd century B.C., is situated 2,5 km south-west of Sveshtari. It has ten identical figures in high relief of the hearth-goddess Hestia, patroness of the hearth, each standing with raised arms in a caryatid-like pose. The tomb also has a mural with the image of a horseman, being bestowed with a golden wreath by Hestia (Vesta), accompanied by her priestesses (Vestals).
Seven centuries later, the mural painting from Sveshtari is echoed by the Dacian painters on a mural painting from Basilica di San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, where the Vestal virgins are holding crowns and are represented with auras, like the saints, which is totally outstanding and unique. Other Dacian features of the "Gothic" church Sant'Apollinare of Classe, near Ravenna, are the depiction of the three Magi wearing Dacian caps and the depiction of Saint Apollinare accompanied by twelve sheep representing the twelve apostles. Thus, Saint Apollinare replaces Jesus in this depiction, which is again unique. Saint Apollinare was the protector saint of the city of Ravenna. His name (Apollinare) means in Latin "sacred to Apollo", an obvious reference to the worship of Apollo practiced by the Dacians,

"The male-virgin of the Orientals, is, I know, considered the same by Plato as his Ejia, or Vesta, whom he calls the soul of the body of the universe. This Hestia, by the way, is in my view a Sanskrit lady, whose name I take to have been EST, or she that is, or exists, having the same meaning as the great of the Jewish Deity. Est is shown in the Celtic Druids to be a Sanskrit word, and I do not doubt of this her derivation. The A terminal is added by the Greek idiom to denote a female, as they hated an indeclinable proper name, such as HEST or EST would have been." (Extract from a letter from Mackenzie Berverly, Esq.)

The above theory is sustained by Diodorus Siculus, who wrote that Estia (Estia) was a goddess of Getae and that Zalmoxis is said to have claimed that Hestia gave to the Getae their laws (Book 1, 94, 2). Thus, the real name of the Getic Goddess might have been "Esti", meaning "it is"or "you are" in Romanian language. This name is paralleled by the Romanian word for saint: "Sânt", meaning "I am".

"... of all the judges, they shall lay them up at the altar of Hestia. And after doing this thrice, during which proceedings they shall pay full attention to evidence and witnesses, each of the judges shall cast a sacred vote, promising by Hestia to give just and true judgment to the best of his power; and thus they shall bring to its end this form of trial." (Plato, Laws: section 856a)

Vesta, the Roman correspondent of Greek Hestia was also symbolizing the law. The Vestal Virgins from Rome were also in charge of wills and testaments.
In Dacia, the priestesses of Hestia had attributions of judges when men were gone to war. Apparently, this custom was used also by Greeks, in the early times: "Now the great leader in heaven, Zeus, driving a winged chariot, goes first, arranging all things and caring for all things. He is followed by an army of gods and spirits, arrayed in eleven squadrons; Hestia alone remains in the house of the gods." (Plato, Phaedrus, section 246e)
Five Dacian priestesses, wearing head-kerchiefs, are represented on the Trajan's Column, burning with torches three roman prisoners. Into the picture is represented also their temple.

Nestinari is an old Thracian ritual, remained from the cult of Hestia, is still celebrated exactly one month after the Roman Palilia. The coming of summer is traditionally celebrated on St. Konstantin and St. Elena Day on May 21, and in some of the remoter villages in the Stranzha hills fire dancing, dancing on heated coals, is still practised. The nestinari horo, circle dance around the fire, is played barefoot by men and women . Not does the fire burns the evil in the nestinari who are dancing on the embers, but also burns all illnesses and purges them. Dancing on glowing embers brings fertility and health.

The ancient Palladium was a sacred torch, lighted by the fire of the temple of Hestia. The story of the Palladium's fall from heaven, signifies that the Palladium bears the sacred fire brought by the thunders of Zeus. It was founded by the Greek warriors Odysseus and Diomedes, who carried it off from the temple of Athena in Troy, thus making the Greek capture of Troy possible. It was particularly identified with the statue brought to Italy by the hero Aeneas after Troy's destruction and preserved in the shrine of the goddess Vesta at Rome. However, according to Vergil, the Palladium that the Greeks had stolen was a fake.

This temple of Vesta from Rome was undoubtedly burned when the Gauls sacked the city in 390 BC, and again in 241 when Caecilius Metellus rescued the Palladium at the cost of his sight, which was miraculously restored. The burning of the temple had a lesser negative signification than the ceasing of the sacred fire. The fire had to be kept alive at all cost. That's why Caecilius saved the sacred fire by the sacred torch, the Palladium.

Prytaneum (Greek PRYTANEION), was a town hall of a Greek city-state, normally housing the chief magistrate and the common altar or hearth of the community. Ambassadors, distinguished foreigners, and citizens who had done signal service were entertained there. The prytaneum was dedicated to Hestia, goddess of the hearth, and within the building a perpetual fire burned. According to some contemporary sources, when colonizers established a new Greek colony, they brought with them a brand from the prytaneum at Athens, from which the fire in the new colony's prytaneum was kindled.

The ritual of transporting the sacred fire from a place to another has survived up today, into the rituals of the Olimpic games: the fire is brought by a torch (Palladium) to the place where will be held the games. There is lit the fire, which has to burn continuously during the games. At the end of the games, the Palladium was lighted again and the fire was brought to another place.

The Prytaneum from Olympia, contained a hearth on which burned a "perpetual fire" and it also had a banquet room in which the Olympic victors were feasted.

Latin language had four names which were connected to the usage of fire:

Palilia, a festival held on 21-st of April, when were performed purifying fumigations of flocks, beasts, and stalls. It appeared from the early times of Rome, and was officiated by the king himself, which shows that early Romans were shepherds. Even though Palilia did not mean anything in Latin, it is likely to come from the Dacian word Palalaia, remained unchanged to today Romanian. Palalaia means "big fire" into Romanian.

Palibus, a similar festival held on 7-th of July,

Palatine hill, on which was the temple of Vesta, keeping the sacred fire of the city,

Palladium, which was originally a compound word, "Pala"+"Dium" meaning God's (dium) fire (Pala) or divine fire. The point is that the only language in which Pala means fire is the Romanian language. This word was probably inherited from the Dacian language, since it does not appear in Greek or Latin languages.

Since the Dacians were mainly shepherds, and Palilia and Palibus were festivals of shepherds, it makes sense to believe that Romans imported these customs, as well al the traditions regarding the sacred fire, Palladium, from the Dacians!

Before the end of the 4th century BC, it was common to swear by Hestia:
"Blepsidemus:[395] Are you telling the truth?
Chremylus: I am.
Blepsidemus: Swear it by Hestia." (Aristophanes, Plutus, 395)
By 350 BC, Hestia is presented as the goddess of the Greek senate: " On our return, then, after we had rendered to the senate a brief report of our mission and had delivered the letter from Philip, Demosthenes praised us to his colleagues in the senate, and he swore by Hestia, goddess of the senate, that he congratulated the city on having sent such men on the embassy, men who in honesty and eloquence were worthy of the state." (Aeschines, On the Embassy, 2, 45)
"The hearth of the Prytaneum, the headquarters of the standing committee of the senate, was regarded as the common hearth of the state; a statue of Hestia was in this hall, and in the senate-house was an altar of that goddess." (Aeschines, On the Embassy, 2, 45, n1)
The Roman version of Hestia, the goddess Vesta , began by only being worshipped in the homes of Roman families as a household deity. However, Vesta soon evolved into a state goddess. The people of Rome built the Temple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum. The temple was built in the third century B.C. It is said that Numa Pompilius set up the service of Vesta.
By the 1st century BC, Hestia (Vesta) is presented as the goddess of the Roman senate: "[6] Critias, fearing that Theramenes might overthrow the oligarchy, threw about him a band of soldiers with drawn swords. [7] They were going to arrest him, but, forestalling them, Theramenes leaped up to the altar of Hestia of the Council Chamber, crying out, "I flee for refuge to the gods, not with the thought that I shall be saved, but to make sure that my slayers will involve themselves in an act of impiety against the gods." (Diodorus Siculus, Library, book 14, chapter 4)
When Dionysus came to the Olymp, Hestia left her seat to him.
Like Dacians, Romans and Greeks, the Iranians concluded contracts before fires so that they might be made in the presence of Mithra. Like Mitra, Mithra saw all things. The Avestan Yast (hymn) dedicated to him describes him as having a thousand ears, ten thousand eyes, and as never sleeping. The names Mitra, Mithra and Mithras all derive from the Indo-European root "Mihr," which translates both as "friend" and as "contract."
The friendship or contract offered by Mihr, or Mitra as he became known, was an exchange between unequal partners with Mitra as a just lord. Like any feudal relationship, this "friendship" imposed certain obligations on both sides. Mitra oversaw the affairs of his worshippers. He established justice for them. In return, his worshippers had to be upright in their dealings with others. Mitra was thus "lord of the contract" (a title frequently applied to him).

THE GETAE ADORED MARS

Ares, the god of war is of Scythian origin. Herodotus wrote in his Histories, Book 4, 62 :"Upon this pile of which I speak each people has an ancient iron sword set up, and this is the sacred symbol of Ares. To this sword they bring yearly offerings of cattle and of horses; and they have the following sacrifice in addition, beyond what they make to the other gods, that is to say, of all the enemies whom they take captive in war they sacrifice one man in every hundred, not in the same manner as they sacrifice cattle, but in a different manner: for they first pour wine over their heads, and after that they cut the throats of the men, so that the blood runs into a bowl; and then they carry this up to the top of the pile of brushwood and pour the blood over the sword."
The Scythian Agathyrsi introduced the worship of Ares into Dacia. From there it spread around.

Mars, the god of war, known to be at high esteem among the Romans, was adopted from the Dacians. The historian Jordanes wrote: "so highly were the Getae praised that Mars, whom the fables of poets call the god of war, was reputed to have been born among them. Hence Virgil says: "Father Gradivus rules the Getic fields."
The famous Black Sea exiled Roman poet, Publius Ovidius Naso (43 B.C.-17 A.D.) speaks in his writings about his next door Getae neighbor who was worshipping Ares (Greek equivalent to the Roman Mars). . Iordanes wrote that "the Getae people have always adored Mars through an extremely savage cult, killing war prisoners as sacrifices dedicated to His glory...". Some of the wolf warriors, worshipers of Mars, moved from the Balkan peninsula, crossing the Adriatic Sea, to the Italian Peninsula. Some "wolf warriors" tribes were present among the pre-Romanic inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. They derived their behaviours and beliefs from the Dacians. The legend of the she-wolf who raised Romulus and Remus, said to be the sons of Mars, together with the affirmation of Vegetius, who wrote "the God Mars has been born from within Thracian Land" shows the Thracian origins of the Roman warriors' beliefs and religion.
The Historia Augusta mentions that wolf-snake draco became the Roman imperial flag: the mother of Severus (193-211 AD) dreamt of a purple snake before his birth, something very alike what we later hear of the Imperial standard. (Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Severus 4.1)
The Roman draco developed into a real dragon, without ears but with scales and a crest. The only fully preserved draco was found in the Limes fortress of Niederbieber in Germany, which dates to the 3rd century. This copper alloy object was discovered near the SW edge of the vicus (civilian settlement) outside the fort. It can best be described as a scaled monster's head, measuring 30x12x12 cm, and with some probability is the head of a cohort's draco.
Two holes of similar size are pierced through both the throat and the skull behind the crest. No doubt a staff or the shaft of a spear would pass through here. Two axial slits, 2 cm long, pierce the botom of the lower jaw, probably to attach a lost mechanism that would have produced the hissing effect.
The late 4th c. author Vegetius also mentions the draco as a common standard: "What are the dragonbearers and standardbearers, which hold spears in their left hand, to do in battle, whose heads and breasts are naked?" (Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris 1.20)
Vegetius also mentions that each cohort has a draco/dragon: "Dragons, one each for the individual cohorts, are carried into battle by dragonbearers" (Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris 2.13)

AURELIAN AND THE WORSHIP OF SUN

In 67 B.C., the first congregation of Mithras-worshipping soldiers existed in Rome under the command of General Pompey.
In 69AD, Legio III Gallica, with the rest of the Danubian army, aligned first with Otho, then with Vespasian. They were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum . This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, and when dawn broke at Bedriacum they turned east to do so. The forces of Vitellius thought that they were saluting reinforcements from the east and lost the will to fight.
From 67 to 70 A.D., the legio XV Apollinaris, or Fifteenth Apollonian Legion, took part in suppressing the uprising of the Jews in Palestine. After sacking and burning the Second Temple in Jerusalem and capturing the infamous Ark of the Covenant, this legion accompanied Emperor Titus to Alexandria, where they were joined by new recruits from Cappadocia (Turkey) to replace casualties suffered in their victorious campaigns. After their transportation to the Danube with the veteran legionnaires, they offered sacrifices to Mithras in a semicircular grotto that they consecrated to him on the banks of the river. Soon, this first temple was no longer adequate and a second one was built adjoining a temple of Jupiter. As a municipality developed alongside the camp and the conversions to Mithraism continued to multiply, a third and much larger Mithraeum was erected towards the beginning of the second century. This temple was later enlarged by Diocletian, Emperor from 284-305 A.D. Diocletian rededicated this sanctuary to Mithras, giving him the title "The Protector of the Empire".
In the year 307 A. D., Diocletian, Galerius, and Licinius had a solemn meeting at Carnuntum on the Danube, and there consecrated together a sanctuary "to the Unconquered Sun-god Mithra, the favourer of their empire."
When Commodus (Emperor from 180-192 A.D.) was initiated into the Mithraic religion, there began an era of strong support of Mithraism that included emperors such as Aurelian, Diocletian, and Julian the Apostate, who called Mithras "the guide of the souls". All of these emperors took the Mithraic titles of 'Pius', 'Felix', and 'Invictus' (devout, blessed, and invincible). Emperor Nero adopted the radiating crown as the symbol of his sovereignty to exemplify the splendour of the rays of the sun, and to show that he was an incarnation of Mithras.

From the end of the Syrian rulers, the next group of emperors, all the way to Constantine, were soldiers and not one of them was Roman, in fact, not a single one was even Italian. Most came from humble origins in the Balkans (by the way, the Balkan region was a strong-hold of Mithraic sun-worship). One of these emperors, Aurelian, who reigned from 270 to 275 A. D., was from the Balkans. His father was a farmer while his mother, like the Syrian emperors’ mothers, was a priestess of the Sun (Historians’ History, vol. 6, p. 421). According to the Historia Augusta (Aurel. 4,2; 5,5), his mother was priestess of the Sun-god in the temple of the village where he was born.
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus was born on the 9th of September 214 or 215 in either Dacia ripensis or in Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica, in Pannonia), i.e. in the region of today's northern Serbia, southern Romania, and western
Bulgaria (Birthdate: Chronograph 354, see CIL I2, pp. 255; 272; birthyear 214: Malalas (Bonn), 301; birthyear 215: Synopsis Sathas p. 39, line 16; born in Dacia ripensis: Eutr. 9,13,1; born in Sirmium or Dacia ripensis: SHA, Aurel. 3,1; origins of Moesia: SHA, Aurel. 3,2; born between Dacia and Macedonia: Epit. de Caes. 35,1.) He was of humble origins, his father being a colonus (tenant) of a senator named Aurelius. Aurelian had a military career; as dux equitum (commander of the cavalry), he joined the conspiracy against the emperor Gallienus in A.D. 268 and supported the new ruler Claudius II Gothicus, under whose reign he continued his career, becoming supreme commander of the whole cavalry of the Roman army. Aurelian was proclaimed emperor by the troops. By reuniting the empire, which had virtually disintegrated under the pressure of invasions and internal revolts, he earned his self-adopted title restitutor orbis ("restorer of the world").
In 271 Aurelian defeated the Goths on the Danube and withdrew Roman occupants from Dacia to an area south of the Danube. Tenths of thousands of colonists were relocated from Dacia to Rome on this occasion, bringing with them their customs and beliefs.
In 274, Aurelian created a new cult of the "Sol Invictus" (Invincible Sun). Worshipped in a splendid temple, served by pontiffs who were raised to the level of the ancient pontiffs of Rome and celebrated every fourth year by magnificent games (just like the Greek Olimpic games!), Sol Invictus was definitely promoted to the highest rank in the divine hierarchy and became the official protector of the Sovereigns and of the Empire. Aurelian established a new college of high priests, under the name Pontifices Dei Solis.
The coins of Aurelian also attest his devotion to the solar deity. On one of them the Sun is seen offering to the emperor a globe as a symbol of the empire of the world, with a captive lying at their feet; some of the inscriptions on the coins proclaim the Sun-god to be the Preserver or Restorer of the World or even Lord of the Roman Empire.

GALERIUS, THE DACIAN EMPEROR

The Roman Emperor Galerius was born near Serdica, Thrace [now Sofia, Bulgaria], of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by the emperor Diocletian, who governed the Eastern part of the empire. Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletanius, was born in Dalmatia Salona in 243 AD and given the Greek name of Diokles ("glory of Zeus").
After fighting hostile tribes along the Danube River for several years, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanids, in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence on Diocletian.
When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus (senior emperor) of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia.
The Arch of Galerius is celebrating the victory over the Sassanid Persians. There are represented warriors with the draco standard and wearing Sarmatian Lamella armors. That strongly suggests that Galerius' army was composed of Dacians.
The Christian apologist Lactantius (240 - 320 AD), speaks about Galerius: "his mother was born beyond the Danube, and it was an inroad of the Carpi that obliged her to cross over and take refuge in New Dacia". This New Dacia was the part of the Balcan Peninsula from the south of the Danube.
Lactantius describes Galerius as an ardent worshiper of Mars: “he cried out, with a stern look and terrible voice, "How long am I to be Caesar?" Then he began to act extravagantly, insomuch that, as if he had been a second Romulus, he wished to pass for and to be called the offspring of Mars; and that he might appear the issue of a divinity, he was willing that his mother Romula should be dishonored with the name of adulteress.”
Galerius was proud of his Dacian origin and despised the Romans. Lactantius wrote about it: "Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire."[ So Lactantius, in De mortibus persecutorum, XXVII.8. (Ed. CERF, Paris, 1954)]

Sir James G. Frazer, tells in "The golden bough", Chapter XII "The Worship of Nature", that in the year 307 A. D., Diocletian, Galerius, and Licinius had a solemn meeting at Carnuntum on the Danube, and there consecrated together a sanctuary "to the Unconquered Sun-god Mithra, the favourer of the empire." This indicates that Galerius was himself a worshipper of the Sun-god. (Sir James G. Frazer, The golden bough, Chapter XII The Worship of Nature, 1925)
Galerius put Rome under siege, in an attempt to conquer it, but his dream was accomplished several years later by Constantine the Great.

CONSTANTINE, THE THRACIAN EMPEROR

Constantine was born Flavius Valerius Constantius in 274 A.D. in the Roman province of Moesia (later Serbia) and was the son of the commander Constantius Chlorus (later Constantius I) and Helena.
In his book entitled De Magistratibus Ioannes Lydus reports that Constantine the Great wrote, in his native (oikeia) tongue, some Discourses which he left to posterity. As shown bellow, it was the Thracian language.

Constantine’s grandfather, Eutropius, was a Thracian from Dardania [Trebellius Pollio, Divus Claudius, XIII. 1-2. (In SHA) ];

Constantine himself was born and raised in Nish (Naissus), a Thracian (Dardanian) city [Anonymus Valesianus, Pars Prior, 2. (Printed following Ammianus Marcellinus, in the Loeb edition, t.3.)];

He completed his education in Nicomedia, a Thracian city, at the court of Galerius, a Dacian emperor born in Serdica (the modern Sofia). Galerius was so un-Roman that he is believed to have even thought of dropping from the name of the Empire the adjective “Roman” and replacing it by “Dacian”.[ So Lactantius, in De mortibus persecutorum, XXVII.8. (Ed. CERF, Paris, 1954)];

Julian the Apostate, a nephew of Constantine, says several times over that his family was Thracian, from Mysia [Mysopogon. Passim. (Loeb)];

Constantine himself transferred the Imperial capital away from Rome, to Byzantium, in the heart of Thrace.

Following the example of his father and earlier 3rd-century emperors, Constantine in his early life was a solar henotheist, believing that the Roman sun god, Sol, was the visible manifestation of an invisible "Highest God" (summus deus), who was the principle behind the universe. This god was thought to be the companion of the Roman emperors.
Constantine's father left his mother c. 292 to marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter or step-daughter of Western Roman Emperor Maximian. Theodora would give birth to six half-siblings of Constantine, including Julius Constantius.
Constantine served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father, a general, as one of the two caesares in 293. In 305, the Augustus, Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to the position.
Constantine joined his father in making war on the Scots and Picts in Northern Britain. When his father died in 306, Constantine was proclaimed Emperor by his soldiers at York. His elite warriors, the cavalry, were Dacian/Sarmatian horsemen like the horseman from the Chester stele.
Constantine's Head, marble sculpture found in York, displayed now in the Yorkshire Museum, is the earliest portrait of him, carved shortly after he was proclaimed Emperor.
A mosaic roundel with Constantine’s head and his Chi-Rho sign was found in Hinton St Mary, Dorset, England. On stylistic grounds it has been dated to the 4th century and is attributed to the workshop of the Durnovarian school of mosaic art. The panel is 17ft by 15ft. A central circle surrounds a portrait bust of a man in a white pallium standing before a Chi Rho symbol and two pomegranates. This mosaic suggests that Constantine adopted the chi-rho insignia while he was in Britain.
Constantine's adherence to this faith is evident from his claim of having had a vision of the sun god in 310 while in a grove of Apollo in Gaul. From AD 310, Apollo-Sol dominated Constantine’s coinage.
Constantine invaded Italy in 312 and after a lightning campaign defeated his brother-in-law Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge near Rome, where Constantine's army was fiercely outnumbered . Eusebius, his official biographer, wrote about the vision that Constantine had the day before the battle:
"At broad daylight he claimed to witness a magnificent and radiant figure of a cross above the sun. Above the sign was the inscription In hoc signo vinces "by this sign conquer". The next morning he had his army paint their shields and carry this "sign" that he had seen early into battle."
The labarum symbol was in use long before Constantine choose it as his army's insignia, and X (Chi) probably stood for Great Fire or Sun, and P (Rho) probably stood for Pater or Patah (Father). The word labarum yields everlasting Father Sun. Constantine replaced the eagle from the Roman standard by the labarum with the motto "en touty nika" which was later interpreted into "In hoc signo vinces".
The Labarum had a been Chaldean symbol of the sun, and an emblem of Etruria ages before Constantine and the Christian era. Thus, Constantine set to work placing the solar symbol on the shields of everyone in his army, most of which were of the Mithra/Sol Invictus sentiment. The discipline brought to the military by Aurelian was still very much alive and very much Mithraic. The next day Constantine swept the enemy into the Tiber River, and entered victoriously into Rome! Constantine's vision refers to a cross on the sky, as it was a symbol for the sun or "Sol Invictus" (Invincible Sun) of the Romans. As a result of his victory from 312, fought under the sign of the sun, the cross, in 321 emperor Constantine issued an edict which outlawed work on the "venerable day of the sun," Sunday: "On the venerable Day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed".
Within three years Christianity had become the official religion of the Roman empire. From that, the Roman Catholic Church, and its many Protestant daughter churches, got the commonly-accepted Sunday observance of today.
The triumphal arch of Constantine, built in 315 by the senate of Rome, after his "conversion," contains reliefs of Jupiter, Mars and Hercules, and Constantine apparently associated his victory at the Milvian Bridge with the power of the sun, but no Christian symbol can be found on the structure and there is no reference to Christ; however, there are images and homage paid to Mithras, another sun god whose birthday is December 25th (Emperor's State of Grace).
The Constantinian coinage was marked "Sol Invicto Comiti," or "Committed to Sol Invictus" (Apollo/Helios, Mithra, etc.). He, like many before him and after him, saw Christianity as yet another form of solar allegory.
Eusebius, a father of the Church who was an advisor to emperor Constantine, wrote: "The Logos (Christ) has transferred by the New Alliance the celebration of the Sabbath to the rising of the light. He has given us a type of the true rest in the saving day of the Lord, the first day of light".
Constantine waited until just before his death to be baptized because he believed that baptism washes away sins.
The largest obelisk at Rome was originally transported from Heliopolis to Alexandria by Constantine, and conveyed to Rome by his son Constantius, who placed it in the Circus Maximus (Amm. Marc. XVII.4). Its present position is before the north portico of the Lateran church, where it was placed in 1588. Its whole height is about 149 feet, and without the base about 105 feet. Pliny (23-79 AD) considered that the Egyptian obelisks were dedicated to the Sun ("Solis numini sacratos") and represent an image of the sun.
"[Constantine] diminished none of the privileges of the sacred virgins, he filled the priestly offices with nobles, he did not refuse the cost of the Roman ceremonies, and following the rejoicing Senate through all the streets of the eternal city, he contentedly beheld the shrines with unmoved countenance, he read the names of the gods inscribed on the pediments, he enquired about the origin of the temples, and expressed admiration for their builders. Although he himself followed another religion, he maintained its own for the empire, for everyone has his own customs, everyone his own rites." (Medieval sourcebook: "The Memorial of Symmachus, prefect of the City")
On the top side of the Arch of Constantine, from Rome, can be seen big sculptures representing Dacians, as in the nearby picture, indicating that Dacians had important ranks and a high esteem in the hierarchy of the empire. A painted statue (left) representing a Dacian is found in Boboli. It was brought there from Rome, where it decorated Villa Medici, by the Grand Dukes. The statue represents a Dacian greeting the visitors at the beginning of the alley leading to the top of the hill. In all the sculptures depicting Dacians, they were always portrayed in a very dignified manner and in a proud standing, suggesting that they remained well regarded even after Dacia was defeated by Trajan.
On a coin from 337 AD, Constantine was also represented as the sun-god Helios, proving that he still was a sun worshipper at that time.
In the new city built by him, Constantinople, the Emperor Constantine had a large forum, which was round or oval is shape, built in the centre of the city; in the centre of this forum was his own statue, placed on top of a column of reddish stone. This column is today known as Cemberlitas, meaning "Burnt Column". The statue on the top of the column represented Constantine as Apollo saluting the sun, as seen in an image from the Tabula Peutingeriana.



DACIANS WORSHIPED SUN GOD APOLLO

Long before Aurelian created the new cult of the "Sol Invictus" at Rome, Apollo was called Bonus Deus Puer, or Bonus puer phosphorus, in many inscriptions consecrated to him, found in Dacia, mainly in the Apullum city, the capital of Dacia Apulensis province, called so in the honor of the Dacian sun god, Apollo. Apollo’s sceptre assumes at times the form of a cross (cf. coin of Gallienus reproduced in Victor Duruy’s Hist. des Romains, Paris, 1885, Vol. VIII, p. 42, ERE).

Pliny wrote in 77 AD: "Apollinem serpentemque eius sagittis configi, citharoedum, qui Dicaeus appellatus est" (Pliny, The Natural History, Liber XXXIV, XIX, 59), meaning: Apollo who arrowed the serpent, he who plays the guitar, who is called Dicaeus (the Dacian). Up to now, people in Maramures still play the so called "cetera", the descendant of Latin "cithara".
Pindar (c.518-c.438) said that Apollo, after the building of Troy, returned to his country on the Ister (Danube) river (Olymp VIII, 47). So both Pliny and Pindar confirm that Apollo was coming from Dacia.

Apollo shared the sanctuary at Delphi with Dionysus. Every fall Apollo departed for his winter quarters in the land of the Hyperboreans, returning in the spring. During his absence the Pythia did not deliver oracles, and Dionysus ruled over Delphi.
Strabo locates the Hyperboreans above the Black Sea (Euxine), the Danube river (Ister) and the Adriatic sea: “Now all the peoples towards the north were by the ancient Greek historians given the general name Scythians or Celtoscythians; but the writers of still earlier times, making distinctions between them, called those who lived above the Euxine and the Ister and the Adriatic Hyperboreans, Sauromatians, and Arimaspians.” (Strabo, Geography, Book XI, Chapter VI.2)
Pliny the Elder locates the Hyperboreans in the area of the Carpathian Mountains (Ripaean Mountains): “the Hyperboreans, who are said by a majority of authorities to be in Europe. After that point the first place known is Lytharmis, a promontory of Celtica, and the river Carambucis, where the range of the Ripaean Mountains terminates” (Pliny, Natural History, 6.34)
Both the above locations are indicating that the Hyperboreans lived somewhere on the Dacian territory.

Not only Apollo, but also Eileithyia, the pre-Hellenic goddess of childbirth, came from the Hyperboreans. She assisted Leto when she gave birth to her son Apollo:
[1.18.5] Hard by is built a temple of Eileithyia, who they say came from the Hyperboreans to Delos and helped Leto in her labour; and from Delos the name spread to other peoples. The Delians sacrifice to Eileithyia and sing a hymn of Olen.
[1.31.2] At Prasiae is a temple of Apollo. Hither they say are sent the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans, and the Hyperboreans are said to hand them over to the Arimaspi, the Arimaspi to the Issedones, from these the Scythians bring them to Sinope, thence they are carried by Greeks to Prasiae, and the Athenians take them to Delos. The first-fruits are hidden in wheat straw, and they are known of none. (Pausanias Description of Greece, Book I: Attica)

Some words are suggesting that the Gets/Getae were worshiping Apollo. The word apologetic (same in Romanian) stands from the Getic way of worshipping Apollo: they used to song into his glory. The Gets, through Aurelian, and later the Goths, who borrowed all Getic traditions and history, spread this way of worshipping throughout entire Europe. That's why the word apologist is the same in Romanian and German: apologet (Apollo worshipping Get), while does not have a close correspondent in Latin or Greek. Apollo is the only God who has the same name both in Greek and Roman pantheon, and that's because they adopted him from the same source, from the Daco-Gets.

Herodotus, wrote about a Dacian custom in Histories [4.94]: "when it lightens and thunders, aim their arrows at the sky, uttering threats against the (thunder) god; and they do not believe that there is any god but their own (sun god)." This tells us that Dacians had only one god, who was the sun god and they sent arrows into the clouds in order to clear the sky and make their god, the sun, to appear and shine. The oldest occurrence of this custom is attested at Yurakare, Semang and Sakai: they aimed their arrows at the sky, uttering threats against the thunder god. (Mircea Eliade, Notes on the symbolism of the arrow, pp. 465, 466). Similarly, the sun god Mithra was represented throwing arrows against the clouds (F. Saxl, Mithras, Berlin, 1931, p. 76; G. Windengren, Die Religionen Irans, p. 44).

In a Dacian relief, Apollo/Mithra is represented standing with his knee on his sacrificial animal, the bull. Into the corners are represented his symbols: a head representing the sun, a head having a crescent above, representing the moon, a wolf, symbolizing the death, jumping at Apollo/Mithra, and a snake, Python, symbolizing the false prophecies, the delusion. The latter two symbols were joined into the Dacian wolf-dragon banner, while the moon and the sun were carved on the Valach funerary crosses, as solar rather than Christian symbols, during the entire middle age. The relief shows Apollo/Mithra, wearing a Dacian bent forward cap, together with the lower symbols, the wolf and the snake, under an arch made of stone blocks, symbolizing the entrance into a cave, the place where his rituals took place, while the upper symbols, the sun and the moon are on the sky out of the cave. Like in the Corycian cave from Delphi, the priests of the sun god, always performed the rituals in caves. The same did Zalmoxis: "he was making for himself meanwhile a chamber under the ground; and when his chamber was finished, he disappeared from among the Thracians and went down into the underground chamber, where he continued to live for three years". (Herodotus, book IV, 96) Strabon gives more information about this in Geographia (VII, 3, 5): "After he secluded himself into a kind of cave, inaccessible to the others, he spent a while there, meeting seldom with those outside, excepting the king and his counselors"... "This custom lasted up to our days; according to the tradition, always was found such a man who helped the king's counselor, and among the Getae, this man was called god." This explains why, the sun god's priest Zalmoxis was also considered a god. Probably the priest was considered as merging with the sun god, just like, latter, in Christianity, Jesus merged with God. The prayers were addressed to Zalmoxis just like in Christianity the prayers are addressed to Jesus.


In a similar bas-relief of white marble found in Italy, at Bologna, are represented, bellow the bull, the wolf, the serpent and scorpion, the two torch-bearers, and above the one to the left the raven. Near each torch-bearer is a pine-tree (?). There were discovered two pairs of statues of these torch-bearers are accompanied by inscriptions, from which we learn that the one who held up his torch was called Cautes, and that the one who held down his torch was called Cautopates. Both names are very old and are coming from the Etruscan mythology, where the name of the sun god was Cautha. He is generally depicted as rising from the sea.
Long ago the learned French antiquary Montfaucon interpreted the three figures of these reliefs as the rising sun (Cautes), the mid-day sun (Mithra), and the setting sun (Cautopates). This would explain why in many reliefs the figure of Cautes, who holds up his torch, is accompanied by a cock, the herald of the dawn. In two Mithraic monuments the torch-bearer who holds up his torch in one hand supports a cock on the other. Hence we infer that this youth, named Cautes, was regarded as an emblem of the rising sun, and we may suppose that in the daily liturgy Cautes was invoked at sunrise, the bull-slaying god Mithra, at noon, and Cautopates at sunset. Therefore, the sacrifice of the bull was performed at the noon. Should be mentioned also that the torch bearers have their legs crossed, the cross being a sign associated to the sun, fact proven also by Constantine's cross.
On the upper border are the busts of the seven planets in the following order from the left: The Sun, Saturn, Venus, Jupiter, Hermes, Mars, and Luna. But the sun was rising from Cauthes (right) and was going to Cautopathes (left), so that the order of the planets is reversed when seen from left to right, following exactly the order of the weekdays: Luna-Monday (Moon’s day), Mars-Tuesday, Hermes-Wednesday, Jupiter-Thursday (Thor’s day), Venus-Friday (Frey’s day), Saturn-Saturday, Sun-Sunday. The seven planets are also corresponding to the degrees of initiation into the mysteries. A text of St. Jerome, confirmed by a series of inscriptions, informs us that there were seven degrees of initiation and that the mystic (sacratus) successively assumed the names of Raven (corax), Occult (cryphius), Soldier Lion (leo), Persian (Perses), Runner of the Sun (heliodromus), and Father (pater). The Dacian tribe called Apuli, also associated number seven to their Sun-God.
The seven planets represented on the Bologna relief raises the question: did Dacians have astronomical knowledge or it came to Roman empire from other populations like the Phoenicians, for instance. The answer is given by Jordanes, who speaks about the astronomical knowledge received by the Getae from Zalmoxis, long time before Romans had any idea about it.
The similarity of the Dacian bas-relief with the one from Bologna, which is more complex might suggest that Dacians borrowed the cult of Mithra from Rome. However, a unique fragmentary relief, discovered at Konjica, in Bosnia, which was part of Dacia, suggests the opposite. It represents six persons and a lion flanked by two columns having spirals carved in opposite directions. These columns suggests that the ritulal took place indoors. The columns are also replacing Cauthes and Cautopates from the other Mithraic reliefs. The right-turned turned spiral corresponds to the rise of the sun (Cauthes) while the left-turned spiral corresponds to the sunset (Cautopates). In the center are two persons sitting at a table on which are loaves. Both have their right arms raised, as for a blessing, attitude in which Mithra and the Sun are regularly represented on the other monuments. The one holding the horn personifies the Moon, just like the horned head from the Dacian relief, while the other personifies the Sun. Before the two persons sitting at the table, is placed a tripod bearing four tiny loaves of bread, each marked with a cross, the sign of the sun. This is suggesting that the bread, symbolizing the food, are a gift offered and blessed by the Sun and the Moon.
The two deities are flanked by a soldier, holding a sword in his right hand, and by a priest having a Dacian cap and holding a big drinking-horn. The drinking horns are typical Scythian, this influence being transmitted to Dacians by the Agathyrsi.
Dacian priests always had fur caps during their rituals, being called "pilleati" (from pilleus = fur cap) because of that. Meanwhile, the Romanian name for the priest's cap is "mitra". Most probably, Dacians used the same word. This explains the origin of the name Mithra. Most probably, Mithra was not the name of the Sun god, but the name of his priest, identified by his cap called "mitra".
The relief shows also two masked persons symbolizing the Raven and the Lion, probably the initiates of the first two degrees.
Some shrines, where Dacians worshiped Apollo, did not have any roof, in order to allow gazing at the sun. Surprisingly, sun worship was revived after 1980, not far from Konjica, where was discovered the above mentioned Mithraic relief. Since then, sun gazing was practiced by many pilgrims, at the holly site from Medjugorje.

The sacrifices, performed to worship Apollo, were at the origin of the epithet "Lykaios" (the wolf) attributed to Apollo, because the wolf was the symbol of death. Apollo was also called the Lykagenet, meaning born from a she-wolf, because was born from Leto transformed into a she-wolf.
The Dacians performed sacrifices on the so called "sun of andesite"of Sarmisegetusa, the main Dacian fortress. It has a diameter of 7 meters and is composed of 10 identical blocks of andesite assembled into a "pie" shape. It is the most massive monument of the Dacian architecture. The blood of the bulls was flowing through the interstices between the 10 blocks into a limestone basin positioned bellow and from there it was drained to a channel. The 10 interstices between the blocks, forming the diameters of the circle or the "rays" of the sun, were precisely oriented towards the points of the rising sun during the solstices.

Tolkien, the author of the "Lord of the rings" placed the action around 4000 BC and "moulded his story accordingly, knowing that this was indeed the founding era of the Ring Lords who governed Euro-Asia (from Transylvania to Tibet) in long distant times."
The Dacian lords, were called Tarabostes, from "tara" meaning tiara while "bostes" was standing from the root i.e.*bhô-s, meaning shining. They were worshipping the sun and were depicted wearing rings in their left hands, exactly like the Faravahar carved on rock at Persepolis, like the Babilonian sun-god Shamash and similar to the Roman god Sol, who had a sphere in his left hand.
In 1925 and 1930 a Parsi scholar, J.M. Unvala, wrote articles which identified the Faravahar as the symbol of the fravashi or "guardian spirit" of Zoroastrian teaching. Fravarti or fravashi, derives from an alternative meaning of "protect," implying the divine protection of the guardian spirit, the fravashi.
As the Winged Sun-disc of Horus it hovered over the Pharaoh of Egypt; it hovered over the Hittite King, and in Assyrian art it is depicted over the Assyrian King, often with weapons in its hands, helping the Assyrian monarch wage war. So when it enters Persian art, it is already a symbol of divine guardianship of the king.
The Dacian Tarabostes had similar prerogatives to the Persian fravashi, being the protectors of the king. The tablet shows two Tarabostes accompanying their king while a foreign delegation is received. The king has in his right hand a ring having a skew cross inside (St. Andreas' cross). Between the king and the delegates is written "VETO", indicating that the Dacian king declined the proposal. As a consequence, the Dacians were attacked, as shown into the next tablet.
The plates are written using a mixture of Greek and Cyrillic alphabets. The second tablet shows the tarabostes outside their fortress, accompanying their king, Diecio, who is represented mounted on a horse, while a foreign army was approaching. Into the lower right corner is written Daci, while behind the foreign army is written Bisino. The plates are probably from the fourth century AD.
The five Tarabostes, having the five rings of Apollo, are the counselors and guardians of the king Diecio and are closely related to the five Hyperborean Perpheres (carriers) described as the servants of Apollo, carriers of wheat straw rings from one community to another. They are mentioned by Herodotus: "at first, they say, the Hyperboreans sent two maidens bearing the sacred offerings, whose names, say the Delians, were Hyperoche and Laodike, and with them for their protection the Hyperboreans sent five men of their nation to attend them, those namely who are now called "Perpheres" and have great honours paid to them in Delos." (Herodotus, Histories, Book IV, 33 )

These five rings were in fact "sacred offerings bound up in wheat straw", mentioned by Herodotus: "sacred offerings bound up in wheat straw are carried from the land of the Hyperboreans and come to the Scythians, and then from the Scythians the neighbouring nations" (Herodotus, Histories, Book IV, 33 ). Most probably, the rings were made from gold and were bounded in straw.
The five sacred rings of Apollo are known today as the Olympic rings and their signification is given by Pausanias:
[5.7.6] As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Cronus was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Dactyls of Ida, who are the same as those called Curetes. They came from Cretan Ida--Heracles, Paeonaeus, Epimedes, Iasius and Idas.
[5.7.7] Heracles, being the eldest, matched his brothers, as a game, in a running-race, and crowned the winner with a branch of wild olive, of which they had such a copious supply that they slept on heaps of its leaves while still green. It is said to have been introduced into Greece by Heracles from the land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of the North Wind. [5.7.8] Olen the Lycian, in his hymn to Achaeia, was the first to say that from these Hyperboreans Achaeia came to Delos. When Melanopus of Cyme composed an ode to Opis and Hecaerge declaring that these, even before Achaeia, came to Delos from the Hyperboreans.
[5.7.9] And Aristeas of Proconnesus--for he too made mention of the Hyperboreans--may perhaps have learnt even more about them from the Issedones, to whom he says in his poem that he came. Heracles of Ida, therefore, has the reputation of being the first to have held, on the occasion I mentioned, the games, and to have called them Olympic. So he established the custom of holding them every fifth year, because he and his brothers were five in number. (Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.7
In the Official 1980 Olympics Guide, it stated that “The interlocking circles found on the altar at Delphi are considered by experts to be at least 3,000 years old.”


THE WARS WITH THE ROMANS

Rome's Antic History (vol. IV) of Th. Mommsen shows that Julius Caesar was prepared to attack the "Danubian wolves", being obsessed by the idea of the destruction of the non-Roman religious centers, which represented major obstacles for the Roman colonization.
During the summertime of the year 87 A.D., one of Rome's most decadent, perverted ancient Emperors, namely Domitianus, sent his armed troops into an attempt to conquer the gold and silver mines from the western Transylvania mountains. The Romans crossed the Danube River, trespassing the Dacian territory on an improvised vessel-made bridge. The Dacian warriors managed to ambush them within the extremely narrow mountain pass of Tapae (a zone also longtime nicknamed "Transylvania's Iron Gates") and to draw an awesome victory over the invaders. As a result, the famous V-th Roman Legion "Aludae" was totally destroyed and its military insignias captured, with its commander- in-chief, veteran General Cornelius Fuscus, being killed on the battlefield. The commander of the Dacians was Diurpaneus, according to the Roman historian Tacitus, a "tarabostes" (namely an aristocrat, according to local denomination) and to whom the king Duras Durbaneus, would grant his throne soon after Tapae's victory. Following deeds, to be carried out during the entire rest of his turbulent life, entitled Thraco-Dacian population to granting him the legendary nickname of Decebal, meaning Lord (Bal) of Dacia (Dece).

Dio Cassius writes in Epitome of Book 67 about Domitian's war: "At this time the Romans became involved in a very serious war with the Dacians, whose king was then Decebalus. This man was shrewd in his understanding of warfare and shrewd also in the waging of war; he judged well when to attack and chose the right moment to retreat; he was an expert in ambuscades and a master in pitched battles; and he knew not only how to follow up a victory well, but also how to manage well a defeat. Hence he showed himself a worthy antagonist of the Romans for a long time. I call the people Dacians, the names used by the natives themselves as well as by the Romans, though I am not ignorant that some Greek writers refer to them as Getae.". Once, Decebalus "cut down the trees that were on the site and put armour on the trunks, in order that the Romans might take them for soldiers and so be frightened and withdraw; and this actually happened."
"Decebalus, the king of the Dacians, was making overtures to Domitian, promising him peace; but Domitian sent Fuscus against him with a large force. On learning of this Decebalus sent to him an embassy anew with the insulting proposal to make peace with the emperor, on condition that every Roman should elect to pay two obols to Decebalus each year; otherwise, he declared, he would make war and inflict great ills upon the Romans." Finally, Domitianus "had given large sums of money to Decebalus on the spot as well as artisans of every trade pertaining to both peace and war, and had promised to keep on giving large sums in the future."

The Dacians were always going to battle under the Dracones, their Wolf-Dragon banner (having a Wolf head ending through a Dragon tail), characteristic for the Thracian armies as well.

"While Rome busies herself with intrigues and disputes, she falls, smitten by the Dacians and by the Ethiopians, the former striking terror because of their fleet, the latter no less because of their arrows." (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Odes, Lib. III, 6.). That’s why before their second Dacian war, the Romans had to build a stone bridge over the Danube: the boat bridges were attacked by the Dacian fleet. The bridge was built between 103-105 AD by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. It had a length of 1,135 m.

In 106 A.D., a large part of the country between Carpathian mountains (Transilvanian Alps) and Danube river, together with a part of Transylvania, were conquered by the Romans. The scenes representing the conquest of Dacia are represented on the Trajan’s Column from Rome. To celebrate the conquest of Dacia, Trajan ordered the longest festivities ever took place in Rome. The celebrations, which lasted for 123 days, while in a year there were only 66 days of festivities, starting from emperor Augustus. It was perhaps the most magnificent spectacle of ancient Rome.
With the the huge amounts of gold taken from Dacia, Trajan built impressive buildings, like Basilica Ulpia and the Trajan's Column.
"The Basilica Ulpia may not have been a building of any profound architectural originality. But there are few monuments of antiquity that enjoyed a greater and more enduring prestige, or that did more to shape the subsequent course of architectural history." - Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture
Numismatic evidence indicates that a quadriga (four-horse chariot) surmounted the central porch and a biga (two-horse chariot) the lateral ones, all presumably of gilt bronze.
The roof of the basilica was covered with tiles of gilded bronze, which especially impressed the traveler Pausanius, who thought it "worth seeing not only for its general beauty but especially for its roof made of bronze" (Description of Greece, V.12.6).
The Vatican archives contain the manuscript of Emperor Trajan's personal doctor, Criton, who was describing, Geta-Dacians, as well. Seemingly he was the one who, after hearing the language commonly spoken by Dacian war-prisoners, is said to have exclaimed: "Why, are these (Dacians) Romans?" And, from then eversince, we were given the nickname of "Romans", today's Romani.
About the year 274 the Roman garrisons withdrew across the river, and took with them all the Daco-Roman colonists who cared to follow them. South of the Danube, in parts of what are now Serbia and Bulgaria, a new home preserved under the name of "Aurelian's Dacia," or Dacia Aureliani, the memory of the old.



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ROMANS' ORIGINS

WOLF TRIBES

The Samnites were the ancient warlike tribes inhabiting the mountainous from the center of southern Italy. These tribes, who spoke Oscan and were probably an offshoot of the Sabini, apparently referred to themselves not as Samnite but by the Oscan form of the word, which appears in Latin as Sabine.
The story recounted by Plutarch that Romulus, the founder of Rome, invited the Sabines to a feast and then carried off (raped) their women, is legendary.
Four cantons formed a Samnite confederation: Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri.
According to Heraclides Ponticus (Fragm. Hist. Gr. 218), the name of the Samnite tribe of the Lucani came from Lykos, meaning wolf. Their neighbors, the Hirpini, took their name from hirpus, the Samnite word for wolf.
At the foot of Mount Soracte lived the Hirpi Sorani, the "wolves of Sora" (the Volscian city). According to the tradition transmitted by Servius, an oracle had advised the Hirpi Sorani to live "like wolves," that is, by rapine. And in fact they were exempt from taxes and from military service, for their biennial rite-which consisted in walking barefoot over burning coals-was believed to ensure the fertility of the country. This ritual was practiced in Thrace and, most probably, in Dacia. It survived up to now in Bulgaria in the form of nestinari circle dance.

The Volscians were living in central Italy, neighbouring the Oscan-speaking Samnites. Volscian was replaced by Latin in the 3rd century BC as the Volsci became Romanized after their submission to Rome (304 BC). Modern knowledge of the language is mostly derived from a single inscription from Velitrae (modern Velletri), Italy, dating from the early 3rd century BC.

The wolf was the symbol of the fugitive, and many gods who protected exiles and outlaws had wolf deities or attributes. Examples like Zeus Lykoreius, Apollo Lykeios, Romulus and Remus, sons of the wolf-god Mars and suckled by the she-wolf of the Capitol, had been "fugitives."

ROMULUS AND REMUS

According to the legend, described by the Roman historian Titus Livius, Rhea Sylvia, beloved sole daughter of the so called "Denominator" King of Alba Longa and, simultaneously, a vestal virgin within God Mars' Temple, is said to have suddenly become pregnant "out of the blue Moon" with Mars, the wolf-god, and eventually delivers twin boys. Her powerful uncle Amelia, apparently not "buying" her explanation, orders his servants to throw the bastards into the Tiber River. However, designated executioners would prove to have a heart and decide to better abandon both babies into a floating basket, going down the wild river's stream only to be, subsequently, found by a "She-wolf", meaning a woman from a neighboring wolf-named tribe, probably the Samanite tribe of the Lucani.
A similar legend is found in Central Asia, in several variants, where the marriage between a supernatural wolf and a princess gave birth to a population or to a dynasty. Most probably, the Romans adopted this legend from east.
According to the legend, Romulus established a place of refuge for exiles and outlaws on the Capitol (F.Altheim, Roman Religion, pp. 260, 261). Most probably, all of them were "wolf people" coming from Thrace and Dacia. Servius informs us that this asylum was under the protection of the god Lucoris who was identified with Lykoreus of Delphi, himself a wolf-god.
Every year on February 15 ancient priests killed a dog and two goats and smeared the foreheads of two boys from noble families with the sacrificial blood as part of the Lupercalia celebration. The ceremony survived until A.D. 494, when Pope Gelasius put an end to the tradition.

Archaeologists have unearthed Lupercale—the sacred cave where, according to legend, a she-wolf nursed the twin founders of Rome and where the city itself was born.
The long-lost underground chamber was found beneath the remains of Emperor Augustus' palace on the Palatine, a 230-foot-tall (70-meter-tall) hill in the center of the city. The 50-foot-deep (15-meter-deep) cavity "show a richly decorated vault encrusted with mosaics and seashells, too rich to be part of a home. That's why we think it could be the ancient sanctuary, but we can't be sure until we find the entrance to the chamber" said Irene Iacopi, the archaeologist in charge of the area.

Rhea Sylvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, being a vestal virgin, lived into the temple of Vesta, located also on the Palatine hill, just as the cave where she give birth to her twins.

The capture of the Sabines originates from the practice of the wolf-people to capture their wives.
After Romans raped their women, the Sabine tribes attacked Rome and in order to survive, the Romans asked their Sabine wives to intervene to prevent the seizing of the city. In accordance with a treaty drawn up between the two peoples, Romulus accepted the Sabine king Titus Tatius as his co ruler. Titus Tatius' early death left Romulus sole king again, and after a long rule he mysteriously disappeared in a storm.
The capture of the Sabines remained in the custom of simulated capture in the Roman marriage ceremony. This custom is present today in the Romanian marriage ceremony, where the groom has to pay for having back the kidnapped bride.

THE WOLF'S PRIESTS

Lupercalia was an ancient Roman festival, conducted annually on February 15 under the superintendence of a corporation of priests called Luperci, from lupus (Latin: "wolf").
Each Lupercalia began with the sacrifice, by the Luperci, of goats and a dog, after which two of the Luperci were led to the altar, their foreheads were touched with a bloody knife, and the blood wiped off with wool dipped in milk; then the ritual required that the two young men laugh. The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs from the skins of the victims and ran in two bands around the Palatine hill, striking with the thongs at any woman who came near them. A blow from the thong was supposed to render a woman fertile.The celebrations of Lupercalia featured wild group dances and orgiastic rites to insure the year's fertility.
In AD 494 the Christian church under Pope Gelasius I appropriated the form of the rite as the Feast of the Purification.
 

THE VLACHS

VLACH, A SLAVIC NAME

The old Slavic god with characteristics equal to those shown by the wolves' shepherd is the god of death Veles/Volos. The Kiev Chronicle ("Povest vremennykh let"), a 12th to 13th century account of events and life in the Kievan state--enumerates seven Russian pagan divinities: Perun, Volos, Khors, Dazhbog, Stribog, Simargl, and Mokosh.
In Old Russian texts, Volos has the epithet “cattle god”, and non-Varangian (non Viking or non foreign) Russians had to swear by him. The cult of the Slavonic divinity Volos (or Veles) was, as Christianity spread, transferred to Saint Vlas. Adopting the functions of Volos, Vlas became patron of cattle and as such he appears in icons, normally surrounded by the flocks and herds under his protection. However Vlas is another name for Vlach. This suggests that Volos and his successor, St. Vlas, were divinities associated to the Vlach shepherds.
Vólos is also the name of a Greek city that was the site of ancient Iolcos, inhabited since the beginning of the Bronze Age (c. 2500 BC) and capital of Mycenaean Thessaly while Veles is a name of a city in FYR of Macedonia. Both these cities derive their name from the Vlach communities which are present even today (the Aromanians).

The Romanian population from Romania, Moldova and, as smaller groups, from the Balkan Peninsula, south and west of the Danube River, were named by their Slav neighbours as Volokh. From this name were derived the terms Vlach or Walach together with the name of the country called Valachia or Wallachia, named in Romanian "Tara Romaneasca" and bordered on the north and northeast by the Carpathian mountains, on the west, south, and east by the Danube river, and on the northeast by the Siret river.

The first mention of Volokhs (Volochs), the name given to the Romanian people by their Slav neighbors, appears in the 9th century. In the Russian Chronicle of Nestor (end of the 10th century or the beginning of the 11th) is written: "when the Volochi attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them, the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula, under the name of Leshi". From the Slavs, the name Voloch passed to the Byzantines, Greeks as "Vlachos", Turks as "Ulaghi", Hungarians as "Olah" and Germans as "Walachen". The celtic tribes, which took their beliefs and philosophy from the Dacians, used to call themselves as Volker (latin Volcae). Between the 8th and the 12th century they were named as Walh, Walasg, Walah by the germans and as Walch between the 12th and the 16th century. The corresponding adjectives wal(a)hisc, wel(hi)sch, waelhisch or welsch, are meaning foreigner, speaker of a foreign language. Some of these Celtic tribes kept similar names up to nowadays as the French speakers of Belgium, Walloons and the Welsh of Britain.

Gunther, bishop of Bamberg, describing the passage of the crusaders through the Balkans in 1064, has this to say about the Wallachs: "We suffered from the fury of the Romans (Wallachs) who were cruel and inhuman even more than is the nature of beasts." (GOLUBOVICH, Biblioteca, II, 72, 195, 266 sq., III, 65)

"The Valachs lived not only in the territory of present day Moravia, but also resided throughout the vast regions of the Carpathian mountains. At the closest distance to us, this included the territory of Upper Slovakia, south Tesin and south Poland. History also instructs us that the Valachs, the mountain shepherds, were involved in a special kind of herdsmanship entirely unique in Central Europe and that they originally came from Balcany in what is now Romania." (Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka /Traces of the Past: Chapters From the History of Moravia and Silesia/, by Zdenek Konecny and Frantisek Mainus /Brno, Blok. 1979)

The people from Maramures, a forest covered land with mountains and valleys in the north, north west of Romania, were nicknamed of the "wolf people" in the Middle Age. They have a fierce individuality and they had been an independent State under Decebalus in the first century AD and fought against invasion after invasion to preserve their customs and folklore. They even successfully resisted the communist collectivization of farms. Few other parts of Europe have preserved so distinctively a rural culture.

VALCANS AND VULCANS

In western Romania, and old Vlach name for wolf was "vâlc" and it was related to Czech "vlkov", having the same meaning.
Valcau is name of a river and of several villages from Salaj county. Valcau (today Valeni) village is attested since 1213, when was named " villa Vulchoi". In 1291-94, it is found under the Hungarian name of Wolkou Magyarvalkó. These changes of name are indicating the similarity of the root words: Valc/Vulch/Wolk.
The name of Blachernae, a suburb of Constantinople, which, according to a tenth-century chronicle, was derived from that of a Scythian Duke Blachernos, killed at Constantinople, might, according to Popa-Lisseanu, be connected with the term Blach/Vlach (Blacernoi, descendant or son of Wallach).
Probably, the Vlachs were also called Valkans. From “Valkan”, which is spelled “Balkan” in Cyrillic alphabet, comes the name of the entire area known today as the Balkan Peninsula. Possibly, these Valkans were also called Valk-kyrs ("kir" meaning Sir, in Greek). Let us note that the German word for church, "kirchen" stems from the Greek "kir", the meaning being "the house of the lord". Some of the Valk-kyrs and their women, the Valk-kyries ("kira" meaning Lady, in Greek), moved to the north of Europe, together with the Gothic tribes, where they established the Valk-halla, Old Norse Valhöll, known from the Norse mythology as the hall of the slain warriors.

In 1837 a large number of pieces of very massive gold plate were found at Pietroasa (Petrossa) in Romania; much of this find was unfortunately broken up and melted, but a considerable portion was saved, and is now in the museum at Bucharest. These magnificent objects are all of solid gold, and consist of large dishes, vases, ewers, baskets of open work, and personal ornaments. The most exquisite piece is a patera, 10 in. in diameter, having in the centre is a seated statuette of a woman, holding a cup, while all round, in high relief, are standing figures of various male and female deities.
The only inscription was found on a ring. Most of it's letters are Etruscan. The translation, made by the German scholar Wilhelm Grimm, was presented to the Science Academy of Berlin in 1856. The inscription was translated as: VULCHANOS O FICET, meaning "Vulchanos made it".

The Dacians used Vulcan as the generic name for blacksmith. Since Dacia had the richest gold and silver mines from Europe, it had also a large number of blacksmiths. Vulcan remained as a place name for mountains and cities, up to today.

The chronicler Dudo of St.Quentin's wrote in Gesta Normannorum about the Dacians, naming them also as Vulcans: "For these Dacians, once ejected from their own lands by means of the reported rite, have savagely landed with duke Anstign where Francia extensively spreads out its tracts. He has attacked a powerful lordship in Gaul; he has unlawfully appropriated the Frankish realm for himself. He has profaned the priesthood; he has tread in the sacristy. With words and deeds he has challenged the king of the Franks who, with his followers, has dolefully remained inside the cities. He rages around the walls of the garrisons as does a wolf around the pens of sheep. He accounts the Franks, withdrawn in fear within their garrisons, of slight value. He pursues them all, as a lion does stags. Whomever he meets, discovered distant from the garrisons, he butchers. It becomes a carnage, as the disconsolate are slaughtered by the spear. The clergy is tormented, punished by a cruel death.
The monastery of Dionysius, Christ's champion, has been reduced to ashes by vanquishing Vulcan." [See Gesta Normannorum, Chapter 2, paragraphs 5 and 6]. The Vulcans were named also Valcans or Valkirs. They are the Valkirs who founded the mythical Valhalla of the Vikings. Their homeland was in the Valkan (Balkan) Peninsula.

VLACHS FROM SOUTH OF DANUBE

Describing the state of the Byzantine Empire in the 12th and 13th century, the Cambridge historian Previte Orton is writing: "The Greek unity of the Empire disappeared. Not to mention (..)the Latin-speaking mountaineers from whom Justinian has descended took shape as a separate people, the Vlachs, who ranged from the Adriatic to the mountains of Transylvania beyond the Danube(..)The Vlachs, or Wallachians, a name akin to Welsh, applied to Latins by Germans and Slavs. Their modern name is Rumanians. (in "Outlines of Medieval History" -Cambridge: at the University Press 1924 p.290)
Justinian I was born near Lake Ohrid, Macedonia, and became Emperor of the Byzantine Empire at A.D. 527.

Rumelia (Turkish Rumeli) was the name of the former Ottoman possessions in the Balkans. The name means "land of the Romans".
Ioannis Romanidis (John the Romanian) tells that by "Greece", the Western European intellectuals meant the ancient territory of Hellas alone, and not the entire area referred to as "Rumeli" by Greek Orthodox Christians (IvµnnhV Rvman¤dhV, Rvman¤a, Rvmiosunh, Roumelh. Thessaloniki: Purnara, 1975, p.209). Hence the identification of the "Romans" as "Greeks" was bound to create an important disjuncture between the intellectuals’ version of "Greece" (the so-called Hellenic ideal) and the popular "Romeic" religious and political identity.

In the 15th and 16th centuries Rumelia functioned as a reservoir of the devsirme (levy of Christian boys), who held the highest posts in the Ottoman army and government. The mid-16th century saw the triumph of the devsirme over the Turkish nobility, which lost almost all its power and position in the capital and returned to its old centres of power in southeastern Europe and Anatolia.
In 1885 Bulgaria annexed Eastern Rumelia, by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) and western Rumelia was divided into the Edirne, Salonika, and Monastir ils (provinces). Monastir was ceded to Serbia and Salonika to Greece; only Edirne remained under Ottoman rule.

 

MACEDO-VLACHS

In 342 BC the daughter of the king of the Getae became the wife of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander of Macedon who, at the age of 7, was rejected from the Olympic Games on grounds that he wouldn't have been a Greek. His parents had brought him Aristotle, the great philosopher, as personal trainer (Aristotle being born from a Greek father and Macedonian mother) in order to teach him the Hellenic language.
The wolf head with dragon tail, the Dacian banner, was also encountered at the Macedonians.
In Macedonian, a Slavic language spoken now in the FYR of Macedonia, the adjective form for Vlach's is "Vlaški", a male Vlach is a "Vlav" and a female Vlach is a "Vlanka".

The Macedo-Vlachs or Aromani/Armâni, who settled in Yugoslavia and on the mountains of Thessaly have generally been identified with the indigenous, pre-Slav populations of Dacian and Thracian origin, many of whom migrated into the less-accessible mountainous areas of Greece and the northern Balkan region because of the Germanic and Avar-Slav invasions and immigration of the 5th-7th centuries.

According to the 12th-century Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, they founded the independent state of Great Walachia, which covered the southern and central Pindus Mountain ranges and part of Macedonia. Another Byzantine historian, Kekaumenos mentions a revolt of Vlachs of Thessaly in 1066, and their ruler Verivoi.

Around 1173, Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, traveling through Thessaly, is mentioning the "nimble as deer" mountaineer Vlachs, and defines the land of the Vlachs as beginning at Lamia. He describes them as living in the mountains like the chamoisses and coming down from them to attack the Greeks. Referring to the Vlachs of Macedonia he said: "no Emperor can conquer them". He visited Constantinople, during the reign of Manuel Comnenus (1143-1180 AD), and writes of the Emperor's special sympathy for the Vlachs because of his origins from that people (Noul Album Macedo-Roman, vol. II, 339). Niketas Honiatis describes a "Great Wallachia" comprising Thesaly, as opposed to other two "Wallachias" quoted by Frantzes: "Little Wallachia" in Acarnania and Aetolia, and an "Upper Wallachia" in Epirus. The existence of these free entities is confirmed by the Western chronicles Geoffroy de Villehardouin, Henri de Valenciennes, Robert de Clary, and by those who wrote about the rebellion of a stem of the Vlachs of the Hemus (Chalhidiki) Peninsula,1196 A.D. .The chronicler of the Ottoman Sultans, Chalcondilas, is mentioning later the Vlachs in filiations with the North Danubian Wallachians.

Choniates wrote, between 1202 and 1214, that the Thessalian mountain region was called "Great Wallachia".
After the establishment of the Latin Empire at Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia was absorbed by the Greek Despotate of Epirus; later it was annexed by the Serbs, and in 1393 it fell to the Turks.) Another Vlach settlement, called Little Walachia, was located in Aetolia and Acarnania (department in west central Greece, with an area of 5,447 sq km).

Moscopole was the second most important city from the Balkans, after Constantinople, and had about 60000 inhabitants in 1760, while Athens had only 10000 inhabitants from whom only 3000 were Greeks! Around Moscopole were other big Aromanian cities like Gramostea, Nicea, Linca, in an area populated exclusively by Aromanians, at altitudes above 1100 m.
Moscopole had 12000 houses from stone plated with marble, 40 churches, an Academy (Hellênikon Frôntistêrion, established in 1744), a big typography, hundreds of workshops and shops and many schools.
In 1769 it was plundered by Turks and Albanians and in 1788, the Albanian troops led by Ali Pasha devastated and burnt it. Many of the Aromanians emigrated in Vienna, Budapest and in Transylvania.

Robert Curzon wrote in 1833, while his lordship was being escorted through the Zigos Pass by a company of mountaineer klephts on leaving the Aromanian city called Mezzovo (Metzovo):
"I was struck by the original manner in which our mountain friends progressed through the country; sometimes they kept with us, but more usually some of them went on one side of the road and some on the other, like men beating for the game, only that they made no noise...They were curious wild animals, as slim as active as cats: their waists were not much more than a foot and a half in circumference, and they appeared to be able to jump over everything". The byzantinists Susan Mountgarret and Desmond Seward wrote: "We had been fortunate to see our Vlach shepherd outside Prizren, although they roam all over the Balkans. They are as common and elusive as wolves. The only other one we saw was tending his sheep up by the source of the river Crni Drim -the "Black Devil"- on the Albanian border, in the back of beyond. He wore a tall shapeless cap of black felt and a long brown homespun cloak. It is hard to imagine a more archaic figure, no doubt a sight well known to Byzantines" (Greek Monitor of Human and Minority Rights vol I. No 3 December 1995). As can be seen in the photo, the shepherd's cane ends with a wolf-dragon shape, similarly to the Dacian banner. This Dacian symbol certifies the Dacian origin of the Aromanian/Vlach shepherds.
The photo was taken, at the beginning of the 20th century, in the Pindus Mountains by Manatia brothers photographers.

Nicholas Trifon wrote one of the most exhaustive researches on the Aromanians, "Les aroumains, un people qui s'en va", Ed. Acratie, Paris, 2005, 470 pg. On the front cover of the book there’s a photo of an Aromanian wolf-snake, with a six petal solar rosette on each side. The wood carved banner is very elaborate and sheds a new light on how might have looked the wolf-dragon Dacian banner, since the only other depictions are the those carved on the Trajan’s Column from Rome.
This Aromanian artifact, called “cariga” (the hook) was used by the shepherds to catch the sheep from the hind legs. This one of the best proofs, that survived up to the 20th century, showing the Dacian origins of the Aromanians and indicating that they were the only population that kept the Dacian banner unchanged for two thousand years!
 

 

 

BLACK VLACHS

THE MORGETS

Morgetia, meaning black (Moro) Getia, was an ethnical center inhabited by the Morgets (black Gets or Getae), an prehelenic community which remained unchanged until the arrival of Romans.
Robert Leighton, a specialist in Italian prehistory at Edinburgh: "it does not seem possible to distinguish with any accuracy or confidence between Ausonians, Morgetians or Sikels on a purely archaeological basis". Later, in Latin sources are mentioned the Nigri Latini - Black Latins! They are the ‘Maurovlachs’ or Black Latins, who lived west of Macedonia, in the ranges from Mount Sar to Mount Pindus. The Morlachs (Mavrovlachi) described as Nigri Latini are mentioned as inhabiting the coast of southern Dalmatia and the mountains of Montenegro, Herzegovina and southern Albania (c.1150).

Morgantina (eastern Sicily) was already inhabited in the prehistory. The oldest ruins which have been found up to now are on the hill of the Cittadella and are dated back to the 13th c. BC. According to the historical data, during this period the central part of Sicily was occupied by the Morgets, a people coming from the mainland. Morgantina is located off Route 288 near Aidone, in the province of Enna, Morgantina may have been settled by a certain King Morges who arrived with colonists from central Italy around 1300 BC. The early Morgetian culture was therefore somewhat distinct from the native Siculian civilisation. Excavations on the slopes of the Cittadella settlement at Morgantina have revealed nearly seventy tombs dating from the late eighth to the mid-fifth century B.C. Often reused for multiple inhumation and cremation burials, these tombs provide significant documentation of the critical period when immigrant Greeks interacted with the substantial indigenous community, introducing foreign objects and practices that modified the local Iron Age funerary rite.

THE MORS

In 1979 the famous Jat historian B.S.Dehiya published a paper entitled "The Mauryas: Their Identity", Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal, Vol. 17 (1979), p.112-133. In this now classic treatise, B.S.Dehiya proved several points, including the following:

The Mauryas, Muras, or rather Mors, were Jats, and hence Scythian or East Iranic in origin.
The clan name of these people was Mor (pronounced as English more) and, coincidentally, Mor also meant a peacock in Indian languages. But the name is not Indian at all, it is from Central Asia, and means "head" (p.113).
The primordial Jat religion was that of the original Iranic race, namely monotheist Sun-worship, which they and their Maga priests carried wherever they migrated (p.119, 128).
The Jat immigrants are close kin of the ancient Gutians of Sumeria (p.131), and the Goths or Gots (p.125), known in Latin as Getae.
Also there is not any proof that the Mors were the same with the Morgets, this hypotesis can't be ruled out either. When the Ottomans conquered the Balkan peninsula, they found the descendants of the Mors or Morgets (literally meaning black Gets), whom they named Kara-Ulaghi or black Vlachs. Turks used a similar name for Armenians, while Armenia was called Karabakh which is a compound of the Turkish word for black (kara) and a Persian word for garden (bakh).


KARAULA, THE BLACK GUARDS

Some of the Vlachs were named "Kara-Ulaghi" by Turks and "Kara-Ulak" by Serbs and Bulgarians meaning "Black Vlachs". Their land was named "Kara-Iflâh" by the Turks (kara=black, Iflâh=land, in Turkish).
In today's Romanian, "kara-ula" means guard. Probably, the black Vlachs were used as guards.
There are accounts about the "Black King" or "Negru Voda", in Romanian. He is a legendary figure, identified by the historians with "Black Radu". The principality of Wallachia was established in 1290, by Radu Negru (Black Radu) or Rudolf the Black. Câmpulung, on the southern watershed of the Transylvanian Alps (Prahova River Valley) was Wallachia's first capital. Curtea de Arges was the second. By 1310, when Basarab the Great came to the throne of Wallachia as the second prince of the line, a state in being had definitely been established.

Many Aromanians originating from Greek side of Macedonia have their names beginning with "Kara". In Greek, "kara" means "head", just like "mor" in central Asian languages. It is possible that the names of the persons beginning with "kara" to originate rather from "head" than from "black". Looks like the original meaning of the word "kara" was "head", just like in to the case of the word "mor". Because the populations using these names for themselves had darker skins, the meaning of both words was changed to "black".
A part of Cincari are nomadic herdsmen known by various names: Karavunci, Karaguni, Karakacani, Kucivlasi.

MORLACHS FROM MONTENEGRO

Vlachs known as Morlachs, or Mavrovlachi, Greek "Mavrovlachos", meaning "black Vlach" (mavro=black, in Greek), inhabited areas in the mountains of Montenegro, meaning "Black Mountain" in Italian, Hercegovina, and northern Albania as well as on the southern coast of Dalmatia, where they founded Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik). In the 14th century some Morlachs moved northward into Croatia.

Here is what the Yugoslav Encyclopedia (Enciklopedija Leksikografskog Zavoda, Zagreb, 1968, book 4) tells about them: “Morlaki, (Murlaki; from Ital. Morlacco, being shortening of Greek form Mauroblahos - mauros - black, Blahos - Vlah; Maurovlasi or Morovlasi, in latin sources called Nigri Latini - Black Latins), name used for shepherds of Roman origin or romanized, that kept themselves in Balkan peninsula mountains after Slavic colonization in 6th century, keeping some linguistic and somatic characteristics. Morlaki (Morovlasi) are called those Romanian shepherds that, running from Turks towards west, settled in mountains from Skadar lake [on border of Montenegro and Albania] to Velebit [in northern Croatian coast]. So, a group of them came to island Krk 1450-80 (villages Dubasnica and Poljica) where some words and roots of Romanian language, interwove with Slavic words (as in the prayer "Our father"), were kept until beginning of 19th century. Some groups of those Romanians came to Trieste [on Italian-Slovenian border], and very long held themselves in some villages in Istria. The Italian form Morlacco is used already in 15th century, and in 16th century that is the name for (any) local people living in mountains from Kotor [in Montenegro] to Kvarner [around city of Rijeka]. Lots of Morlaks was in Velebit mountains, so that region was by Venetians called Morlachia. The Velebit mountain was called Montagne della Morlacca, and sea way under the mountain, closed by the islands, was Morlakian channel (Canale della Morlacca).”

Prof. John G. Nandris from the University College of London, writes in Ethnoarchaeology and Latinity in the mountains of southern Velebit (in Transhumant pastoralism in Southern Europe -1999): "The Morlachs were a Mediaeval population, whose name has now vanished but is historically attested from Dalmatia. They were Latin speakers, and we can probably equate them with the Aromani (Vlachs, Cincari) of the Balkan peninsula south of Danube (..) It was confirmed during the 1985 fieldwork that although the shepherds of Velebit are Croat speakers, they still employ a system of Latin numerals to enumerate sheep. These are identical to the Romanian or Aromanian numerals. This legacy indicates that the population from whom the present shepherds learned the techniques of pastoralism were certainly Latin speakers."

According to Buschan "Die Volker Europas'', c. 1910, the Maurovlachen (Maurovlachians) were black Vlachians; they were nomadic shepherds, like the Aromunen and Turkish shepherds; their name was mentioned in the 10th century in the Byzantine empire; in the 11th century in Bulgaria and in later times in the western part of the Balkan peninsula.

Krajina region was an area first settled by a pastoral, nomadic people known as Vlachs, or Morlachs because they had darker skin than their Slavic neighbours. From the 16th century, the Austrians invited them to settle the Vojna Krajina (military frontier) where they were free of serfdom in return for defending the border (roughly that of present Bosnia) against the Turks. By this time most of them were Orthodox.
In 1630 Ferdinand II issued the "Statuta Valachorum"; (Law of the Vlachs), which defined the status of the Vlachs.

Allers Illustrerede Konversations-Leksikon' (Copenhagen 1906-10) says that the Morlaks are some of the best sailors in the Austrian navy.

The Croatian census of 1991 revealed 22 persons who declared themselves as "Morlachs"…


The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras was a mystery religion practised in the Roman Empire, best attested in Rome and Ostia, Mauretania, Britain and in the provinces along the Rhine and Danube frontier. Today, the beliefs of this cult are also referred to as Mithraism, but this is a recent development.


Principles of Mithraism
Romans encountered worship of the deity Mithras as part of Zoroastrianism in the eastern provinces of the empire, particularly in Asia Minor (now modern Turkey).

Mithraism is best documented in the form it had acquired in the later Roman Empire. It was an initiatory 'mystery religion,' passed from initiate to initiate, like the Eleusinian Mysteries. It was not based on a supernaturally revealed body of scripture, and hence very little written documentary evidence survives. Soldiers appeared to be the most plentiful followers of Mithraism, and women were apparently not allowed to join.

Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century of the Common Era (hereafter CE), and flourished from the second through the fourth century BCE. during which it came under the influence of Greek and Roman mythologies. The Mithraic cult maintained secrecy. Its teaching were only reveled to initiates.



The evidence for this cult is mostly archaeological, consisting of the remains of mithraic temples, dedicatory inscriptions, and iconographic representations of the god and other aspects of the cult in stone sculpture, sculpted stone relief, wall painting, and mosaic. There is very little literary evidence pertaining to the cult. Remains of Mithraic temples can be found throughout the Roman Empire, from Palestine across north of Africa, and across central Europe to northern England.

For over three hundred years the rulers of the Roman Empire worshipped the god Mithras. In Rome, more than a hundred inscriptions dedicated to Mithras have been found, in addition to 75 sculpture fragments, and aseries of Mithraic temples situated in all parts of the city. One of the largest Mithraic temples built in Italy now lies under the present site of the Church of St. Clemente, near the Colosseum in Rome.




The Mithraeum


It is known that the center of the cult was the Mithraeum, either an adapted natural cave or cavern, preferably sanctified by previous local religious usage, or an artificial building imitating a cavern. Mithraea were dark and windowless, even if they were not actually in a subterranean space or in a natural cave. When possible, the mithraeum was constructed within or below an existing building. The site of a mithraeum may also be identified by its separate entrance or vestibule, its "cave", called the 'spelaeum' or 'spelunca', with raised benches along the side walls for the ritual meal, and its sanctuary at the far end, often in a recess, before which the pedestal-like altar stood.

Many mithraea that follow this basic plan are scattered over much of the Empire's former area, particularly where the legions were stationed along the frontiers. Others may be recognized by their characteristic layout, even though converted as crypts beneath Christian churches.



In every Mithraic temple, the place of honor was occupied by a representation of Mithras killing a sacred bull, called a tauroctony. It has been more recently proposed that the tauroctony is a symbolic representation of the constellations rather than an originally Iranian animal sacrifice scene (Ulansey, 1991).



Mithras is associated with Perseus, whose constellation is above that of the bull. A serpent, a scorpion, a dog, and a raven are present, also thought to represent associated constellations.

From the structure of the mithraea it is possible to surmise that worshippers would have gathered for a common meal along the reclining couches lining the walls. It is worth noting that most temples could hold only thirty or forty individuals.


Mithraic Ranks
The members of a mithraeum were divided into seven ranks. All members were apparently expected to progress through the first four ranks, while only a few would go on to the three higher ranks. The first four ranks seem to represent spiritual progress, while the other three appear to have been specialized offices. The seven ranks were:


Corax (raven)
Nymphus (bride)
Miles (soldier)
Leo (lion)
Perses (Persian)
Heliodromus (sun-courier)
Pater (father)

The new initiate became a Corax, while the Leo was an adept. The titles of the first four ranks suggest the possibility that advancement through the ranks was based on introspection and spiritual growth.

The Iconography of Mithraism
In the absence of any Mithraist scripture, all we know about Mithras is what can be deduced from his images in the mithraea that have survived.

Some depictions show Mithras carrying a rock on his back, much as Atlas did, and/or wearing a cape that had the starry sky as its inside lining. A bronze image of Mithras, emerging from an egg-shaped zodiac ring, found associated with a mithraeum along Hadrian's Wall (now at the University of Newcastle), and an inscription from the city of Rome suggest that Mithras may have been seen as the Orphic creator-god Phanes who emerged from the cosmic egg at the beginning of time, bringing the universe into existence. This view is reinforced by a bas-relief at the Estense Museum in Modena, Italy, which shows Phanes coming from an egg, surrounded by the twelve signs of the zodiac, in an image very similar to that at Newcastle.



He is sometimes depicted as a man being born or reborn from a rock (the 'petra genetrix), typically with the snake Ouroboros wrapped around it. It is commonly believed that the cave in Mithraism imagery represents the cosmos, and the rock is the cosmos seen from the outside; hence the description of this god as 'rising from the dead'. According to some accounts, Mithras died, was buried in a cavernous rock tomb, and was resurrected.

Another more widely accepted interpretation takes its clue from the writer Porphyry, who recorded that the cave pictured in the tauroctony was intended to be "an image of the cosmos." According to this view, the cave depicted in that image may represent the "great cave" of the sky. This interpretation was supported by research by K. B. Stark in 1869, with astronomical support by Roger Beck (1984 and 1988), David Ulansey (1989) and Noel Swerdlow (1991). This interpretation is reinforced by the constant presence in Mithraic imagery of heavenly objects - such as stars, the moon, and the sun - and symbols for the signs of the Zodiac.

One of the central motifs of Mithraism is the tauroctony, the myth of sacrifice by Mithra of a sacred bull created by the supreme deity Ahura Mazda, which Mithra stabs to death in the cave, having been instructed to do so by a crow, sent from Ahura Mazda. In this myth, from the body of the dying bull spring plants, animals, and all the beneficial things of the earth. It is thought that the bull represents the constellation of Taurus. However, in the period we are considering, the sun at the Vernal Equinox had left Taurus two thousand years before, and was in the process of moving from Aries to Pisces.

In light of this interpretation, it has been suggested in recent times that the Mithraic religion is somehow connected to the end of the astrological "age of Taurus," and the beginning of the "age of Aries," which took place about the year 2000 BC. It has even been speculated that the religion may have originated at that time (although there is no record of it until the 2nd century BC).

The identification of an "age" with a particular zodiac constellation is based on the sun's position during the vernal equinox. Before 2000 BC, the Sun could have been seen against the stars of the constellation of Taurus at the time of vernal equinox [had there been an eclipse]. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, on average every 2,160 years the Sun appears against the stars of a new constellation at vernal equinox. The current astrological age started when the equinox precessed into the constellation of Pisces, in about the year 150 BC, with the "Age of Aquarius" starting in AD 2600.

Indeed, the constellations common in the sky from about 4000 BC to 2000 BC were Taurus the Bull, Canis Minor the Dog, Hydra the Snake, Corvus the Raven, and Scorpio the Scorpion, all of which may be identified in the fresco from Dura-Europos, a standard Hellenistic iconography. Further support for this theory is the presence of a lion and a cup in some depictions of the tauroctony: indeed Leo (a lion) and Aquarius ("the cup-bearer") were the constellations seen as the northernmost (summer solstice) and southernmost (winter solstice) positions in the sky during the age of Taurus.

The precession of the equinoxes was discovered, or at least publicized, by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus in the 2nd century BC. Whether the phenomenon was known by Mithraists previously is unknown. In any case, Mithras was presumed to be very powerful if he was able to rotate the heavens, and thus 'kill the bull' or displacing Taurus as the reigning image in the heavens.

Some commentators surmise that the Mithraists worshipped Mithras as the mediator between Man and the supreme God of the upper and nether world. Other commentators, inspired by James Frazer's theories, have additionally labeled Mithras a mystery religion with a life-death-rebirth deity, comparable to Isis, the resurrected Jesus or the Persephone/Demeter cult of the Eleusinian Mysteries.









History of Mithraism
Mithraism In Persia (Iran)

Mithraism is generally considered to be of Persian origins, specifically an outgrowth of Zoroastrian culture, though not of Zoroaster's teachings. For Zoroaster was a monotheist, for whom Ahuramazda was the One god. Darius the Great was equally stringent in the official monotheism of his reign: no god but Ahuramazda is ever mentioned in any of the numerous inscriptions that survive of his reign (521-485 BC).

However, the official cult is rarely the sole religion in an area. The following inscription from Susa of Artaxerxes II Mnemon (404-358 BC) demonstrates that not all the Achaemenid kings were as purely Zoroastrian as Darius the Great.

It is tempting to identify the Roman Mithras with the Persian Mithra, except that there is no known Persian legend or text about Mithra killing a bull or being associated with other animals. On the other hand, there is a story of Ahriman, the evil god in popular developments of Zoroastrianism, killing a bull. It is also hard to explain how the Sun-god Mithra would come to be worshipped in the windowless, cave-like mithraeum.

A possible link between Persia and Rome, which could be the stage for these changes, may be the kingdoms of Parthia and Pontus in Asia Minor. Several of their kings were called Mithradates, meaning "given by Mithra", starting with Mithradates I of Parthia (died 138 BC). It would seem that, in those kingdoms, Mithra was a god whose power lent luster even to a king. And it was at Pergamum, in the 2nd century BC, that Greek sculptors started to produce bas-relief imagery of Mithra Taurocthonos, "Mithra the bull-slayer." Although the cult of Mithras never caught on in the Greek homeland, those sculptures may indicate the route between Persian Mithra and Roman Mithras.

Around the first century AD, the Greek historian Plutarch wrote about pirates of Cilicia who practiced the Mithraic "secret rites" around 67 BC. Since Cilicia was the coastal province in the southeast of Anatolia, the Mithras mentioned by Plutarch may have been worship of the Persian god Mithra; or may have been associated with Ahriman, the Persian god who killed a bull.

In Persia Mithra was the protector God of the tribal society until the Zoroaster's reformation of Persian polytheism (628-55BC). Mithra like the rest of the gods and goddess of the Iranian Pantheon was stripped of his sovereignty, and all his powers and attributes were bestowed upon Zarathustra.

Mithraism began in Persia where originally a multitude of gods were worshipped. Amongst them were Ahura-Mazda, god of the skies, and Ahriman, god of darkness. In the sixth and seventh century B.C., a vast reformation of the Persian pantheon was undertaken by Zarathustra (known in Greek as Zoroaster), a prophet from the kingdom of Bactria. The stature of Ahura-Mazda was elevated to that of supreme god of goodness, whereas the god Ahriman became the ultimate embodiment of evil.

In the same way that Ahkenaton, Abraham, Heliogabalus, and Mohammed later initiated henotheistic cults from the worship of their respective deities, Zarathustra created a henotheistic dualism with the gods Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman. As a result of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews (597 B.C.) and their later emancipation by King Cyrus the Great of Persia (538 B.C.), Zoroastrian dualism was to influence the Jewish belief in the existence of HaShatan, the malicious Adversary of the god Yahweh, and later permit the evolution of the Christian Satan-Jehovah dichotomy. Persian religious dualism became the foundation of an ethical system that has lasted until this day.

The reformation of Zarathustra retained the hundreds of Persian deities, assembling them into a complex hierarchical system of 'Immortals' and 'Adored Ones' under the rule of either Ahura- Mazda or Ahriman. Within this vast pantheon, Mithras gained the title of 'Judger of Souls'. He became the divine representative of Ahura-Mazda on earth, and was directed to protect the righteous from the demonic forces of Ahriman. Mithras was called omniscient, undeceivable, infallible, eternally watchful, and never-resting.

In the Avesta, the holy book of the religion of Zarathustra, Ahura-Mazda was said to have created Mithras in order to guarantee the authority of contracts and the keeping of promises.

The name Mithras was the Persian word for 'contract'.

The divine duty of Mithras was to ensure general prosperity through good contractual relations between men. It was believed that misfortune would befall the entire land if a contract was ever broken.

Ahura-Mazda was said to have created Mithras to be as great and worthy as himself. He would fight the spirits of evil to protect the creations of Ahura-Mazda and cause even Ahriman to tremble. Mithras was seen as the protector of just souls from demons seeking to drag them down to Hell, and the guide of these souls to Paradise. As Lord of the Sky, he took the role of psychopomp, conducting the souls of the righteous dead to paradise.

According to Persian traditions, the god Mithras was actually incarnated into the human form of the Saviour expected by Zarathustra. Mithras was born of Anahita, an immaculate virgin mother once worshipped as a fertility goddess before the hierarchical reformation. Anahita was said to have conceived the Saviour from the seed of Zarathustra preserved in the waters of Lake Hamun in the Persian province of Sistan. Mithra's ascension to heaven was said to have occurred in 208 B.C., 64 years after his birth. Parthian coins and documents bear a double date with this 64 year interval.

Mithras was 'The Great King' highly revered by the nobility and monarchs, who looked upon him as their special protector. A great number of the nobility took theophorous (god-bearing) names compounded with Mithras. The title of the god Mithras was used in the dynasties of Pontus, Parthia, Cappadocia, Armenia and Commagene by emperors with the name Mithradates. Mithradates VI, king of Pontus (northern Turkey) in 120-63 B.C. became famous for being the first monarch to practice immunization by taking poisons in gradually increased doses. The terms mithridatism and mithridate (a pharmacological elixir) were named after him. The Parthian princes of Armenia were all priests of Mithras, and an entire district of this land was dedicated to the Virgin Mother Anahita. Many Mithraeums, or Mithraic temples, were built in Armenia, which remained one of the last strongholds of Mithraism.

The largest near-eastern Mithtraeum was built in western Persia at Kangavar, dedicated to 'Anahita, the Immaculate Virgin Mother of the Lord Mithras'. Other Mithraic temples were built in Khuzestan and in Central Iran near present-day Mahallat, where at the temple of Khorheh a few tall columns still stand. Excavations in Nisa, later renamed Mithradatkirt, have uncovered Mithraic mausoleums and shrines. Mithraic sanctuaries and mausoleums were built in the city of Hatra in upper Mesopotamia. West of Hatra at Dura Europos, Mithraeums were found with figures of Mithras on horseback.

Persian Mithraism was more a collection of traditions and rites than a body of doctrines. However, once the Babylonians took the Mithraic rituals and mythology from the Persians, they thoroughly refined its theology. The Babylonian clergy assimilated Ahura-Mazda to the god Baal, Anahita to the goddess Ishtar, and Mithras to Shamash, their god of justice, victory and protection (and the sun god from whom King Hammurabi received his code of laws in the 18th century B.C.) As a result of the solar and astronomical associations of the Babylonians, Mithras later was referred to by Roman worshippers as 'Sol invictus', or the invincible sun.

The sun itself was considered to be "the eye of Mithras". The Persian crown, from which all present day crowns are derived, was designed to represent the golden sun-disc sacred to Mithras.

As a deity connected with the sun and its life-giving powers, Mithras was known as 'The Lord of the Wide Pastures' who was believed to cause the plants to spring forth from the ground. In the time of Cyrus and Darius the Great, the rulers of Persia received the first fruits of the fall harvest at the festival of Mehragan. At this time they wore their most brilliant clothing and drank wine. In the Persian calendar, the seventh month and the sixteenth day of each month were also dedicated to Mithras.

According to Persian mythology, Mithras was born of a virgin given the title 'Mother of God'. The God remained celibate throughout his life, and valued self-control, renunciation and resistance to sensuality among his worshippers. Mithras represented a system of ethics in which brotherhood was encouraged in order to unify against the forces of evil.

The Persians called Mithras 'The Mediator' since he was believed to stand between the light of Ahura-Mazda and the darkness of Ahriman. He was said to have 1000 eyes, expressing the conviction that no man could conceal his wrongdoing from the god. Mithras was known as the God of Truth, and Lord of Heavenly Light, and said to have stated "I am a star which goes with thee and shines out of the depths".

Mithras was worshipped as guardian of arms, and patron of soldiers and armies. The handshake was developed by those who worshipped him as a token of friendship and as a gesture to show that you were unarmed. When Mithras later became the Roman god of contracts, the handshake gesture was imported throughout the Mediterranean and Europe by Roman soldiers.

In Armenian tradition, Mithras was believed to shut himself up in a cave from which he emerged once a year, born anew. The Persians introduced initiates to the mysteries in natural caves, according to Porphyry, the third century neoplatonic philosopher. These cave temples were created in the image of the World Cave that Mithras had created, according to the Persian creation myth.

As 'God of Truth and Integrity', Mithras was invoked in solemn oaths to pledge the fulfillment of contracts and punish liars. He was believed to maintain peace, wisdom, honour, prosperity, and cause harmony to reign among all his worshippers. According to the Avesta, Mithras could decide when different periods of world history were completed. He would judge mortal souls at death and brandish his mace over hell three times each day so that demons would not inflict greater punishment on sinners than they deserved.


Mithraism In Eary Rome
Mithraism arrived fully mature at Rome with the return of the legions from the east in the first century BC. As an action god of armies and the champion of heroes, he appealed to the professional Roman soldiers, who carried his cult to Iberia, Britain, the German frontiers and Dacia.

The cult of Mithras began to attract attention at Rome about the end of the first century AD, perhaps in connection with the conquest of then-Zoroastrian Armenia. The earliest material evidence for the Roman worship of Mithras dates from that period, in a record of Roman soldiers who came from the military garrison at Carnuntum in the Roman province of Upper Pannonia (near the Danube River in modern Austria, near the Hungarian border). These soldiers fought against the Parthians and were involved in the suppression of the revolts in Jerusalem from 60 A.D. to about 70 A.D. When they returned home, they made Mithraic dedications, probably in the year 71 or 72.

Statius mentions the typical Mithraic relief in his Thebaid (Book i. 719,720), around A. D. 80; Plutarch's Life of Pompey also makes it clear that the worship of Mithras was well known at that time.

By A. D. 200, Mithraism had spread widely through the army, and also among traders and slaves. The German frontiers have yielded most of the archaeological evidence of its prosperity: small cult objects connected with Mithra turn up in archaeological digs from Romania to Hadrian's Wall.


Mithraism in the Roman Empire
At Rome, the third century emperors encouraged Mithraism, because of the support which it afforded to the divine nature of monarchs. Mithras thus became the giver of authority and victory to the Imperial House. From the time of Commodus, who participated in its mysteries, its supporters were to be found in all classes.

Concentrations of Mithraic temples are found on the outskirts of the Roman empire: along Hadrian's wall in northern England three mithraea have been identified, at Housesteads, Carrawburgh and Rudchester. The discoveries are in the University of Newcastle's Museum of Antiquities, where a mithraeum has been recreated. Recent excavations in London have uncovered the remains of a Mithraic temple near to the center of the once walled Roman settlement, on the bank of the Walbrook stream. Mithraea have also been found along the Danube and Rhine river frontier, in the province of Dacia (where in 2003 a temple was found in Alba-Iulia) and as far afield as Numidia in North Africa.

As would be expected, Mithraic ruins are also found in the port city of Ostia, and in Rome the capital, where as many as seven hundred mithraea may have existed (a dozen have been identified). Its importance at Rome may be judged from the abundance of monumental remains: more than 75 pieces of sculpture, 100 Mithraic inscriptions, and ruins of temples and shrines in all parts of the city and its suburbs. A well-preserved late 2nd century mithraeum, with its altar and built-in stone benches, originally built beneath a Roman house (as was a common practice), survives in the crypt over which has been built the Basilica of San Clemente, Rome.


India -- Hindu
Mithra is an Indo-Iranian sun god. In Hinduism he is praised as the binomial Mitra-Varuna. A hymn is also dedicated to him alone in Rig Veda. He is the Lord of Heavenly light, protector of truth, and is invoked when a contract or oath is taken.




Babylonian
The Babylonians also incorporated their belief in destiny into the Mithraic worship of Zurvan, the Persian god of infinite time and father of the gods Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman. They superimposed astrology, the use of the zodiac, and the deification of the four seasons onto the Persian rites of Mithraism.




China
Mithra is also seen in Chinese mythology, where he is known as The Friend. Mithra is represented as a Military General in Chinese statues, and is considered to be the friend of man in this life and his protector against evil in the next.









The Demise of Mithraism
Worship of the sun (Sol) did exist within the indigenous Roman pantheon, as a minor part, and always as a pairing with the moon. However, in the East, there were many solar deities, including the Greek Helios, who was largely displaced by Apollo. By the 3rd century, the popular cults of Apollo and Mithras had started to merge into the syncretic cult known as Sol Invictus, and in 274 CE the emperor Aurelian (whose mother had been a priestess of the sun) made worship of Sol Invictus official. Subsequently Aurelian built a splendid new temple in Rome, and created a new body of priests to support it (pontifex solis invicti), attributing his victories in the East to Sol Invictus. But none of this affected the existing cult of Mithras, which remained a non-official cult. Some senators held positions in both cults.

However, this period was also the beginning of the decline of Mithraism, as Dacia was lost to the empire, and invasions of the northern peoples resulted in the destruction of temples along a great stretch of frontier, the main stronghold of the cult. The spread of Christianity through the Empire, boosted by Constantine's tolerance of it from around 310 CE, also took its toll - particularly as Christianity admitted women while Mithraism did not, which obviously limited its potential for rapid growth.

The reign of Julian, who attempted to restore the faith, and suppress Christianity, and the usurpation of Eugenius renewed the hopes of its devotees, but the decree secured by Theodosius in 394, totally forbidding non-Christian worship, may be considered the end of Mithraism's formal public existence.Mithraism still survived in certain cantons of the Alps into the 5th century, and clung to life with more tenacity in its Eastern homelands. Its eventual successor, as the carrier of Persian religion to the West, was Manichaeism, which competed strenuously with Christianity for the status of world-religion.


Connections
There is much speculation that Christian beliefs were influenced by Mithraic belief. Ernest Renan, in The Origins of Christianity, promoted the idea that Mithraism was the prime competitor to Christianity in the second through the fourth century AD, although most scholars feel the written claims that the emperors Nero, Commodus, Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and the Tetrarchs were initiates are dubious at best, and there is no evidence that Mithraic worship was accorded any official status as a Roman cult. Except in its official form as 'Sol Invictus,' the first universal religion of the Greco Roman world.

Bull and cave themes are found in Christian shrines dedicated to the archangel Michael, who, after the officialization of Christianity, became the patron Saint of soldiers. Many of those shrines were converted Mithraea, for instance the sacred cavern at Monte Gargano in Apulia, refounded in 493. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that the Mithras cult was transferred to the previously unvenerated archangel.

Bull and crypt are linked in the Christian saint Saturnin (frequently "Sernin" or "Saturninus") of Toulouse, France. The Mithraeum is retained as a crypt under his earliest church, evocatively named "Notre-Dame du Taur."

It has also been speculated that the ancient Orobouros of Mithraism (the encircling serpent about to bite its own tail) was adapted for a Christian symbol of the limited confines of time and space. The snake around a rock also is reminscent of the Midgard serpent, Jormungandr, who was said to surround Midgard (the Earth) according to Norse traditions.

Christians would argue that because the Gospels were written mostly before 100 and that since little is known of Roman Mithraism until after 100 that it is not plausible to say that Christianity borrowed any of its doctrines from Mithraism; some Christians have suggested that Mithraism may have borrowed some elements from Christianity. Other, non-Christian scholars disagree on both the dating of the gospels and with the conclusions made.

A better determinant of borrowing, is to compare core doctrines between Christianity and Mithraism. The adoption of imagery or icons or festivals is fairly peripheral (such as the adoption by christendom of winter solstice or Saturnalia festivals as Christmas) but seldom reflects basic religious tenets. A further example of this is the various gnostic cults (such as Pelagianism) which adopted the personage of Jesus or the concept of a Savior, yet did not adopt the underlying doctrinal elements.









Parallels to Christianity
According to Martin A. Larson, in The Story of Christian Origins(1977), Mithraism and Christianity derived from the same sources, originally from the savior cult of Osiris. However, Larson believes that the Essenes were Jewish Pythagoreans, whose members not only gave birth to Christianity as Essenes, but were directly influenced by Zoroastrian doctrine as Pythagoreans. Mithraism, an established but exclusive sect devoted to social justice, was assimilated by state-sponsored Christianity before being disposed of in name.

Though no texts of Mithraism survive, various fragments, inscriptions and critical commentaries show that Mithraism and early Christianity both possess similar religious doctrines. The resemblances between the two churches were so striking as to impress even the minds of antiquity (Cumont, 193). From their common Zoroastrian sources, Mithraism first held that all souls pre-existed in the ethereal regions, and inhabited a body upon birth. Life then becomes a great struggle between good and evil, spirit and body, the children of light versus the children of darkness (identical to Pythagoreanism). All souls were to be judged by Mithra (represented as a bull) with the Elect going to heaven, and the earthly and evil being annihilated in a great battle. Mithraism divided the human race into three classes: the spiritual Elect, the wicked, and those who try to be good but can't seem to overcome evil. The Elect go straight to heaven, while the good-intentioned wait until judgment to be resurrected, where the wicked will be destroyed.

Both Christianity and Mithraism prided themselves in brotherhood and organized their members as church congregations. Both religions purified themselves through baptism, and each participated in the same type of sacrament, bread and wine. Mithra was born in a cave; a cave is likewise the setting for the nativity of Jesus in the widely-read and influential Gospel of James, which though not canonical is the earliest surviving document attesting the veneration of Mary and claiming her continuing virginity. Both nativities were celebrated on December 25th, and each savior was visited by shepherds with gifts. Both Mithraism and Christianity considered Sunday their holy day, despite early Christianity observing the Jewish Sabbath for centuries. Many have noted that the title of Pope is found in Mithraic doctrine and seemingly prohibited in Christian doctrine. The words Peter (rock) and mass (sacrament) have original significance in Mithraism.

Both Mithraism and early Christianity considered abstinence, celibacy, and self-control to be among their highest virtues. Both had similar beliefs about the world, destiny, heaven and hell, and the immortality of the soul. Their conceptions of the battles between good and evil were almost identical, with Christianity adopting millennial epochs that were integral to Mithraism from Zoroastrianism. "They both admitted to the existence of a heaven inhabited by beautiful ones ... and a hell peopled by demons situate in the bowels of earth." (Cumont, 191) Both religions placed a flood at the beginning of history, and both believed in revelation as key to their doctrine. Both awaited the last judgment and resurrection of the dead after the final conflagration of the universe. Christ and Mithra were both referred to directly as the "Logos" (Larson 184).

It is probable that Christianity emphasized common features that attracted Mithra followers, perhaps the crucifix appealed to those Mithra followers who had crosses already branded on their foreheads. In art, the halo was a well-known depiction of Mithra, a true sun god, but which also depicts Christ in the same way. However, the similiarities were an embarrassment, and differences such as star gazing were persecuted as heresy. Trypho wrote that ³Justin Martyr declared that in a certain cave near Bethlehem ... Mary brought forth the Christ ... those who presided over the mysteries of Mithras were stirred up by the devil to say that in a place called among them a cave, they were initiated by them² (LXXVIII). Tertullian seems to have feared the parallels between Mithraism and Christianity the most, demonizing Mithraism as a perverted truth planted by the devil.

Mithraism Wikipedia







Degrees of Initiation

Zurvan

There were seven degrees of initiation, these degrees allowed the neophyte to proceed through the seven celestial bodies. Allowing the reversing of the human soul's descend into the world at birth.

The first degree was of corax (Raven) under Mercury. This stage symbolized death of neophyte. In ancient Persia it was a custom to expose dead bodies to be eaten by ravens on funeral towers.

Raven as symbol of death can also be seen in some tarot packs as card 13 instead of Grim Reaper [13=1+3=4=4th Dimension=Time - Grim Reaper=Time.]

At this stage the neophyte dies and is re-born into a spiritual path.

A mantra was given to him to repeat and his sins were washed away by baptism in water.

The next degree is of Nymphus (male-bride) under Venus. The neophyte wears a veil and carries a lamp in his hand. He is unable to see the 'light of truth' until the 'veil of reality' is lifted. He is vowed to the cult, and becomes celibate for at least duration of this stage.

He is a bride (lover) of Mithra. He also offers a cup of water to the statute of Mithra, the cup is his heart and the water is his love.

On reaching Miles (solider) under Mars, the neophyte had to kneel (submission to religious authority, naked (casting off old life), blindfolded with hands tied. He was then offered a crown on the point of a sword .

Once crowned, his binds were cut with a single stroke of the sword and blindfold removed. This represented his liberation from bondage's of the material world.

He would then remove the crown from his head and placing it on his shoulder, saying: 'Mithra is my only crown'.

This also symbolizes the removing the head(intellect) itself, allowing Mithra to be the guide.

At this stage the neophyte starts the real battle against his lower self, a solider is one actively struggles with the real enemy.

The stage of Leo (lion) is first of the senior degrees and is under Jupiter. He is entering the element of fire. Therefore the lions were not allowed to touch water during the ritual, and instead honey was offered to the initiate to wash his hands and anoint his tongue. The lions carry the food for the ritual meal that was prepared by the lower grades to the ritual feast, and take part. Lions duties included attending the sacred altar flame. The ritual feast represented Mithras last supper of bread and wine with his companions, before his ascend to the heavens in Sun's chariot.

The degree of Perses (Persian) under moon, The initiate to this grade obtained through it an affiliation to that race which alone was worthy of receiving the highest revelations of wisdom of Magi (Fanz Cumont, Rapport sur une mission a Rome, in Academic des inscrition et Belles-Letters, Comptes Rendes, 1945 p.418).

The emblem for this stage was a harpe, the harpe that Persus decapitated the Gorgon. Symbolizing the destruction of the lower and animal aspect of the initiate.

The initiate was also purified with honey as he was under the protection of the Moon. Honey is associated with purity and fertility of the moon as this was, in ancient Iran believed to be the source of honey, and thus the expression of honey-moon denotes not the period of a month after marriage, but continued love and fertility in married life.

- Dr. Masoud Homayouri Origin of Persian Gnosis

In grade of Heliodromus (sun runner) under sun, the initiate imitates Sun at the ritual banquet. Sitting next to Mithra (Father), dressed in red, color of sun, fire and blood of life.

Highest grade was of Pater (father) under Saturn. He was Mithras earthly representative, light of heaven embodied, the teacher of congregation which he lead, wearing a redcap and as well as a red baggy Persian trousers, carrying a staff symbol of his spiritual office. (Charles Daniels, Mithras and his temples on the Wall).







ROME
DACIANS, THE WOLF PEOPLE

The following information was gathered from 'Zalmoxis, The Vanishing God' by Mircea Eliade. The book was originally published in 1970 as 'De Zalmoxis a Gengis-Khan: Etudes comparatives sur le religions et le folklore de la Dacie et de l'Europe Orientel'. The purpose is to present the essential from the religion of Geto-Dacians.



RELIGIOUS MEANINGS OF ETHNIC NAMES

According to Strabo, the original name of the Dacians was daoi. A tradition preserved by Hesychius informs us that daos was the Phrygian word for 'wolf.' P. Kretschmer had explained daos by the root *dh?u, 'to press, to squeeze, to strangle.'' Among the words derived from this root we may note the Lydian Kandaules, the name of the Thracian war god, Kandaon, the Illyrian dhaunos (wolf), the god Daunus, and so on. The city of Daous-dava, in Lower Moesia, between the Danube and Mount Haemus, literally meant 'village of wolves. Formerly, then, the Dacians called themselves 'wolves' or 'those who are like wolves,' who resemble wolves. Still according to Strabo, certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called daoi. The Latin authors called them Daliae, and some Greek historians daai. In all probability their ethnic name was derived from Iranian (Saka) dahae, 'wolf.' But similar names were not unusual among the IndoEuropeans. South of the Caspian Sea lay Hyrcania, that is, in Eastern Iranian 'Vehrkana,' in Western Iranian 'Varkana,' literally the 'country of wolves' (from the Iranian root vehrka, 'wolf'). The nomadic tribes that inhabited it were called Hyrkanoi, 'the wolves,' by Greco-Latin authors. In Phrygia there was the tribe of the Orka (Orkoi). We may further cite the Lycaones of Arcadia, and Lycaonia or Lucaonia in Asia Minor, and especially the Arcadian Zeus Lykaios' and Apollo Lykagenes; the latter surname has been explained as 'he of the she-wolf,' 'he born of the she-wolf,' that is, born of Leto in the shape of a she-wolf. According to Heraclides Ponticus (Fragm. Hist. Gr. 218), the name of the Samnite tribe of the Lucani came from Lykos, 'wolf.' Their neighbors, the Hirpini, took their name from hirpus, the Samnite word for 'wolf.' At the foot of MountSoracte lived the Hirpi Sorani, the 'wolves of Sora' (the Volscian city). According to the tradition transmitted by Servius, an oracle had advised the Hirpi Sorani to live 'like wolves,' that is, by rapine. And in fact they were exempt from taxes and from military service, for their biennial rite-which consisted in walking barefoot over burning coals-was believed to ensure the fertility of the country. Both this shamanic rite and their living 'like wolves' reflect religious concepts of considerable antiquity. There is no need to cite other examples. We will note only that tribes with wolf names are documented in places as distant as Spain (Loukentioi and Lucenses in Celtiberian Calaecia), Ireland, and England. Nor, indeed, is the phenomenon confined to the IndoEuropeans. The fact that a people takes its ethnic name from the name of an animal always has a religious meaning. More precisely, the fact cannot be understood except as the expression of an archaic religious concept. In the case with which we are concerned, several hypotheses can be considered. First, we may suppose that the people derives its name from a god or mythical ancestor in the shape of a wolf or who manifested himself lycomorphically. The myth of a supernatural wolf coupling with a princess, who gives birth either to a people or a dynasty, occurs in various forms in Central Asia. But we have no testimony to its existence among the Dacians. A second hypothesis comes to mind: the Dacians may have taken their name from a band of fugitives - either immigrants from other regions, or young men at odds with the law, haunting the outskirts of villages like wolves or bandits and living by rapine. The phenomenon is amply documented from earliest antiquity, and it survived in the Middle Ages. It is necessary to distinguish among: a) adolescents who, during their initiatory probation, had to hide far from their villages and live by rapine; b) immigrants seeking a new territory to settle in; c) outlaws or fugitives seeking a place of refuge. But all these young men behaved 'like wolves', were called 'wolves', or enjoyed the protection of a wolf-god.During his probation the Lacedaemonian kouros led the life of a wolf for an entire year: hidden in the mountains, he lived on what he could steal, taking care that no one saw him. Among a number of lndo-European peoples, emigrants, exiles, and fugitives were called 'wolves.' The Hittite laws already said of a proscribed man that he had 'become a wolf.'' And in the laws of Edward the Confessor (ca. AD. 1000), the proscribed man had to wear a wolf headed mask (wolfhede). The wolf was the symbol of the fugitive, and many gods who protected exiles and outlaws had wolf deities or attributes. Examples are Zeus Lykoreius or Apollo Lykeios, Romulus and Remus, sons of the wolf-god Mars and suckled by the she-wolf of the Capitol, had been 'fugitives.' According to the legend, Romulus established a place of refuge for exiles and outlaws on the Capitol. Servius informs us that this asylum was under the protection of the god Lucoris. And Lucoris was identified with Lykoreus of Delphi, himself a wolfgod. Finally, a third hypothesis that may explain the name of the Dacians centers on the ability to change into a wolf by the power of certain rituals. Such a transformation may be connected with lycanthropy properly speaking-an extremely widespread phenomenon, but more especially documented in the BalkanoCarpathian region-or with a ritual imitation of the behavior and outward appearance of the wolf. Ritual imitation of the wolf is a specific characteristic of military initiations and hence of the M?nnerb?nde, the secret brotherhoods of warriors. There are reasons to think that such rites and beliefs, bound up with a martial ideology, are what made it possible to assimilate fugitives, exiles, and proscribed men to wolves. To subsist, all these outlaws behaved like bands of young warriors, that is, like real 'wolves.'

MILITARY INITIATIONS: RITUAL TRANSFORMATION INTO A PREDATORY ANIMAL

The studies made by Lily Weiser, Otto H?fler, Stig Wikander, C. Widengren, H. Jeanmaire, and Georges Dum?zil have markedly advanced our knowledge of the Indo-European military brotherhoods, and especially of their religious ideology and initiatory rituals. In the Germanic world these brotherhoods still existed at the end of the Volkerwandernng. Among the Iranians they are documented in the period of Zarathustra, but since a tart of the vocabulary typical of the M?nnerbflnde is also found in Vedic texts, there is no doubt that associations of young warriors already existed in the Indo-Iranian period. G. Dumn?zil has demonstrated the survival of certain military initiations among the Celts and the Romans, and H. Jeanmaire has discovered vestiges of initiatory rituals among the Lacedaemonians. So it appears that the Indo-Europeans shared a common system of beliefs and rituals pertaining to young warriors. Now the essential part of the military initiation consisted in ritually transforming the young warrior into some species of predatory wild animal. It was not solely a matter of courage, physical strength, or endurance, but 'of a magico-religious experience that radically changed the young warriors mode of being. He had to transmute his humanity by an access of aggressive and terrifying fury that made him like a raging carnivore.'' Among the ancient Germans the predator-warriors were called berserkir, literally 'warriors in the body-covering [serkrj] of a bear.' They were also known as itqkedhnar, 'wolf-skin men.' The bronze plaque from Torslunda shows a warrior disguised as a wolf. From all this, two facts emerge: 1. A young man became a redoubtable warrior by magically assimilating the behavior of a carnivore, especially a wolf; 2. He ritually donned the wolf-skin, either to share in the mode of being of a carnivore or to indicate that he had become a 'wolf.'What is important for our investigation is the fact that the young warrior accomplished his transformation into a wolf by the ritual donning of a wolf-skin, an operation preceded or followed by a radical change in behavior. As long as he was wrapped in the animal's skin, he ceased to be a man, he was the carnivore itself: not only was he a ferocious and invincible warrior, possessed by the furor heroicus, he had cast off all humanity; in short, he no longer felt bound by the laws and customs of men. And in fact young warriors, not satisfied with claiming the right to commit rapine and terrorize the community during their ritual meetings, were able to behave like carnivores in eating, for example, human flesh. Beliefs in ritual or ecstatic lycanthropy are documented both among the members of North American and African secret societies and among the Germans, the Greeks, the Iranians, and the Indians. That there were actual instances of anthropophagic lycanthropy there is no reason whatever to doubt. The so-called leopard societies of Africa furnish the best example. But such sporadic cases of 'lycanthropy' cannot account for the dissemination and persistence of beliefs in 'wolf-men.' On the contrary, it is the existence of brotherhoods of young warriors, or of magicians, who, whether or not they wear wolf-skins, behave like carnivores, that explains the dissemination of beliefs in lycanthropy. The Iranian texts several times mention 'two-pawed wolves,' that is, members of the M?nnerb?nde. The D?nkart even states that 'two-pawed wolves' are 'more deadly than wolves with fbur paws.' Other texts term them keresa, 'brigands, prowlers,' who move about at night. The texts dwell on the fact that these 'wolves live on corpses; however, without excluding the possibility of actual cannibalism, this would seem to be more in the nature of a stereotype used by Zarathustran polemicists against the members of the M?nnerb?nde, who, in practicing their ceremonies, terrorized the villages and whose way of life was so different from that of the Iranian peasants and herders. In any case, mention is also made of their ecstatic orgies, that is, of the intoxicating drink that helped them to change into wild beasts. Among the ancestors of the Achaemenides there was also a family named saka haumavarka. Bartholomae and Wikander interpret the name: 'those who change themselves into wolves (varka) in the ecstasy brought on by soma (hauma).' Now we know that down to the nineteenth century assemblies of young men included a banquet of food and drink stolen or obtained by force, especially alcoholic beverages.

THE CLUB AND THE STANDARD

The insignia peculiar to the Iranian M?nnerb?nde (mairiya) were the 'blood-stained club' and the standard (drafla).' As Wikander writes, the blood-stained club was used in the distinctive ritual of the Iranian M?nnerbiinde as the instrument for the ceremonial slaughter of an ox. The club became the symbol of the Iranian 'carnivore-warriors.' It is the typical weapon of the archaic warrior. As is the case with implements of great antiquity, the club retains its value as a cult instrument when its military use has been supplanted by more modern weapons. In addition, the club continued to be the typical weapon of peasants and herders. In this way it remained the weapon of the Romanian peasantry all through the Middle Ages and down to modern times, and is still the distinctive weapon in 'young men's games,' in which some memory of the initiatory brotherhoods always survives.






The image is of a contemporary Jat - one of the hidden tribes in Gujarat (India). Red hair Dhaneta Jat man (left) and a portrait of the Dacian king Decebalu from the Vatican (right) ]

Dahae (Old Persian Dahâ): nomadic tribe in the south of modern Kazakhstan. The name is also spelled Daai, Dai, or Daoi.

Mircea Elaide, in his book Zalmoxis, equates the Dacians with the Dahae branch of Sakas:
According to Strabo (304: 7, 3, 12), the original name of the Dacians was daoi…certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called daoi. The Latin authors called them Dahae, and some Greek historians daai…At first the name "Dacians" were referred to one of the Thracian tribes in Northwestern Dacia (Strabo 304: 7. 3. 12). In general the name "Getae" occurs more commonly toward the Black Sea, from the Balkans to the Dniester, whereas, the name "Dacians" is more frequent in the northwest, west, and the south…. (Eliade 1970: 1-2,12).


DACIAN NAME


According to Strabo, the original name of the Dacians was daoi. A tradition preserved by Hesychius informs us that daos was the Phrygian word for "wolf.' P. Kretschmer had explained daos by the root *dhäu, "to press, to squeeze, to strangle."' Among the words derived from this root we may note the Lydian Kandaules, the name of the Thracian war god, Kandaon, the Illyrian dhaunos (wolf), the god Daunus, and so on. The city of Daous-dava, in Lower Moesia, between the Danube and Mount Haemus, literally meant "village of wolves. Formerly, then, the Dacians called themselves "wolves" or "those who are like wolves," who resemble wolves. Still according to Strabo, certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called daoi. The Latin authors called them Daliae, and some Greek historians daai. In all probability their ethnic name was derived from Iranian (Saka) dahae, "wolf." But similar names were not unusual among the IndoEuropeans. South of the Caspian Sea lay Hyrcania, that is, in Eastern Iranian "Vehrkana," in Western Iranian "Varkana," literally the "country of wolves" (from the Iranian root vehrka, "wolf'). The nomadic tribes that inhabited it were called Hyrkanoi, "the wolves," by Greco-Latin authors. In Phrygia there was the tribe of the Orka (Orkoi). We may further cite the Lycaones of Arcadia, and Lycaonia or Lucaonia in Asia Minor, and especially the Arcadian Zeus Lykaios" and Apollo Lykagenes; the latter surname has been explained as "he of the she-wolf," "he born of the she-wolf," that is, born of Leto in the shape of a she-wolf. According to Heraclides Ponticus (Fragm. Hist. Gr. 218), the name of the Samnite tribe of the Lucani came from Lykos, "wolf." Their neighbors, the Hirpini, took their name from hirpus, the Samnite word for "wolf." At the foot of Mount Soracte lived the Hirpi Sorani, the "wolves of Sora" (the Volscian city). According to the tradition transmitted by Servius, an oracle had advised the Hirpi Sorani to live "like wolves," that is, by rapine. And in fact they were exempt from taxes and from military service, for their biennial rite-which consisted in walking barefoot over burning coals-was believed to ensure the fertility of the country. Both this shamanic rite and their living "like wolves" reflect religious concepts of considerable antiquity.


Already in 1912 the Old Persian ethnonym Daha­- (Gk. Dáoi, Dáai; Lat. Dahae) had been connected by Sten Konow with Khotanese daha- “man, male,” an etymology that is all the more plausible as it is com­mon throughout the world for nations to designate themselves with the words meaning “man” in their respective languages (for a few examples, see Bailey, 1958, pp. 109-10). The corresponding long-grade form *daha- is represented by New Persian dah “ser­vant,” Buddhist Sogdian d?yh, Christian Sogdian d?y “slave woman,” and apparently also Avestan *Daha-­(or rather *Då?ha-), attested only as feminine Dahi-, in Yašt 13.144, where it occurs, together with the Airiia-, Tuiriia-, Sairima- and Sainu-, as the name of one of the tribes that followed the Zoroastrian religion. The fact that Old Persian Daha- and Avestan *Daha- seem to be related etymologically is not, however, necessarily proof that the two names referred to the same ethnic group; if the Daha- were indeed a Scythian tribe (see ii, below) it would be difficult to identify them with a group that is clearly excluded from the Airiia- (Ary­ans) in the Avesta. The ancient Indians also knew of a people called *Dasa- (attested only in adjectival dasa-), depicted in the Rigveda as enemies of the Arya-. The same root is also apparent in Avestan dax´iiu-, Old Persian dahyu- (daha¡yu-) “province” (i.e., “(mass of) people”; cf. Skt. dasyu- “(hostile) people, demons”), and perhaps also Avestan aži- dahaka- ­“manlike serpent” (cf. Schwartz, 123-24).

See aûdaha.

Bibliography : S. Konow, “Vedic "dasyu," Toxri [i.e. Khotanese] "dahä,"” Festschrift Vilhelm Thomsen, Leipzig, 1912, pp. 96-97. H. W. Bailey, “Iranian arya- and daha-,” TPS 1958, pp. 71-115, esp. 107-12. M. Schwartz, review of M. Mayrhofer, Die avestischen Namen, Iranisches Personen­namenbuch I/1, Orientalia 49, 1980, pp. 123-26. O. Szemerényi, Four Old Iranian Ethnic Names, Vienna, 1980, p. 43 n. 123.

(François De Blois)

The People

Herodotus (1.125) referred to the Dáoi as one of the nomadic tribes of the Persians, together with the Mardians, Dropicans, and Sagartians. The name also occurs in the so-called “Daeva inscription” of the Achaemenid king Xerxes I (486-465/4 b.c.e.), where the Daha are included in a list of thirty dahyava (lands, provinces) that formed part of the Achaemenid empire (Kent, Old Persian, XPh 26, p. 151). Near the end of the list the Daha are mentioned together with two clearly Scythian groups, the Saka haumavarga and the Saka tigraxauda, among various lands and peoples along the periphery of the empire. Furthermore, it is possible that delegates from the Daha are depicted among the subject peoples in the reliefs in the Central Building and in the Throne Hall at Persepolis (Schmidt, 1953, pls. 118-20, 135-36). Four of the delegates (nos. 17/W9, 18/E9, 22/E11, 28/E14) on each relief are shown wearing almost identical costumes (including the cutaway coat), clearly connecting them with the Scythian groups from the far northeastern part of the empire (see clothing i, v). From the evidence of the provincial lists in various Achaemenid inscriptions, only the Saka haumavarga, the Daha, and the people from Sugda- and Uvarazmi- could be identified with these four delegates.

In various classical sources the Dahae are listed in the rosters of the Persian army that fought against Alexander the Great at Gaugamela (q.v.). Arrian (Anabasis 3.11.3­7) reported that the Dahae fought in the left wing, together with the Bactrians and the Arachosians. Curtius Rufus (4.12.5ff.) also placed the Bactrians and Dahae in the left wing. In addition, both authors noted that beyond the Persian ranks, at the extreme left, there were Bactrian and Scythian cavalry and scythe chariots (Arrian), or the Massagetae (Curtius Rufus). It is thus clear that the left wing of the Achaemenid army was formed by troops from the northeastern part of the empire, predominantly of Scythian descent, and that the Dahae were one of these groups.

According to his biographers, Alexander later also incorporated Dahae into his own cavalry (Arrian, Anabasis 5.12.2; cf. Curtius Rufus, 7.7.32). They were described as “horseriding” bowmen (cf. Appian, Syriaca 167) and were said to have lived in the wastes northeast of Bactria and east of Sogdiana. At least some of the Dahae must thus be placed along the eastern fringes of the Karakum desert, near ancient Margiana, a conclusion confirmed by information found in some other classical sources (e.g., Ptolemy, Geog­raphy 6.10.2; Tacitus, Annales 11.10). It is possible that the Dahae were thus responsible for nomadic invasions of Margiana and Areia some time around 300 b.c.e., in which the towns of Alexandreia and Heracleia, the first located in Margiana, the latter apparently in Areia, were destroyed (cf. Pliny, Historia Naturalis 6.47-48; 33; 6.67; Strabo 11.516).

The spread of the Dahae farther west, at least by the mid-3rd century b.c.e., is indicated in other sources, which refer to Dahae who settled in the lands north of ancient Hyrcania, along the southeastern shores of the Caspian Sea. This area was later known as Dahistan (Dehestan). In this connection Strabo (11.508, 11.515) referred to the (S)párnoi (cf. Justin 41.1.10). He also mentioned two other Daha tribes, namely the Xánthioi and the Píssouroi, who lived east as far as the lands north of ancient Areia (11.511). The (S)párnoi are of particular interest, as elsewhere Strabo reported that Arsaces, the founder of the Parthian empire, who lived around the middle of the 3rd century b.c.e., was the chief of this Daha tribe (11.515). Strabo added that the (S)párnoi lived along the Ochus; this reference cannot be separated from another (11.509) to the Ochus as one of the rivers that crossed Hyrcania. All this informa­tion suggests that the (S)párnoi lived in or near what was later called Dahistan; at least one ancient tradition linked their presence in this area to the Scythian invasions of Parthia that led to the foundation of the Parthian empire. The ensuing history of the Dahistan steppes and their role as a cradle for future rulers on the Persian plateau (cf. the sequence of Turkmen dynas­ties in Persia since the Middle Ages) appear to support the hypothesis that these lands formed the basis for nomadic inroads into the plains along and between the Khorasan mountain chains.

When exactly the (S)párnoi or Dahae settled along the southern and southwestern fringes of the Karakum desert remains unclear; they may have moved there in the late 4th or early 3rd century b.c.e., when other Scythian tribes invaded Margiana and Areia (see above), though the Dahae may have settled in ancient Dahistan much earlier.

It could thus be concluded that the main group of the Dahae resided in the arid steppes of the Karakum, in lands inhabited in recent centuries mainly by Turkmen.

There is no need to assume, however, that the present harsh conditions already existed in the 1st millennium b.c.e.; archeological finds, for example, a fortress of the Parthian period at Igdy along the banks of the now dried-up Uzboi river (Koshelenko, 1985, pp. 211, 214, 216), suggest that the Karakum was far from completely deserted. The Dahae must have been one of those Scythian groups that dominated traffic between Hyrcania and Parthia to the south and ancient Choresmia (q.v.) to the north. Whether or not the Dáoi listed by Herodotus as one of the Persian tribes should be identified with the Dahae of the Karakum remains uncertain, but in the light of other evidence of northern infiltrations onto the Persian plateau and beyond dur­ing the early 1st millennium b.c.e. (cf., e.g., the name of the Mardians), it cannot be excluded that Scythian groups, including the Dahae, were present in southwestern Persia at a fairly early date.

Bibliography : G. A. Koshelenko, ed., Arkheologiya SSSR. Drevneishie gosudarstva Kavkaza i Srednei Azii (Archeology of the U.S.S.R. The ancient empires of the Caucasus and Central Asia), Moscow, 1985. E. F. Schmidt, Persepolis I, Oriental Institute Publications 68, Chicago, 1953. W. Tomaschek, “Daai,” in Pauly-Wissowa IV/2, cols. 1945-46. Idem, “Daoi,” in Pauly-Wissowa IV/2, col. 2133.

(Willem Vogelsang

In various classical sources the Dahae are listed in the rosters of the Persian army that fought against Alexander the Great at Gaugamela (q.v.). Arrian (Anabasis 3.11.3­7) reported that the Dahae fought in the left wing, together with the Bactrians and the Arachosians. Curtius Rufus (4.12.5ff.) also placed the Bactrians and Dahae in the left wing. In addition, both authors noted that beyond the Persian ranks, at the extreme left, there were Bactrian and Scythian cavalry and scythe chariots (Arrian), or the Massagetae (Curtius Rufus). It is thus clear that the left wing of the Achaemenid army was formed by troops from the northeastern part of the empire, predominantly of Scythian descent, and that the Dahae were one of these groups.

According to his biographers, Alexander later also incorporated Dahae into his own cavalry (Arrian, Anabasis 5.12.2; cf. Curtius Rufus, 7.7.32). They were described as “horseriding” bowmen (cf. Appian, Syriaca 167) and were said to have lived in the wastes northeast of Bactria and east of Sogdiana. At least some of the Dahae must thus be placed along the eastern fringes of the Karakum desert, near ancient Margiana, a conclusion confirmed by information found in some other classical sources (e.g., Ptolemy, Geog­raphy 6.10.2; Tacitus, Annales 11.10). It is possible that the Dahae were thus responsible for nomadic invasions of Margiana and Areia some time around 300 b.c.e., in which the towns of Alexandreia and Heracleia, the first located in Margiana, the latter apparently in Areia, were destroyed (cf. Pliny, Historia Naturalis 6.47-48; 33; 6.67; Strabo 11.516).

The spread of the Dahae farther west, at least by the mid-3rd century b.c.e., is indicated in other sources, which refer to Dahae who settled in the lands north of ancient Hyrcania, along the southeastern shores of the Caspian Sea. This area was later known as Dahistan (Dehestan). In this connection Strabo (11.508, 11.515) referred to the (S)párnoi (cf. Justin 41.1.10). He also mentioned two other Daha tribes, namely the Xánthioi and the Píssouroi, who lived east as far as the lands north of ancient Areia (11.511). The (S)párnoi are of particular interest, as elsewhere Strabo reported that Arsaces, the founder of the Parthian empire, who lived around the middle of the 3rd century b.c.e., was the chief of this Daha tribe (11.515). Strabo added that the (S)párnoi lived along the Ochus; this reference cannot be separated from another (11.509) to the Ochus as one of the rivers that crossed Hyrcania. All this informa­tion suggests that the (S)párnoi lived in or near what was later called Dahistan; at least one ancient tradition linked their presence in this area to the Scythian invasions of Parthia that led to the foundation of the Parthian empire. The ensuing history of the Dahistan steppes and their role as a cradle for future rulers on the Persian plateau (cf. the sequence of Turkmen dynas­ties in Persia since the Middle Ages) appear to support the hypothesis that these lands formed the basis for nomadic inroads into the plains along and between the Khorasan mountain chains.

When exactly the (S)párnoi or Dahae settled along the southern and southwestern fringes of the Karakum desert remains unclear; they may have moved there in the late 4th or early 3rd century b.c.e., when other Scythian tribes invaded Margiana and Areia (see above), though the Dahae may have settled in ancient Dahistan much earlier.

It could thus be concluded that the main group of the Dahae resided in the arid steppes of the Karakum, in lands inhabited in recent centuries mainly by Turkmen.

There is no need to assume, however, that the present harsh conditions already existed in the 1st millennium b.c.e.; archeological finds, for example, a fortress of the Parthian period at Igdy along the banks of the now dried-up Uzboi river (Koshelenko, 1985, pp. 211, 214, 216), suggest that the Karakum was far from completely deserted. The Dahae must have been one of those Scythian groups that dominated traffic between Hyrcania and Parthia to the south and ancient Choresmia (q.v.) to the north. Whether or not the Dáoi listed by Herodotus as one of the Persian tribes should be identified with the Dahae of the Karakum remains uncertain, but in the light of other evidence of northern infiltrations onto the Persian plateau and beyond dur­ing the early 1st millennium b.c.e. (cf., e.g., the name of the Mardians), it cannot be excluded that Scythian groups, including the Dahae, were present in southwestern Persia at a fairly early date.

Bibliography : G. A. Koshelenko, ed., Arkheologiya SSSR. Drevneishie gosudarstva Kavkaza i Srednei Azii (Archeology of the U.S.S.R. The ancient empires of the Caucasus and Central Asia), Moscow, 1985. E. F. Schmidt, Persepolis I, Oriental Institute Publications 68, Chicago, 1953. W. Tomaschek, “Daai,” in Pauly-Wissowa IV/2, cols. 1945-46. Idem, “Daoi,” in Pauly-Wissowa IV/2, col. 2133.

(Willem Vogelsang)

There is quite a possibility that Pallavas were from Iran. There are many other pointers. We follow the 'Saka Samvat'(Calender) supposed to have been instituted by the Saka ruler, Salivahana in Maharashtra/Andhra Pradesh. I will also point that the name of the Achaemenid Emperor, Cyrus II, the Great, is mentioned as 'Kurus' in old persian. The Kurus in India are supposed to hail from Uttara Kuru in 'Uttarapatha' (the northern road). Arjuna is called as 'Partha' (does it relate to Parthian?). Even Lord Rama had an ancestor named as 'Prithu'. The Vedas and other scriptures freely mention the Central Asian tribes, Tusharas (Tocharians), Druhyu (Dahae), Parsus (Persians), Panis (Parnis - a scythain tribe which later founded the Parthian dynasty). Valmiki's Ramayana lists Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, and Kambojas (perhaps the tribe to which I belong, my progenitor, Sage Upamanyu, was famously supposed to be a Kamboja who had their spread from Kabul to Kyrghystan).

The basic thing to realize is that North India had close relations with the northern tribes. There was trade, philosophical exchange, and marriage relations. India was not encapsulated as it seems to be now. And just as people from South Asia go to America and Australia in search of greener pastures now, people of these northern tribes used to come to India because of its riches. Though nothing stands proved.

Lastly a special note about Yavanas. The people who gave their name to Ionia were from Central Asia and here they were known as Yavanas. It is not that Indians called the Ionians as Yavanas. They knew Yavanas from much earlier when they were in these areas. Alexander was not the first 'Yavana' who came to India. SrimadBhagawat Purana knows 'Kalavyavana' as one of their kings.


The Dahae on the Daeva Inscription, Persepolis
The Dahae (Persian: ????, Latin; Greek ????, Daoi, and ??a?, Daai), or Dahaeans were a confederacy of three Ancient Iranian tribes who lived in the region to the immediate east of the Caspian Sea. They spoke an Eastern Iranian language.
The first datable mention of this nomad confederacy appears in the list of nations of Xerxes the great Daeva inscription.





The 'daiva inscription' of Xerxes, found at Persepolis. Archaeological Museum, Tehran (Iran).

One of the most important Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions is the "Daiva inscription". The Old Persian text is known from three slabs of stone from Persepolis and Pasargadae. (Elamite and Babylonian copies exist.) The interesting detail for which this text has become famous is the rebel country mentioned in section #4, although -unfortunately- it cannot be identified with sufficient certainty. Much depends on the meaning of the word daiva, which clearly means 'demon' and looks similar to the word daeva in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism . If daiva and daeva are identical, we can assume that the rebels lived in Iran, where the Zoroastrian religion was influential.

However, if these words are not the same, daiva may refer to the gods of Babylonia or Egypt. The latter is mentioned by the Greek researcher Herodotus as rebellious at the beginning of Xerxes reign (Histories 7.4), and we know from cuneiform texts from Babylon that there were two Babylonion rebels in 484 (Šamaš-eriba and Bêl-šimânni). We can not decide where Xerxes had to intervene - Iran, Egypt, or Babylon, but the text is intriguing.

1. A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Xerxes king, one king of many, one lord of many.
2. I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of countries containing many kinds of men, king in this great earth far and wide, son of king Darius, an Achaemenian, a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, of Aryan stock.

3. King Xerxes says: By the grace of Ahuramazda these are the countries of which I was king apart from Persia. I had lordship over them. They bore me tribute. What was said to them by me, that they did. My law, that held them: Media, Elam, Arachosia, Armenia, Drangiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdia, Chorasmia, Babylonia, Assyria, Sattagydia, Lydia, Egypt, Yaunâ, those who dwell on this side of the sea and those who dwell across the sea, men of Maka, Arabia, Gandara, India, Cappadocia, the Dahae, the haoma-drinking Sacae, the Sacae wearing pointed caps, Thrace, men of Âkaufaciyâ, Libyans, Carians, and the Nubians.


In this list of the peoples and provinces of the Achaemenid Empire, the Dahae are identified in Old Persian as Daha and are immediately followed by a "Saka" group, who are listed as being neighbors of the Daha. Unclear is however whether the Dahae are also the *Daha people (or *Da°?ha, only attested in the feminine Dahi) of the Avestan Yasht 13.144. An etymological relationship "is not proof that the two names refer to the same ethnic group."[1]

In the 1st century BCE Strabo (Geographika 11.8.1) refers to the Dahae explicitly as the "Scythian Dahae" ("Scythian" is in Strabo not necessarily an equation with the "Sacae"). The historiographer further places the Dahae in the approximate vicinity of present-day Turkmenistan.
The Dahae, together with the Saka tribes, are known to have fought in the Achaemenid armies at the Battle of Gaugamela. Following the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, they joined Alexander of Macedon in his quest to India. Saka coins from the Seleucid era are sometimes specifically attributed to the Dahae.
In the third century, a branch of Dahae called the Parni would rise to prominence under their chief Arsaces. They invaded Parthia, which had just previously declared independence from the Seleucids, deposed the reigning monarch, and Arsaces crowned himself king. His successors, who all named themselves Arsaces and are thus referred to as the Arsacids, would eventually assert military control over the entire the Iranian plateau. By then, they would be indistinguishable from the Parthians, and would also be called by that name.
While 'Dahae' was preserved in the toponym 'Dahestan'/'Dihistan' - a district "on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea" - "an urban center of the ancient Dahae (if indeed they possessed one) is quite unknown."[2]
The Dahae should not by default be equated with Vedic Sanskrit's dasa. While the two are etymologically related, there is no directly transferable functional equivalence. In the Vedas, dasa is an ambiguous term that could mean any number of things, including - but not limited to - being a reference to a tribe. Even in this latter case, it only may refer to the same tribe as the Dahae; "man", which is probably the literal meaning of the root of the name, appears in the name of many tribes and individuals. If the Iranic and Indic terms were all - in addition to being etymologically related - also functionally equivalent, it would be enormously difficult to explain how the Avestan tribe that is exalted alongside the Aryans could simultaneously be vilified as the Daxiiu, the Anti-Aryans.[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dahae

The Central-Asian steppe has been the home of nomad tribes for centuries. These nomads roamed across the plains and incidentally attacked the Achaemenid empire. The Persians called these nomads the Sakâ, the Greeks knew them as the Scythians.
One of the tribes was known as the Dahâ, which is the Persian word for 'robbers'. This name need not surprise us; nomad tribes often received names like this from the people in the towns who suffered from their raids. For example, in the tenth century CE, the Europeans compared the Magyars to the greatest barbarians they had ever known, the Huns; when the Magyars finally settled, they kept using this name and their country is still called Hungary. Probably, 'Dahâ' was a similar proud nickname.
A memory of these savage days seems to be preserved in the Avestan legend that the prophet Zarathustra, the founder of Zoroastroanism, was killed by the Dahae. In fact, this is impossible, because the Dahae and Zarathustra are separated by at least five centuries. However, it suggests that the atrocity of this particular tribe was proverbal.
The Dahae are mentioned for the first time in the Daiva inscription of the Persian king Xerxes (486-465); he mentions them as one of the satrapies that listened to his orders. Since they are not mentioned in any inscription by king Darius I the Great, we may assume that Xerxes subdued the Dahae.
The Greek researcher Herodotus calls the Dai a Persian nomad tribe:
The Persian nation contains a number of tribes, and the ones which Cyrus assembled and persuaded to revolt were the Pasargadae, Maraphii, and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. [...] Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder -the Dai, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti, being nomadic.
[Herodotus, Histories 1.125;
tr.Aubrey de Selincourt]
If this short catalogue goes back to an authentic list from the days of Cyrus the Great (559-530), we may assume that the Dahae took part in the rebellion against the Median leader Astyages in 550, but were dependent on one of the main tribes, i.e. the Pasargadae, the Maraphii, or the Maspii.
Being nomads, the Dahae were not living on one place. In the fourth century CE, they lived on the lower reaches of the river Syrdar'ya, the ancient Jaxartes. It is very probable that this was their homestead in Xerxes' days too, because he mentions the Dahae, the Sakâ haumavargâ and the Sakâ tigrakhaudâ in one breath, and these two tribes certainly lived in this neighborhood. In the age of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great, they lived in the neigborhood of Hyrcania.

attack on Vologeses I ( in Vologeses I (king of Parthia) )

...(ad 54–63). A peace was finally concluded by which Tiridates was acknowledged as a Roman client king in Armenia. The power of Vologeses was further weakened by an attack by the nomadic Dahae and Sakas, a rebellion of the Hyrcanians, an invasion by Alani tribesmen in Media and Armenia, and the usurpation of his son Vardanes II. Vologeses’ reign was also marked by a decided...

place of Parni ( in Parni (people) )
one of three nomadic or seminomadic tribes in the confederacy of the Dahae living east of the Caspian Sea; its members founded the Parthian empire. After the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc) the Parni apparently moved southward into the region of Parthia and perhaps eastward into...

role in history of Iran ( in ancient Iran: Invasion of the Parni;
Arsaces, who was chief of the Parni (a member tribe of the Dahae confederation) must have begun his struggle
Thundering Zeus: the making of Hellenistic Bactria

Google Books Result

by Frank Lee Holt - 1999 - History - 221 pages
Thereafter Arsaces, a Scythian leading some of the Dahae (the nomads called the ... tribe ...
books.google.com/books?isbn=0520211405.



Dahae Funeral Rituals
Dahae funeral rituals
Chariot and Horse Burial Chamber Excavated in Henan



A recently excavated Eastern Zhou period chariot and horse burial chamber in Luoyang, Henan province. The chamber contains two horses and two chariots. [Photo: Dahe Daily]
The excavation of some Eastern Zhou period tombs that had ancient chariots and horses buried underground has been completed, an official from Luoyang's cultural relics office told Dahe Daily on Tuesday.
This is another latest uncover of ancient tombs following similar discoveries in surrounding areas in 2002.
The excavation site contains 29 tombs, including two imperial wooden chariots and two dead horses.
Field work for this excavation began in August 2008 and took archaeologists three months to finish. Many artifacts such as pottery, bronze weapons and jade were found despite the fact that most of the tombs had already been plundered by grave robbers.

The horses, laying back to back in an orderly arrangement, were evidently killed before the burial. The two wooden chariots had rotted away, leaving only dusts.
According to local archaeologists, this is also the first time a burial chamber with two horses and two chariots has been discovered in the Luoyang region.
The chamber is located beneath a restaurant undergoing renovation. The restaurant, Luoyang Jujia, plans to encase the burial chamber in an underground culinary museum.

The Scythians; Sacae
Scythians / Sacae
By: Jona Lendering
The Central-Asian steppe has been the home of nomad tribes for centuries. Being nomads, they roamed across the plains, incidentally attacking the urbanized countries to the south, east and west.
The first to describe the life style of these tribes was a Greek researcher, Herodotus, who lived in the fifth century BCE. Although he concentrates on the tribes living in modern Ukraine, which he calls Scythians, we may extrapolate his description to people in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and possibly Mongolia, even though Herodotus usually calls these eastern nomads 'Sacae'. In fact, just as the Scythians and the Sacae shared the same life style, they had the same name: in their own language, which belonged to the Indo-iranian family, they called themselves Skudat ('archers'?). The Persians rendered this name as Sakâ and the Greeks as Skythai. The Chinese called them, at a later stage in history, Sai.

Tribes are, almost by definition, very loose organizations. Every now and then, new tribal coalitions came into being, and sometimes, new languages became prominent among the nomads from the Central-Asian steppe.

The oldest group we know of, is usually called Indo-Iranian. (The old name 'Aryan' is no longer used.) There are no contemporary reports about their migration, but it can be reconstructed from their language. It is reasonably certain that at the beginning of the second millennium BCE, the speakers of the Proto-Indo-Iranian language moved from Ukraine to the southeast. From an archaeological point of view, their migration is attested in the change from the Yamnaya culture into the Andronovo culture.

They invaded the country that was later called Afghanistan, where they separated in an Iranian and an Indian branch. The first group settled in Aria, a name that lives on in our word 'Iran', where they settled after 1000 BCE; the second group reached the Punjab c.1500 BCE. From the second millennium on, three groups of languages can be discerned: the Indian group (Vedic, Sanskrit...), the Scythian group (in the homeland on the steppe), and the Iranian group (Gathic, Persian...). Even when, in the sixth century, the Achaemenid Empire was at its most powerful and the Persians lived in comfortable towns, they still remembered their earlier, nomadic life style:



The Persian nation contains a number of tribes, and the ones which Cyrus assembled and persuaded to revolt were the Pasargadae, Maraphii, and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished; they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder -the Dahae, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti, being nomadic.

[Herodotus, Histories 1.125 tr. Aubrey de Selincourt]
The second group of nomads known to have gone south, is the tribe of the Cimmerians. Their name Gimirru -given to them by the Assyrians- means 'people traveling back and forth'; this name still exists in our word 'Crimea'. The Cimmerians destroyed the kingdoms of Urartu (an old name for Armenia) and Phrygia (in Turkey) in the first quarter of the seventh century BCE; other Scythians reached Ascalon in Palestine. According to Herodotus, they ruled the northwest of Iran (which Herodotus calls Media) for twenty-eight years.

In the sixth, fifth and fourth centuries BCE, the Persians discerned several nomad tribes on the Central-Asian steppe. As we have seem, they called them Sakâ. We know the names of these tribes from Persian royal inscriptions and can add information from Herodotus and other Greek authors.

The Sakâ haumavargâ ('haoma-drinking Sacae') were subjected by Cyrus the Great. Herodotus calls them Amyrgian Scythians. Haoma was a trance inducing drink, made from fly agaric. This mushroom does not occur south of the river Amudar'ya (Oxus). Consequently, we may assume that these nomads lived in Uzbekistan. Herodotus informs us that they wore trousers and pointed caps; they fought as archers. He also mentions their use of the battle ax (which they called sagaris).
The Sakâ tigrakhaudâ ('Sacae with pointed hats') were defeated in 520/519 BCE by the Persian king Darius I the Great, who gave this tribe a new leader. One of the earlier leaders was killed, the other, named Skunkha, was taken captive and is visible on the relief at Behistun. (It is possible that Darius created a new tribe from several earlier tribes.) Herodotus calls the Sakâ tigrakhaudâ the Orthocorybantians ('pointed hat men'), and informs us that they lived in the same tax district as the Medes. This suggests that the Sakâ tigrakhaudâ lived on the banks of the ancient lower reaches of the Amudar'ya, which used to have a mouth in the Caspian Sea south of Krasnovodsk. The pointed hat is a kind of turban.
The Apâ Sakâ ('Water Sacae') are also known as the Pausikoi, as Herodotus prefers to call them. Later authors, like Arrian of Nicomedia (in his Anabasis) and Ammianus Marcellinus (in his Roman history) call them the Abian Scythians; still later, we encounter them as the Apasiaki, first east and later southwest of Lake Aral. They must be situated along the ancient lower reaches of the Amudar'ya.
The tribe that Herodotus calls 'Massagetes' must have been called something like Mâh-Sakâ in Persian, which means 'Moon Sacae', but this is confusing. Ma-Sakâ means Moon Sacae, and it is known that the Massagetes venerated only one god, the Sun. The Massagetes were responsible for the death of the Persian king Cyrus the Great (in December 530). From Herodotus' description, it is clear that they lived along the Syrdar'ya (Jaxartes).

The nomad tribe known as Dahâ, which means 'robbers', is mentioned for the first time in the Daiva inscription of Xerxes; he must have subjected them. Herodotus calls the Dai a Persian nomad tribe (above), but they can not have lived in Persia proper, because they are mentioned in the Anabasis of Arrian as living along the lower reaches of the Syrdar'ya. In the days of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great, they were famous for their mounted archers. It is possible that this tribe desintegrated after the fall of the Achaemenid empire; one of the tribes that came into being, was that of the Parni, who went south in the third century BCE and founded the Parthian empire.
The Sakâ paradrayâ ('Sacae across the sea') were living in Ukraine. These are the nomads that the Greeks called Scythians. In (514 or) 513 BCE, king Darius launched a disastrous campaign against the Sakâ paradrayâ. Herodotus gives a long description of their way of life and discerns many tribes in the neighborhood.


The Royal Scythians lived in the southern part of Ukraine, immediately north of the Greek towns.
The Scythian-Farmers seem to be identical with the archaeological culture known as Chernoles, which has been identified with the Iron Age Slavs.
Probably, we may identify the Neuri with the so-called Milograd culture, the archaeological remains of which have been found on the confluence of the rivers Dnepr and Pripyat, north of modern Kiev. They may be the ancestors of the Balts.
Herodotus' story about the Man-eaters received some confirmation with the excavation of human remains that were gnawed at by human jaws; these excavations were along the river Sula, to the southeast of Kiev.


The Argippaeans are sometimes identified with the ancestors of the Calmucs.
The Issedones may be identical to the Wu-sun who (according to Chinese texts) lived on the shore of Lake Balchash.
The Sauromatae are mentioned by Herodotus as the descendants of Scythian fathers and Amazon mothers. Of course, this is a legend, but the tribe did exist and was to move to the west after 130 BCE. In the process, they assimilated the Royal Scythians (above). In the late first century BCE, the Sarmatian coalition consisted of four tribes:


The Iazyges, which had once lived on the shores of the Sea of Azov, were now living on the northern bank of the Danube. They were to move to what is now eastern Hungary, where they settled in c.50 CE. They were defeated by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (in 175).
The Urgi lived on the banks of the Dnepr, south of Kiev.
The Royal Scythians were still living in the south of Ukraine and had become the most important Sarmatian tribe. They and the Urgi became known as the Sarmati. The Romans seem to have accepted their settlement in Hungary, but the situation was sometimes tense. The Sarmati were, for example, responsible for the destruction of the Twenty-first legion Rapax in 92.
The Roxolani initially lived between the Don and the Dnepr but settled on the lower reaches of the Danube, where the Iazyges had been living before they migrated to Hungary.
The steppe nomads frequently attacked the urbanized regions to the east, south or west. Usually, this created great havoc, but after some time, they went back to their homeland. However, it was necessary for the attacked states to defend themselves. The Indians thought that they did not need walls because they were was protected by the Himalayas; c.110 BCE, the valley of the Indus was run over. The Chinese built the 'Wall of ten thousand miles' to protect themselves. The rulers of the Achaemenid empire, from Cyrus the Great to Alexander the Great, may have built walls as well. These walls are mentioned in the eighteenth sura of the Quran and in medieval legend, but cannot be identified with known archaeological remains. It is certain, however, that both Cyrus and Alexander built garrison towns along the river Syrdar'ya or Jaxartes; our sources call them Cyreschata and Alexandria Eschatê.

Nomadism continued to exist into the first and second millennium CE. Several tribes may be mentioned. The Alani -whose language lives on in modern Ossetian- are known from the first century CE; they lived in modern Kazakhstan. Later, they moved to the west, being pushed forward by the Huns, which are known from Chinese texts as the Xiung-nu. Later tribal formations were the Avars, the Chasars, the Bulgars, the Turks, the Magyars, the Cumans, the Tatars, the Mongols and the Cossacks.



Little Scythia or Scythia Minor, now Dobrudja, Romania
In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Sunny" <sunnyjat12002@y...> wrote:

Q&A: According to Leake, the area around Thrace was called "Little-
Scythia" by the classical writers, is this true?

Francisc Czobor answers:

Little Scythia (Scythia Minor) was in the late antiquity the name of the area between the Lower Danube and the Black Sea, that is called now Dobrudja (In Romanian: Dobrogea) and is shared between Romania (the northern part) and Bulgaria (the southern part). Before "Scythia Minor", this area was called "Moesia Inferior", and this was its name also as a province of the Roman Empire. Later, when some Scythian tribes settled there coming from North-East (the "great" Scythia, where today is Ukraine), the region used to be called also "Little
Scythia".

I agree that the Dacians were the same or similar to the Getae. Leake writes, "From Strabo's time on, the Getae and Daci were considered to the same people and their names were used interchangeably (Leake 1967: 22)." Mircea Elaide, in his book Zalmoxis, equates the Dacians with the Dahae branch of Sakas:
According to Strabo (304: 7, 3, 12), the original name of the Dacians was daoi…certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called daoi. The Latin authors called them Dahae, and some Greek historians daai…At first the name "Dacians" were referred to one of the Thracian tribes in Northwestern Dacia (Strabo 304: 7. 3. 12). In general the name "Getae" occurs more commonly toward the Black Sea, from the Balkans to the Dniester, whereas, the name "Dacians" is more frequent in the northwest, west, and the south…. (Eliade 1970: 1-2,12).

This is exactly what I also wrote. The Daci and Getae were considered
the same people, the name "Daci" being applied more commonly to the
tribes of NW Dacia (todays Transylvania) and "Getae" to those along
the Lower Danube and towards the Black Sea.

Now Arnold Toynbee, believed the Thracian Getae to be an early splinter groups of the Eastern Scythians, he wrote, "It is, however, perhaps more likely that the European Getae and Davi (Daci), like their homonyms east of the Volga, were a pair of the original Iranian speaking hordes who gradually became assimilated to the sedentary Thracian-speaking populations whom they conquered So were the Daco-Getans originally the Dahae and Massagetae found
east of the Caspian Sea?
In the past, it was this view that the Daco-Getae where related to
some eastern Iranic tribes, based on name ressemblances like Daci -
Dahae and Getae - Massagetae - Thyssagetae. In the XIXth century it
was generally considered that the Thracians were very close
linguistically to the Iranic language group, or even members of this
group. Based on such name ressemblances, some considered that even
the African Getuli were related to the Getae. But today sych views
are no more shared, at least by the mainstream of the Romanian
historians and linguists.
As far as I remeber, the name Dahae is put in connection with the
Sanskrit word dasa "slave" and with the Modern Persian word
deh "village". The name of the Daci is considered to be derived from
a putative Thracic word *dak = "wolf", based also on the fact that
the wolf was a sort of totemic animal for the Daci (the war banners
of the Daci represented an animal with a wolf head and a snake body).
But, as far as I know, the name Getae, both in the case of the proper
Getae and in the case of Iranic tribes like Massagetae, Thyssagetae,
remains unexplained (I have read somewhere that Massagetae could be
interpreted as "fish eating Getae", Massa- being put in connectin
with the Sanskritic word matsya "fish").



From: Ted Kandell < ted_kandell@yahoo.com>
Subject: [Y-DNA-HAPLOGROUP-G] Possible ancient ancestors for a large part ofG2
Date: Fri, 21 Sep 2007 16:07:30 -0700 (PDT)
G2 has a very large number of relatively closely related haplotypes, that when drawn in a network, look like a large "star" - they all radiate out from a central area (a small set of possible ancestral haplotypes). This is a sure sign of a large number of men being descended from a single ancestor who had many sons, who in turn had many sons.

The G SNP Project also found a large number of G2 haplotypes that all share a particular new SNP, which they call U8, but who don't have any of the additional SNPs that are are found in later branches. (This doesn't include G2a, and of course doesn't include G1 and G5.)

I would like to propose an origin for the large G2 U8+ star cluster that we've been seeing.

As I've said, there are clear signs of elite dominance here - a single ancestor, who
fathered a large elite of men who were able to command resources that allowed them to have many sons, particularly women in a polygamous society. This is precisely parallel to the famous cases of Niall of the Nine Hostages and Genghis Khan,which however are much more recent in origin than the U8+ star cluster.
To find the group that could have been the ancestors of this star cluster, we have to look in Classical times, the latter half of the 1st millenium BCE. This group would have originated much earlier, but almost certainly were still in existence at that time.

The criteria for finding this group are the following:
1. They must (of course) have left numerous descendants in Western Europe, especially in Spain, with some in France (and other descendants migrating to the British Isles at a later period), and the parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria along or just outside the borders of the Roman Empire, but generally not in the eastern areas of Germany, or for the most part further north.
2. Some had to have entered Northern Italy.
3. They must have been present in Eastern Europe, including central Romania in particular, the adjacent areas of Poland, and also in Ukraine and Crimea
4. This group must have numerous descendants in the northern Caucasus.
5. Some of them must have entered easternAnatolia (Turkey).
6. They had to have been present in northern Iran.
7. Relatively large numbers must have entered the northwest areas of the Indian sub-Continent (Pakistan), with some descendants in parts of India.
8. Some of them must have lived in western Uzbekistan, with others in parts of Central Asia further east, all the way out to Uzbekistan, Western Mongolia, and with a few descendants in Northern China.

There is only one possible group that meets all of these criteria: The Scythians, and the closely related peoples, the Sarmatians, and their branches the Alans and the Roxolani, among others. The Scythians were known in their own language as "Aryana" - not "Aryans" in the more general term, but rather meaning "noble [warriors]" - this name survives in the names Alan and "Iron" (the native name of the present-day Alans / Ossetians) but they were more generally known both in their own language northwest India. However, we must note that most of the Alans of thand and Iranian as the Sakas. The Sakas created an empire in what is now Pakistan and Afghanistan in the 1st century BCE, and to this day leave descendants in these areas and e Caucasus most likely don't belong to this star cluster, but rather to what has been known up till now as "G2a". The Scythians were the dominant ethnic group in Central Asia until the coming of the Turks from further east starting around 650 CE.

It was the Mongols with their mostly Turkish armies that completely Turkified Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizstan, and Sinkiang China ("East Turkistan" where the Uighurs live), but most of the people in these areas are the descendant of the pre-Turkish Scythians. A very small group in Uzbekistan today, the Yaghnobis, still speak a descendant of the Scythian language which is the only other close relative of Ossetian.

None of this is incompatible with some Germanic tribes being the
descendants of these Scythians. When the Romans broke the power of the Sarmatian Roxolani in 68 CE and the related Iazyges in 180 CE in Romania, many were deported to the Roman Empire to serve as soldiers along the borders, while the all the rest assimilated to their Germanic allies, the Marcomanni and the Quadi, who later became part of the Suebi (aka the Alemanni) tribal confederation. The Marcomanni and Quadi first migrated along the borders of the Roman Empire in what is now Austria, and then these Suebi setted in what is now Western Germany, Swabia, which included Switzerland and also created a kingdom in what is not Galicia in Spain.
Some others remained in Eastern Europe, particularly central Romania, and Others, the Alans, maintained their Iranic identity, and settled in France and Spain and North Africa. Later, some of their descendants, now assiimilated to the French, would have become part of the Normans who conquered and settled in England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.

Some of these Iranian nomads also assimilated to the Huns, and the direct successors to the Huns were the Bulgars and the Khazars. So, this Iranic origin is also not inconsistent with an origin among the Huns, either. BTW, we should expect Atilla to be the origin of a star cluster in one or another haplogroup. It all depends on the tMRCA - and I can't quite say we have such a recent tMRCA in any part of G at this point.

There are exceptions to this, in particular, the Jews who are present in G2 U8+. The Khazars remain a realistic possiblity for the entry of Jews into G2 U8+, but what seems more likely is that this is represented by what has been called "G2a" - if these have matches in the Caucasus. It now seems that the Jews in G2 U8* cluster together with Spaniards, so G2 U8* among Jews could have originated with Iberian admixture.

Another exception to this are the G2s of Sicily, Southern Italy, and Greece. It's hard to say whether the Greek G2s belong to the U8+ star cluster, but clearly some Sicilians and Calabrians do. There could be many sources for Sicilian G2 U8* haplotypes: In 827, a Muslim fleet of 100 ships landed an army of 10,000 troops, who while mostly Arabs and North African Berbers, also included Spanish Muslims and Persians as well. This force conquered Palermo in 831 and established the Arab Emirate of Sicily. Under Muslim rule Sicily attracted immigrants from all over the Muslim world, including from Syria, Iraq, and Iran, and also large numbers of Jews as well. Later, after the Norman conquest in 1081, Sicily was actively colonized by North Italians and later under the Angevins by French as well. Sicilian G2s could have a very large possible number of geographic origins, with some G2 U8* haplotypes arriving from any one of the regions where it was present at many different times in Sicily's history.

It's important to note that no one ethnic group except some very isolated ones belong only one single Y haplogroup. Based on geography, most of the Scythians would have belonged to haplogroup R1a. However, a certain particular lineage among the Scythians could have belonged to much more rare haplogroup, and were carried along in their widespread migrations. This particular lineage would have had to have been an elite, and a very successful one.

Remember, that the following is all very speculative, but I think I've found a good candidate for elite dominance among the ancient Scythians in the 1st millenium BCE:

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus devoted a section of his History to the Scythians, who were important neighbors of the Greek colonies in Crimea.

Here is a translation of the relevant part Herodotus' History (written c. 450 BCE):

The History of Herodotus ; translated into English by G. C. Macaulay, M.A. Book IV

Herodotus, History, Book IV

"5. Now the Scythians say that their nation is the youngest of
all nations, and that this came to pass as follows: ... The elder brothers then, acknowledging the significance of
this thing, delivered the whole of the kingly power to the
youngest. 6. From Lixopais, they say, are descended those Scythians
who are called the race of the Auchatai; from the middle brother
Arpoxais those who are called Catiaroi and Traspians, and from the
youngest of them the “Royal” tribe,558 who are called Paralatai: and the whole
together are called, they say, Scolotoi, after the name of their
king; but the Hellenes gave them
the name of Scythians. 7. Thus the Scythians say they were
produced; and from the time of their origin, that is to say from
the first king Targitaos, to the passing over of Dareios against
them, they say that there is a period of a thousand years and no
more." [Darius the Great, King of Persia, attacked the Scythians both in the Balkans and Central Asia in 512 BCE.]

"20. Then on the other side of the Gerros [Molochna River, Ukraine] we have those
parts which are called the “Royal” lands and those Scythians who are the bravest and most numerous and who esteem the other Scythians their slaves. "

Apparently the dynastic / clan name of these Royal Scythians was the "Paralatai", which may be related to a root meaning "first". Herodotus relates the legendary origins of the Scythians, including a legend of divine descent (very typical of tribal groups). However, the Scythians clearly had a powerful, dominating elite, who claimed to belong to a single patrilineal lineage. We know that this lineage was present in Ukraine, but also were claimed by other authors to have been present in what is now Turkestan, under the name of the "Royal Dahae". We find the kurgans, the royal burial mounds of the Scythian kings, from Ukraine eastward through Central Asia as far as what is now Sinkiang, China. The royal elite of the Sakas of India also originated in what is now Turkestan, north of Iran and east of the Caspian Sea. The Roxolani of Eastern Europe also were said to have been a branch of the Massagetae. They were also known as the "Royal Dahae".
They may have also been known as the "Parni" and interestingly "Parni" was said to have been the original Scythian tribal name of the Parthian royal dynasty of the Arsacids before it was changed to "Parthi".
 

 

 

Scythian Dragon Tribe

The association between Scythian Totem beasts, Romanian animal vampire types and Mithraic grades of Initiation indicates clearly that vampirism, far from being random or opportunist, was in fact part of an ancient system of elven rites manifest in Tantra, Mithraism and Druidism.

Having said that the symbol of the panther and the werewolf were apposite, as the Scythian warriornobility were a tad bloody-minded at times and Roman reports from the early part of the first millennium state how the Pictish Danaan had been witnessed eating the flesh and drinking the blood of their defeated foes following victories in battle.

Undoubtedly this was a corruption of earlier ritual practice as we shall see later. Certainly going out and ’eating Italian’ had a unique and disturbing meaning for the Roman soldiery of the day, as the Ninth Legion in Albany discovered to their cost. Drinking the blood of friend or foe in battle was a common practice in Eire and Scotland, the former in remembrance of fallen comrades, the latter to obtain the strength of the enemy. Contrary to Royal Vampirism, the whole point of Martial Vampirism was to clog your arteries with someone else's adrenaline

Another ritual familiar to those who have read Stoker’s Dracula was the hauling of soil from the Scythian homelands in boxes. The Scythians initiated this practice with the idea that the earth was the source of sovereignty and power and that ones soul was linked to ones homeland.

In antiquity, Scythian orScyths[1] (Ancient Greek:Σκύθαι) were terms used by the Greeks to refer to certainIranian[2][3][4] groups of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian steppe.[5] However, the name "Scythian", and the related wordSaka (in Persian), was also used to refer to various peoples seen as similar to the Scythians, or who lived anywhere in a vast area covering present-day Central Asia, Russia, Romaniaand Ukraine—known until medieval times asScythia. They have been described as "a network of culturally similar tribes."[6]
The historic European Scythians spoke anancient Iranic language,[7] and throughoutClassical Antiquity dominated the Ponto-Caspian steppe, known at the time asScythia.
By Late Antiquity the closely relatedSarmatians came to dominate the Scythians in the west. Much of the surviving information about the Scythians comes from the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 440 BC) in hisHistories and Ovid in his poem of exileEpistulae ex Ponto, and archaeologically from the depictions of Scythian life shown in relief on exquisite goldwork found in Scythian burial mounds in Ukraine and Southern Russia.
The ultimate "origins" of, both, Scythian culture and historic groups remains a focus of academic debate. The classical histories and archeological evidence give only a partial understanding of the origins of Scythian culture. What is certain is that, during the Iron Age, a broadly similar Scythian culture flowered in a vast zone from the eastern European steppe to the Altai Mountains.[8]
Contents [hide]


Main article: Scythian languages
Scythian belonged to the Indo-European language-family. The Linguist List, representing the most current view of mainstream scholarship, classifies Scythian as a member of theNortheast Iranian branch. Many non-Iranian tribes included under the Scythian umbrella spoke other languages; for example, the Meotians (Sindi), spoke Indo-Aryan dialects.
[edit]Naming and etymology

Sulimirski views the Histories of Herodotus as the most important literary source relating to ancient Scyths.[9] Herodotus provides a depiction that can be related to the results of archaeological research, but apparently knew little of the eastern part of Scythia. He did say that the ancient Persians called all the Scyths Σάκαι (Sacae, Herodotus 7.64). Their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths", ruled the vast lands occupied by the nation as a whole (Herodotus 4.20), calling themselves Σκώλοτοι (Scōloti, Herodotus 4.6). Oswald Szemerényi devotes a thorough discussion to the etymologies of ancient ethnic words for the Scythians in his work "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian – Skudra – Sogdian – Saka". In it the names of Herodotus and the names of his title, except Saka, as well as many other words for "Scythian," such as Assyrian Aškuz and Greek Skuthēs, descend from *skeud-, an ancient Indo-European root meaning "propel, shoot" (cf. English shoot).[10] *skud- is the zero-grade; that is, a variant in which the -e- is not present. The restored Scythian name is *Skuda (archer), which among the Pontic or Royal Scythians became *Skula, in which the d has been regularly replaced by an l.
Saka, on the other hand, Szemerényi relates to an Iranian verbal root, sak-, "go, roam", and hypothesizes that the Achaemenids used "nomad" to refer to the northern tribes, rather than their endonym. The name does appear somewhat further east than the Achaemenid Empire, as the Chinese knew the Asian Scythians as Sai (Chinese character: 塞, Old Sinitic *sək). Whether they adopted the Achaemenid name or Saka came to be an endonym is not clear. Some Saka settled in greater numbers within the Persian Empire. The modern Iranian province of Sistan takes its name from the classical Sakestan (place of Saka).[11][12][13]
Sakestan was not the only province of Scythian origin on the eastern margin of the Persian Empire. According to Szemerényi, Sogdiana was named from the Skuda form. Starting from the names of the province given in Old Persian inscriptions, Sugda and Suguda, and the knowledge derived from Middle Sogdian that Old Persian -gd- applied to Sogdian was actually pronounced as voiced fricatives, -γδ-, Szemerényi arrives at *Suγδa as an Old Sogdian endonym.[14] Applying sound changes apparent in other Sogdian words and inherent in Indo-European he traces the development of *Suγδa from Skuda, "archer," as f

Map of the Roman Empire under Hadrian(ruled 117–138 AD), showing the location of the Scythae Basilaei ("Royal Scyths") along the north shore of the Black Sea
The Scythians first appeared in the historical record in the 8th century BC.[16] Herodotusreported three contradictory versions as to the origins of the Scythians, but placed greatest faith in this version:[17]
There is also another different story, now to be related, in which I am more inclined to put faith than in any other. It is that the wandering Scythians once dwelt in Asia, and there warred with theMassagetae, but with ill success; they therefore quitted their homes, crossed the Araxes, and entered the land ofCimmeria.
Subsequently, the term Scythian, like Cimmerian, was used to refer to a variety of groups from the Black Sea to southern Siberia and central Asia. "They were not a specific people", but rather variety of peoples "referred to at variety of times in history, and in several places, none of which was their original homeland" [18] The Bible includes a single reference to Scythians in Colossians 3:11, immediately after mentioning barbarian, possibly as an extreme example of a barbarian.[19]
[edit]Archaeology
Modern interpretation of historical, archaeological and anthropological evidence has proposed two broad hypotheses. The first, more popularly supported, theory roughly follows Herodotus' (third) account, stating that the Scythians were an Iranic group who arrived from Inner Asia, i.e. from the area of Turkestan and western Siberia.[16][20][21]
A second school of thought suggests an origin in the Pontic steppe/trans-Caucasian region. Followers of this theory argue that the Scythians emerged from local groups of the "Timber Grave" (or Srubna) culture (although this is also associated with the Cimmerians). This second theory is supported by anthropological evidence which has found that Scythian skulls are similar to preceding findings from the Timber Grave culture, and distinct from those of the Central Asian Sacae.[22]


Scythian & related archaeological groups in circum- Pontic region, c. 7 - 3 century BC
Such scenarios need not be mutually exclusive, especially when considered against a broader culture-historial and geo-ecological backdrop. The commencement of the first millennium BC saw increasingly arid conditions in the steppe lands, as well as the transition to an Iron Age in terms of metallurgical development. This led to a less sedentary, more mobile way of life with greater competition for resources. A more militarized and socially stratified steppe society might be a natural consequence. A mobile, broadly similar lifestyle would have facilitated contacts amongst disparate ethnic groupings along the expansive Eurasian steppe from the Danube to Manchuria, leading to many cultural similarities. Nevertheless the peoples recorded historically as Scythians and Sakas were a heterogeneous mix with independent histories. The final development of Scythian culture was intimately linked to a variety of elements, including a Scytho-Siberian platform modified by Caucasian, Greek and Assyrian-Urarturian influences.
[edit]Genetics


Scythian Warrior
Given that declared eastern origin, some scholars, before the 20th century, assumed that the Scythians were descended from theTurkic/Mongolic people.[23] The Scythian community did inhabit western Mongolia in the 5th and 6th centuries, but were not Mongolian. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, which is believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30-to-40 year-old man with blond hair, and was found in the Altai, Mongolia.[24]
Mitochondrial DNA extracted from skeletal remains obtained from excavated Scythiankurgans have produced a myriad of results and conclusions. Analysis of the HV1 sequence obtained from a male Scytho-Siberian's remains at the Kizil site in the Altai Republic revealed the individual possessed the N1a maternal lineage. The study also noted that haplogroup mtDNA N1a was found at a relatively high frequency in the southern fringes of the Eurasian steppe, Iran (8.3%). From this, a possible link to ancient populations presumed to have come from Europe that lived in the neighboring northwestern parts of the Subcontinent and Iran was suggested.[25]
Additionally, mitochondrial DNA has been extracted from two Scytho-Siberian skeletons found in the Altai Republic (Russia) dating back 2,500 years. Both remains were determined to be of males from a population who had characteristics "of mixed Euro-Mongoloid origin". ("Europoid" in this context means Western Eurasian).[26][verification needed] One of the individuals was found to carry the F2a maternal lineage, and the other the D lineage, both of which are characteristic of East Eurasian populations.[27]


Scythian artefacts originating from sites in Transylvania, in display at Aiud History Museum, Aiud, Romania.
Maternal genetic analysis of Saka period male and female skeletal remains from a double inhumation kurgan located at the Beral site in Kazakhstan determined that the two were most likely not closely related and were possibly husband and wife. The HV1 mitochondrial sequence of the male was similar to the Anderson sequence which is most frequent in European populations. Contrary, the HV1 sequence of the female suggested a greater likelihood of Asian origins. The study's findings were in line with the hypothesis that mixings between Scythians and other populations occurred. This was buttressed by the discovery of several objects with a Chinese inspiration in the grave. No conclusive associations with haplogroups were made though it was suggested that the female may have derived from either mtDNA X or D.[28]
The haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarskarea in Siberia dated from between the middle of the second millennium BC. to the 4th century AD (Scythian and Sarmatian timeframe). Nearly all subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1-M17 which is thought to mark the eastward migration of the early Indo-Europeans[citation needed]. The results also confirm that throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages, south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly predominant Europoid settlement, suggesting an eastward migration of Kurgan people across the Russo-Kazakh steppe. Finally, the study authors suggest that their data shows that between Bronze and Iron Ages, the constellation of populations known variously as Scythians, Andronovians, etc. were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people which might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization.[29]
This confirms impressions based on depictions of Scythian men in art. Scythians possessed pronounced Europoid faces and sported a beard and long hair; perhaps most resembling later medieval Slavs.[30] This is confirmed by accounts of the Alans, a successor ancient Iranic steppe group, who were described by Ammianius as being tall and blonde.[31]
[edit]History

[edit]Classical Antiquity (600 BC to AD 300)


Timeline of Scythian kurgans in Asia and Europe Per Fig.6 of Alekseev, A. Yu. et al., "Chronology of Eurasian Scythian< Antiquities"


Skunkha, king of the Sakā tigraxaudā("wearing pointed caps Sakae", a group of Scythian tribes). Detail ofBehistun Inscription.


Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurganburial near Kerch. The warrior on the right strings his bow, bracing it behind his knee; note the typical pointed hood, long jacket with fur or fleece trimming at the edges, decorated trousers, and short boots tied at the ankle. Scythians apparently normally wore their hair long and loose, and all adult men apparently wore beards. The gorytosappears clearly on the left hip of the bare-headed spearman; his companion has an interesting shield, perhaps representing a plain leather covering over a wooden or wicker base. (Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg)


Treasure of Kul-Oba, near Kerch.


Silver coin of King Azes II (r.c. 35-12 BC). Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Herodotus provides the first detailed description of the Scythians. He classes theCimmerians as a distinct autochthonous tribe, expelled by the Scythians from the northern Black Sea coast (Hist. 4.11–-12). Herodotus also states (4.6) that the Scythians consisted of the Auchatae, Catiaroi, Traspians andParalatae or "Royal Scythians."
For Herodotus, the Scythians were outlandish barbarians living north of the Black Sea in what are now Moldova and Ukraine.
—Michael Kulikowski, Rome's Gothic Wars from the Third Century to Alaric, pg. 14
In 512 BC, when King Darius the Great ofPersia attacked the Scythians, he allegedly penetrated into their land after crossing theDanube. Herodotus relates that the nomad Scythians succeeded in frustrating the designs of the Persian army by letting it march through the entire country without an engagement. According to Herodotus, Darius in this manner came as far as the Volga River.
During the 5th to 3rd centuries BC the Scythians evidently prospered. When Herodotus wrote his Histories in the 5th century BC, Greeks distinguished Scythia Minor in present-day Romaniaand Bulgaria from a Greater Scythia that extended eastwards for a 20-day ride from the Danube River, across the steppes of today's East Ukraine to the lower Don basin. The Don, then known asTanaïs, has served as a major trading route ever since. The Scythians apparently obtained their wealth from their control over the slave-trade from the north to Greece through the Greek Black Sea colonial ports of Olbia, Chersonesos, Cimmerian Bosporus, and Gorgippia. They also grew grain, and shipped wheat, flocks, and cheese to Greece.
Strabo (c. 63 BC –- 24 AD) reports that King Ateas united under his power the Scythian tribes living between the Maeotian marshesand the Danube. His westward expansion brought him in conflict with Philip II of Macedon (reigned 359 to 336 BC), who took military action against the Scythians in 339 BC. Ateas died in battle, and his empire disintegrated. In the aftermath of this defeat, the Celts seem to have displaced the Scythians from theBalkans, while in south Russia a kindred tribe, the Sarmatians, gradually overwhelmed them. In 329 BC Philip's son, Alexander the Great, came into conflict with the Scythians at theBattle of Jaxartes. A nomad army sought to take revenge for the death of Ateas against the Macedonians, as they pushed the borders of their empire north and east, and take advantage of a revolt by the local Sogdiansatrap. However, the nomad army was utterly crushed by Alexander, and following this defeat, the Scythians were no longer in a position to challenge the power of Macedon.
By the time of Strabo's account (the first decades of the first millennium AD), the Crimean Scythians had created a new kingdom extending from the lower Dnieper to the Crimea. The kings Skilurus and Palakuswaged wars with Mithridates the Great(reigned 120–63 BC) for control of the Crimean littoral, including Chersonesos and theCimmerian Bosporus. Their capital city,Scythian Neapolis, stood on the outskirts of modern Simferopol. The Goths destroyed it later, in the mid-3rd century AD.
[edit]Sakas
Main article: Sakas
Asians, especially Persians, knew the Scythians in Asia as Sakas. The Indo-Scythians had the name "Shaka" in South Asia, an extension on the name "Saka".Herodotus (7.64) describes them as Scythians, called by a different name:
The Sacae, or Scyths, were clad in trousers, and had on their heads tall stiff caps rising to a point. They bore the bow of their country and the dagger; besides which they carried the battle-axe, or sagaris. They were in truth Amyrgian (Western) Scythians, but the Persians called them Sacae, since that is the name which they gave to all Scythians.
Some Asian Saka include, Nagbanshi, Bala, Gurjjara.[32][33]
[edit]Indo-Scythians
Main article: Indo-Scythians
In the 2nd century BC, a group of Scythian tribes, known as the Indo-Scythians, migrated into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia and Gandhara. The migrations in 175-125 BC of theKushan (Chinese: "Yuezhi") tribes, who originally lived in eastern Tarim Basin before theHuns tribes dislodged them, displaced the Indo-Scythians from Central Asia. Led by their king Maues, they ultimately settled in modern-day Afghanistan/Pakistan from around 85 BC, where they replaced the kingdom of the Indo-Greeks by the time of Azes II (reigned c. 35–12 BC). Kushans invaded again in the 1st century, but the Indo-Scythian rule persisted in some areas of Central India until the 5th century. Abars, one of the Scythian tribes entered in Indian in 1st century BC.[34] Hellenic-Scythian contact still focused on the Hellenistic cities and settlements of the Crimea (especially in the Bosporan Kingdom). Greek craftsmen from the colonies north of the Black Sea made spectacular Scythian-style gold ornaments (see below), applying Greek realism to depict Scythian motifs of lions, antlered reindeer, and gryphons.
[edit]Late Antiquity (AD 300 to 600)
In Late Antiquity the notion of a Scythian ethnicity grew more vague, and outsiders might dub any people inhabiting the Pontic-Caspian steppe as "Scythians", regardless of their language. Thus, Priscus, a Byzantine emissary to Attila, repeatedly referred to the latter's followers as "Scythians". But Eunapius, Claudius Cladianus and Olympiodorususually mean "Goths" when they write "Scythians".
The Goths had displaced the Sarmatians in the 2nd century from most areas near the Roman frontier, and by early medieval times, the Turkic migration marginalized East Iranian dialects, and assimilated the Saka linguistically.
[edit]Archaeology

File:Scythian Kul Oba Ukraine.jpg
Scythian man, Kul Oba, Ukraine.
Archaeological remains of the Scythians includekurgan tombs (ranging from simple exemplars to elaborate "Royal kurgans" containing the "Scythian triad" of weapons, horse-harness, and Scythian-style wild-animal art), gold, silk, and animal sacrifices, in places also with suspected human sacrifices.[35][36] Mummification techniques and permafrost have aided in the relative preservation of some remains. Scythian archaeology also examines the remains of North Pontic Scythian cities and fortifications.[37]
The spectacular Scythian grave-goods from Arzhan, and others in Tuva have been dated from about 900 BC onward. One grave find on the lower Volga gave a similar date, and one of the Steblev graves from the eastern, European end of the Scythian area was dated to the late 8th century BC.[38]
Archaeologists can distinguish three periods of ancient Scythian archaeological remains:
1st period – pre-Scythian and initial Scythian epoch: from the 9th to the middle of the 7th century BC
2nd period – early Scythian epoch: from the 7th to the 6th centuries BC
3rd period – classical Scythian epoch: from the 5th to the 4th centuries BC
From the 8th to the 2nd centuries BC, archaeology records a split into two distinct settlement areas: the older in the Sayan-Altai area in Central Asia, and the younger in the North Pontic area in Eastern Europe.[39]
[edit]Kurgans
Main article: Kurgan


An arm from the throne of a Scythian king, 7th century BC. Found at the Kerkemess kurgan, Krasnodar Krai in 1905. On exhibit at the Hermitage Museum.
Large burial mounds (some over 20 metres high), provide the most valuable archaeological remains associated with the Scythians. They dot the Ukrainian and south Russian steppes, extending in great chains for many kilometers along ridges and watersheds. From them archaeologists have learned much about Scythian life and art.[40] The Ukrainian term for such a burial mound, "kurhan" (Ukrainian: Курган) as well as the Russian term kurgan, derives from a Turkic word for "castle".[41]
Some Scythian-Sarmatian cultures may have given rise to Greek stories of Amazons. Graves of armed females have been found in southern Ukraine and Russia. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian-Sarmatian "warrior graves" on the lower Don and lowerVolga contained females dressed for battle as if they were men, a style that may have inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons."[42]
[edit]Tamgas
Scythian tribes and clans have left behind them as important ethnological markers theirtamgas (brand-marks which identify individual possession), a must for pastoral societies with shared grazing-ranges. Tamgas allow reconstruction of movements and family links where no written records have survived.
Besides identifying property, tamgas marked participation of members of the clan in collective actions (treaties, religious ceremonies, fraternization, public functions), and served as symbols of authority for minting coins. The tamga forms stayed unchanged for about 2,000 years within kindred ethnic groups, but after the decline of some famous clan another clan would adopt its tamga.
Analysis of tamgas for most powerful clans and for the kings of the Bosporus has allowed scholars to define precisely their genealogy and their relations with territories from where their forefathers migrated to Europe: Chorasm, Kang-Kü, Bactria, Sogdiana.[43]
[edit]Pazyryk culture


Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, ca. 300 BC.
Main article: Pazyryk
Some of the first Bronze Age Scythian burials documented by modern archaeologists include the kurgans at Pazyryk in the Ulagandistrict of the Altai Republic, south ofNovosibirsk in the Altai Mountains of southernSiberia. Archaeologists have extrapolated thePazyryk culture from these finds: five large burial mounds and several smaller ones between 1925 and 1949, one opened in 1947 by Russian archaeologist Sergei Rudenko. The burial mounds concealed chambers of larch-logs covered over with large cairns of boulders and stones.
Pazyryk culture flourished between the 7th and 3rd century BC in the area associated with the Sacae.
Ordinary Pazyryk graves contain only common utensils, but in one, among other treasures, archaeologists found the famous Pazyryk Carpet, the oldest surviving wool-pileoriental rug. Another striking find, a 3-metre-high four-wheel funerary chariot, survived superbly preserved from the 5th century BC.
Although some scholars sought to connect the Pazyryk nomads with indigenous ethnic groups of the Altai, Rudenko summed up the cultural context in the following dictum:[citation needed]
All that is known to us at the present time about the culture of the population of the High Altai, who have left behind them the large cairns, permits us to refer them to the Scythian period, and the Pazyryk group in particular to the fifth century BC. This is supported by radiocarbon dating.
[edit]Belsk excavations
Recent digs[citation needed](see:Gelonus) in Belsk near Poltava (Ukraine) have uncovered a "vast city", with the largest area of any city in the world at that time. It has been tentatively identified by a team of archaeologists led by Boris Shramko as the site ofGelonus, the purported capital of Scythia. The city's commanding ramparts and vast area of 40 square kilometers exceed even the outlandish size reported by Herodotus. Its location at the northern edge of the Ukrainian steppe would have allowed strategic control of the north-south trade-route. Judging by the finds dated to the 5th and 4th centuries BC, craft workshops and Greek pottery abounded.
[edit]Tillia tepe treasure


"Kings with dragons", Tillia tepe.
Main article: Tillia tepe
A site found in 1968 in Tillia tepe (literally "The golden hill") in northern Afghanistan (formerBactria) near Shebergan consisted of the graves of five women and one man with extremely rich jewelry, dated to around the 1st century BC, and generally thought to belong to Scythian tribes. Altogether the graves yielded several thousands of pieces of fine jewelry, usually made from combinations ofgold, turquoise and lapis-lazuli.


Royal crown, Tillia tepe.
A high degree of cultural syncretism pervades the findings, however. Hellenistic cultural and artistic influences appear in many of the forms and human depictions (from amorini to rings with the depiction of Athena and her name inscribed in Greek), attributable to the existence of the Seleucid empire and Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the same area until around 140 BC, and the continued existence of the Indo-Greek kingdom in the northwestern Indian sub-continent until the beginning of our era. This testifies to the richness of cultural influences in the area of Bactria at that time.
[edit]Influence

[edit]China


Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. 4th-3rd century BC. British Museum.
Ancient influences from Central Asia became identifiable in China following contacts of metropolitan China with nomadic western and northwestern border territories from the 8th century BC. The Chinese adopted the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes(descriptions of animals locked in combat), particularly the rectangular belt-plaques made of gold or bronze, and created their own versions in jade and steatite.[44]
Following their expulsion by the Yuezhi, some Scythians may also have migrated to the area of Yunnan in southern China. Scythian warriors could also have served as mercenaries for the various kingdoms of ancient China. Excavations of the prehistoric art of the Dian civilization of Yunnan have revealed hunting scenes of Caucasoidhorsemen in Central Asian clothing.[45]
[edit]Northeastern Asia


A Crown of Silla.
Scythian influences have been identified as far as Korea and Japan. Various Korean artifacts, such as the royal crowns of the kingdom ofSilla, are said to be of Scythian design.[46]Similar crowns, brought through contacts with the continent, can also be found in Kofun eraJapan.[47]
[edit]Society

Scythians lived in confederated tribes, a political form of voluntary association which regulated pastures and organized a common defence against encroaching neighbors for the pastoral tribes of mostly equestrian herdsmen. While the productivity of domesticated animal-breeding greatly exceeded that of the settled agricultural societies, the pastoral economy also needed supplemental agricultural produce, and stable nomadic confederations developed either symbiotic or forced alliances with sedentary peoples – in exchange for animal produce and military protection.
Herodotus relates that three main tribes of the Scythians descended from three brothers, Lipoxais, Arpoxais, and Colaxais:[48]
In their reign a plough, a yoke, an axe, and a bowl, all made of gold, fell from heaven upon the Scythian territory. The oldest of the brothers wished to take them away, but as he drew near the gold began to burn. The second brother approached them, but with the like result. The third and youngest then approached, upon which the fire went out, and he was enabled to carry away the golden gifts. The two eldest then made the youngest king, and henceforth the golden gifts were watched by the king with the greatest care, and annually approached with magnificent sacrifices.[49]


Gold clothing appliqué, showing two Scythian archers, 400 to 350 BC. Probably from Kul-Oba, Crimea. British Museum.
Herodotus also mentions a royal tribe or clan, an elite which dominated the other Scythians:
Then on the other side of the Gerros we have those parts which are called the "Royal" lands and those Scythians who are the bravest and most numerous and who esteem the other Scythians their slaves.[50]
The elder brothers then, acknowledging the significance of this thing, delivered the whole of the kingly power to the youngest. From Lixopais, they say, are descended those Scythians who are called the race of the Auchatai; from the middle brother Arpoxais those who are called Catiaroi and Traspians, and from the youngest of them the "Royal" tribe, who are called Paralatai: and the whole together are called, they say, Scolotoi, after the name of their king; but the Hellenes gave them the name of Scythians. Thus the Scythians say they were produced; and from the time of their origin, that is to say from the first king Targitaos, to the passing over of Dareios [the Persian Emperor Darius I] against them [512 BC], they say that there is a period of a thousand years and no more.[51]
This royal clan is also named in other classical sources the "Royal Dahae". The rich burials of Scythian kings in (kurgans) is independent evidence for the existence of this powerful royal elite.
Although scholars have traditionally treated the three tribes as geographically distinct,Georges Dumézil interpreted the divine gifts as the symbols of social occupations, illustrating his trifunctional vision of early Indo-European societies: the plough and yoke symbolised the farmers, the axe – the warriors, the bowl – the priests.[52] According to Dumézil, "the fruitless attempts of Arpoxais and Lipoxais, in contrast to the success of Colaxais, may explain why the highest strata was not that of farmers or magicians, but rather that of warriors."[53]
Ruled by small numbers of closely allied élites, Scythians had a reputation for theirarchers, and many gained employment as mercenaries. Scythian élites had kurgantombs: high barrows heaped over chamber-tombs of larch-wood – a deciduous conifer that may have had special significance as a tree of life-renewal, for it stands bare in winter. Burials at Pazyryk in the Altay Mountains have included some spectacularly preserved Scythians of the "Pazyryk culture" – including the Ice Maiden of the 5th century BC.
Scythian women dressed in much the same fashion as men. A Pazyryk burial found in the 1990s contained the skeletons of a man and a woman, each with weapons, arrowheads, and an axe.
As far as we know, the Scythians had no writing system. Until recent archaeological developments, most of our information about them came from the Greeks. The Ziwiye hoard, a treasure of gold and silver metalwork and ivory found near the town of Sakizsouth of Lake Urmia and dated to between 680 and 625 BC, includes objects with Scythian "animal style" features. One silver dish from this find bears some inscriptions, as yet undeciphered and so possibly representing a form of Scythian writing.


Scythian bowl, 5th century BC found at Castelu, Romania. In display atConstanţa Museum of National History
.
Homer called the Scythians "the mare-milkers".Herodotus described them in detail: their costume consisted of padded and quilted leather trousers tucked into boots, and open tunics. They rode with no stirrups or saddles, just saddle-cloths. Herodotus reports that Scythians used cannabis, both to weave their clothing and to cleanse themselves in its smoke (Hist. 4.73-75); archaeology has confirmed the use of cannabis in funeral rituals. The Scythian philosopherAnacharsis visited Athens in the 6th century BC and became a legendary sage.
Scythians also had a reputation for the use of barbed and poisoned arrows of several types, for a nomadic life centered on horses – "fed from horse-blood" according to Herodotus – and for skill in guerrilla warfare.
[edit]Art
Main article: Scythian art
Scythian contacts with craftsmen in Greek colonies along the northern shores of the Black Sea resulted in the famous Scythian gold adornments that feature among the most glamorous artifacts of world museums. Ethnographically extremely useful as well, the gold depicts Scythian men as bearded, long-haired Caucasoids. "Greco-Scythian" works depicting Scythians within a much more Hellenic style date from a later period, when Scythians had already adopted elements of Greek culture.
Scythians had a taste for elaborate personal jewelry, weapon-ornaments and horse-trappings. They executed Central-Asian animal motifs with Greek realism: wingedgryphons attacking horses, battling stags, deer, and eagles, combined with everyday motifs like milking ewes.
In 2000, the touring exhibition 'Scythian Gold' introduced the North American public to the objects made for Scythian nomads by Greek craftsmen north of the Black Sea, and buried with their Scythian owners under burial mounds on the flat plains of present-dayUkraine, most of them unearthed after 1980.
In 2001, the discovery of an undisturbed royal Scythian burial-barrow illustrated for the first time Scythian animal-style gold that lacks the direct influence of Greek styles. Forty-four pounds of gold weighed down the royal couple in this burial, discovered near Kyzyl, capital of the Siberian republic of Tuva.
[edit]Religion
Main article: Scythian religion


Offering pot from a Scythian grave from Alba Iulia, Romania, 6th century BC. In display at National Museum of the Union, Alba Iulia
The religious beliefs of the Scythians was a type of Pre-Zoroastrian Iranian religion and differed from the post-Zoroastrian Iranian thoughts.[54]Foremost in the Scythian pantheon stood Tabiti, who was later replaced by Atar, the fire-pantheon of Iranian tribes, and Agni, the fire deity of Indo-Aryans.[54] The Scythian belief was a more archaic stage than the Zoroastrian and Hindusystems. The use of cannabis to induce trance and divination by soothsayers was a characteristic of the Scythian belief system.[54]
[edit]Culture

[edit]Clothing


Scythians at the Tomb of Ovid (c.1640), by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld.
Men and women dressed differently. Herodotus mentioned that Sakas had "high caps and …wore trousers." Clothing was sewn from plain-weave wool, hemp cloth, silk fabrics, felt, leather and hides. Pazyryk findings give the most number of almost fully preserved garments and clothing worn by the Scythian/Saka peoples. Ancient Persian bas-relief – Apadana or Behistun inscription, ancient Greek pottery, archaeological findings from Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, China et al. give visual representations of these garments.
[edit]Headgear
Herodotus says Sakas had "high caps tapering to a point and stiffly upright." Asian Saka headgear is clearly visible on the Persepolis Apadana staircase bas-relief – high pointed hat with flaps over ears and the nape of the neck. From China to the Danube delta men seemed to have worn a variety of soft headgear – either conical like the one described by Herodotus, or rounder, more like a Phrygian cap. Women wore a variety of different headdresses, some conical in shape others more like flattened cylinders, also adorned with metal (golden) plaques. Based on the Pazyryk findings (can be seen also in the south Siberian, Uralic and Kazakhstan rock drawings) some caps were topped with zoomorphic wooden sculptures firmly attached to a cap and forming an integral part of the headgear, similar to the surviving nomad helmets from northern China.
[edit]Tunics
Men and warrior women wore tunics, often embroidered, adorned with felt applique work, or metal (golden) plaques. Persepolis Apadana again serves a good starting point to observe tunics of the Sakas. They appear to be a sewn, long sleeve garment that extended to the knees and belted with a belt while owner's weapons were fastened to the belt (sword or dagger, gorytos, battleax, whetstone etc.). Based on numerous archeological findings in Ukraine, southern Russian and Kazakhstan men and warrior women wore long sleeve tunics that were always belted, often with richly ornamented belts. The Kazakhstan Saka (e.g. Issyk Golden Man/Maiden) wore shorter tunics and more close fitting tunics than the Pontic steppe Scythians. Some Pazyryk culture Saka wore short belted tunic with a lapel on a right side, upright collar, 'puffed' sleeves narrowing at a wrist and bound in narrow cuffs of a color different from the rest of the tunic.
[edit]Robes
Scythian women wore long, loose robes, ornamented with metal plaques (gold).
[edit]Shawls
Women wore shawls, often richly decorated with metal (golden) plaques.
[edit]Coats and cloaks
Men and women wore coats, e.g. Pazyryk Saka had many varieties, from fur to felt. They could have worn a riding coat that later was known as a Median robe or Kantus. Long sleeved, and open, it seems that on the Persepolis Apadana Skudrian delegation is perhaps shown wearing such coat. Pazyryk felt tapestry shows a rider wearing a billowing cloak.
[edit]Trousers
Men and women wore long trousers, often adorned with metal plaques and often embroidered or adorned with felt appliqués; trousers could have been wider or tight fitting depending on the area. Materials used depended on the wealth, climate and necessity.
[edit]Footwear
Men and women warriors wore variations of long and shorter boots, wool-leather-felt gaiter-boots and moccasin-like shoes. They were either of a laced or simple slip on type. Women wore also soft shoes with metal (gold) plaques.
[edit]Belts
Men and women wore belts. Warrior belts were made of leather, often with gold or other metal adornments and had many attached leather thongs for fastening of the owner's gorytos, sword, whet stone, whip etc. Belts were fastened with metal or horn belt-hooks, leather thongs and metal (often golden) or horn belt-plates.
[edit]Historiography

[edit]Herodotus


Scythian artefacts originating from sites in Transylvania, in display at Aiud History Museum, Aiud, Romania.
Herodotus wrote about an enormous city,Gelonus, in the northern part of Scythia[55]
The Budini are a large and powerful nation: they have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair. There is a city in their territory, called Gelonus, which is surrounded with a lofty wall, thirty furlongs [Polytonic
Herodotus and other classical historians listed quite a number of tribes who lived near the Scythians, and presumably shared the same general milieu and nomadic steppe culture, often called "Scythian culture", even though scholars may have difficulties in determining their exact relationship to the "linguistic Scythians". A partial list of these tribes includes the Agathyrsi, Geloni, Budini, and Neuri.
Herodotus presented four different versions of Scythian origins:
Firstly (4.7), the Scythians' legend about themselves, which portrays the first Scythian king, Targitaus, as the child of the sky-god and of a daughter of theDnieper. Targitaus allegedly lived a thousand years before the failed Persian invasion of Scythia, or around 1500 BC. He had three sons, before whom fell from the sky a set of four golden implements – a plough, a yoke, a cup and a battle-axe. Only the youngest son succeeded in touching the golden implements without them bursting with fire, and this son's descendants, called by Herodotus the "Royal Scythians", continued to guard them.
Secondly (4.8), a legend told by the Pontic Greeks featuring Scythes, the first king of the Scythians, as a child of Hercules and Echidna.
Thirdly (4.11), in the version which Herodotus said he believed most, the Scythians came from a more southern part of Central Asia, until a war with theMassagetae (a powerful tribe of steppe nomads who lived just northeast of Persia) forced them westward.
Finally (4.13), a legend which Herodotus attributed to the Greek bard Aristeas, who claimed to have got himself into such a Bachanalian fury that he ran all the way northeast across Scythia and further. According to this, the Scythians originally lived south of the Rhipaean mountains, until they got into a conflict with a tribe called the Issedones, pressed in their turn by the Cyclopes; and so the Scythians decided to migrate westwards.
Persians and other peoples in Asia referred to the Scythians living in Asia as Sakas.Herodotus (IV.64) describes them as Scythians, although they figure under a different name:
The Sacae, or Scyths, were clad in trousers, and had on their heads tall stiff caps rising to a point. They bore the bow of their country and the dagger; besides which they carried the battle-axe, or sagaris. They were in truth Amyrgian (Western) Scythians, but the Persians called them Sacae, since that is the name which they gave to all Scythians.
[edit]Strabo


Scythian artefacts originating from sites in Transylvania, in display at Aiud History Museum, Aiud, Romania.
In the 1st century BC, the Greek-Roman geographer Strabo gave an extensive description of the eastern Scythians, whom he located in north-eastern Asia beyond Bactria andSogdiana:[56]
Then comes Bactriana, and Sogdiana, and finally the Scythian nomads.
Strabo went on to list the names of the various tribes among the Scythians, probably making an amalgam with some of the tribes of eastern Central Asia (such as the Tocharians):[56]
Now the greater part of the Scythians, beginning at the Caspian Sea, are called Daheans, but those who are situated more to the east than these are named Massageteans and Saceans, whereas all the rest are given the general name of Scythians, though each people is given a separate name of its own. They are all for the most part nomads. But the best known of the nomads are those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks (i.e. Greco-Bactrians), I mean the Asians, Pasians, Tocharians, and Sacarauls, who originally came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes River that adjoins that of the Sacae and the Sogdians and was occupied by the Sacae. And as for the Daëans, some of them are called Aparns, some Xanthians, and some Pissures. Now of these the Aparni are situated closest to Hyrcania and the part of the sea that borders on it, but the remainder extend even as far as the country that stretches parallel to Aria.
[edit]Indian sources


Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian KingAzes II (r.c. 35-12 7BC). Note the royal tamga on the coin.
Main article: Indo-Scythians
Sakas receive numerous mentions in Indian texts, including the Puranas, the Manusmriti, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, theMahabhashya of Patanjali.
[edit]Post-classical "Scythians"

[edit]Migration period
See also: Sarmatians, Alans, andOssetians
Although the classical Scythians may have largely disappeared by the 1st century BC, Eastern Romans continued to speak conventionally of "Scythians" to designateGermanic tribes and confederations[57] or mounted Eurasian nomadic barbarians in general: in 448 AD two mounted "Scythians" led the emissary Priscus to Attila's encampment in Pannonia. The Byzantines in this case carefully distinguished the Scythians from the Goths and Huns who also followed Attila.
The Sarmatians (including the Alans and finally the Ossetians) counted as Scythians in the broadest sense of the word – as speakers of Northeast Iranian languages,[58] and are considered mostly of Indo-Iranian descent.[59]
Byzantine sources also refer to the Rus raiders who attacked Constantinople around 860 AD in contemporary accounts as "Tauroscythians", because of their geographical origin, and despite their lack of any ethnic relation to Scythians. Patriarch Photius may have first applied the term to them during the Siege of Constantinople (860).
[edit]Early Modern usage
Owing to their reputation as established by Greek historians, the Scythians long served as the epitome of savagery and barbarism.
In the Bible, Paul uses "Scythian" as an example of people whom some label pejoratively, but who are, in Christ, acceptable to God:
Here there is no Greek or Jew. There is no difference between those who are circumcised and those who are not. There is no rude outsider, or even a Scythian. There is no slave or free person. But Christ is everything. And he is in everything.[60]
Shakespeare, for instance, alluded to the legend that Scythians ate their children in his play King Lear:
The barbarous Scythian
Or he that makes his generation messes
To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom
¨ Be as well neighbour'd, pitied, and relieved,
As thou my sometime daughter.[61]
Characteristically, early modern English discourse on Ireland frequently resorted to comparisons with Scythians in order to confirm that the indigenous population of Ireland descended from these ancient "bogeymen", and showed themselves as barbaric as their alleged ancestors. Edmund Spenser wrote that
the Chiefest [nation that settled in Ireland] I Suppose to be Scithians ... which firste inhabitinge and afterwarde stretchinge themselves forthe into the lande as theire numbers increased named it all of themselues Scuttenlande which more brieflye is Called Scuttlande or Scotlande.[62]
As proofs for this origin Spenser cites the alleged Irish customs of blood-drinking, nomadic lifestyle, the wearing of mantles and certain haircuts and
Cryes allsoe vsed amongeste the Irishe which savor greatlye of theScythyan Barbarisme.
William Camden, one of Spenser's main sources, comments on this legend of origin that
to derive descent from a Scythian stock, cannot be thought any waies dishonourable, seeing that the Scythians, as they are most ancient, so they have been the Conquerours of most Nations, themselves alwaies invincible, and never subject to the Empire of others.[63]


Romantic nationalism: Battle between the Scythians and the Slavs (Viktor Vasnetsov, 1881).
The 15th-century Polish chronicler Jan Długosz was the first to connect the prehistory of Poland with Sarmatians, and the connection was taken up by other historians and chroniclers, such as Marcin Bielski, Marcin Kromer and Maciej Miechowita. Other Europeans depended for their view of Polish Sarmatismon Miechowita's Tractatus de Duabus Sarmatiis, a work which provided a substantial source of information about the territories and peoples of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in a language of international currency.[64] Tradition specified that the Sarmatians themselves were descended from Japheth, son of Noah.[65]
In the 17th and 18th centuries, foreigners regarded the Russians as descendants of Scythians. It became conventional to refer to Russians as Scythians in 18th century poetry, and Alexander Blok drew on this tradition sarcastically in his last major poem,The Scythians (1920). In the 19th century, romantic revisionists in the West transformed the "barbarian" Scyths of literature into the wild and free, hardy and democratic ancestors of all blond Indo-Europeans.
[edit]Descent claims
Further information: Sarmatism
A number of groups have claimed possible descent from the Scythians, including theOssetians, Jats, Pashtuns and the Parthians, (whose homelands lay to the east of theCaspian Sea and who were thought to have come there from north of the Caspian). Some legends of the Picts, the Gaels, the Hungarians, the Serbs and the Croats (among others) also include mention of Scythian origins. In the second paragraph of the 1320Declaration of Arbroath the élite of Scotland claim Scythia as a former homeland of the Scots. Some writers claim that Scythians figured in the formation of the empire of theMedes and likewise of Caucasian Albania.
The Carolingian kings of the Franks traced Merovingian ancestry to the Germanic tribe of the Sicambri. Gregory of Tours documents in his History of the Franks that when Cloviswas baptised, he was referred to as a Sicamber with the words "Mitis depone colla, Sicamber, adora quod incendisti, incendi quod adorasti."'. The Chronicle of Fredegar in turn reveals that the Franks believed the Sicambri to be a tribe of Scythian or Cimmerian descent, who had changed their name to Franks in honour of their chieftain Franco in 11 BC. The Scythians also feature in some post-Medieval national origin-legends of theCelts.
Based on such accounts of Scythian founders of certain Germanic as well as Celtictribes, British historiography in the British Empire period such as Sharon Turner in hisHistory of the Anglo-Saxons, made them the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons. The idea was taken up in the British Israelism of John Wilson, who adopted and promoted the "idea that the "European Race, in particular the Anglo-Saxons, were descended from certain Scythian tribes, and these Scythian tribes (as many had previously stated from the Middle Ages onward) were in turn descended from the ten Lost Tribes of Israel."[66]Tudor Parfitt, author of The Lost Tribes of Israel and Professor of Modern Jewish Studies, points out that the proof cited by adherents of British Israelism is "of a feeble composition even by the low standards of the genre."[67]
Whatever the claims of various modern ethnic groups, the peoples once known as the Scythians of Antiquity were amalgamated into the various Slavic peoples of eastern and southeastern Europe


Scythian Death mask
The meaning of the name of the ancestor of the Scythians was also a common characterization of his nation, his descendants. Truth and trustworthiness above advantage, which strongly reminds of the
de Vere family motto. "the prince of truth" "the defender of the side of the sun god" This tradition goes back to the ancient tradition of northern sunworship, where the sungod was the god of truth and protector of mankind and was represented by the light of the sun, which enlightens us. the Scythian name of God was TAR.


Fierce Scythians were known as Dragons for their heavy, segmented armour; they were the forefathers of medieval knights.
The Silk Road, itself, can be envisioned as a vast dragon.
Why not make your tribe's totem the biggest, baddest creature who's bones are in your hillsides?
Naturally, myths of dragons, dragon bones and dragon lords arose in tandem.
The crested dragon is the grand-daddy of T-Rex

THE SAKA

It seems that both nomadic and sedentary Iranians referred to themselves as Airyas; gradually, however, this word became a self-imposed designation for the settled Iranians only, who began to refer to their nomadic cousins in the East, i.e., Zoroaster's people, as the Saka, and some of those further west as SKUDRA [3][3]; the Saka probably did not call themselves exclusively by this name, some may have retained the use of the term Airya.

Many Saka tribes left the northern steppes intermittently to settle permanently in Central Asia, modern Afghanistan, and Persia; these tribes are the direct forebears of the imperial Western Iranians, the Medes, Persians and lastly, the Parthians;

Once converted to Zoroastrianism, however, such became their religious significance, that by the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., the centre of the faith was neither in the homeland of its founder, nor in any of the adjoining Eastern Iranian regions; it was firmly established on the western side of the great salt desert, amongst the people now called Western Iranians; from then onwards, Eastern Iran fades into the background; we now deal almost exclusively with Western Iran, and until very recently, were not even aware of the fact that Eastern Iran had played such a vital part in the genesis of the Iranian empires, and their great national faith; most scientific facts, such as, the recorded history and Near Eastern archaeological data, especially a large volume of deciphered inscriptions, relate to the four great Western Iranian empires of the Medes, Persians, Parthians & Sasanians; there is only a small volume of classical sources, and more recent archaeological data, which also deal with the nomadic Iranians of the northeast, i.e., those Saka warriors who remained in the steppes, and were never completely subdued by the settled Iranians of the imperial period; these warriors remained, nonetheless, a very formidable enemy of their settled cousins; not only did they conquer and rule the Median Empire for 28 years in the 7th century B.C., but they also defeated and killed Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenian Empire, in the following century; a generation later, they were still engaging Darius the Great in many hard-fought battles; two hundred and fifty years later, however, they became the saviours of the Iranian culture and religion, and political integrity; they gradually pushed the Macedonians out of the Iranian homeland, and formed the Parthian Empire, which lasted for another 500 years.

The nomadic Iranians of the north western steppes, however, especially those settled in Europe, are extensively covered by the classical writers; they are also attested in a very large number of archaeological excavations in Eastern Europe; these Iranian peoples are known in the West as Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, and finally Ossets; it must be emphasised that all these names refer to the successive migratory waves of the same people, who probably called themselves by a name derived from the word Airya, as the Alans did, and the Ossets still do.

CIMMERIANS

The earliest recorded nomadic western Iranians are the Cimmerians; they make their first appearance in Assyrian annals at the beginning of the 8th century B.C., where they are referred to as Gimmiri; they came down from modern Ukraine, and conquered eastern Thrace, and most of modern Turkey, being pushed westwards by another nomadic Iranian people, the Scythians (see below); they left behind a wealth of archaeological material, including a vast number of mound-burials in western Asia Minor; they later allied themselves with the Medes against the Assyrian Empire; the word GIMMIRI is attested in the Old Testament (Genesis I.x.12), as GOMER, the name given to one of Japhet's sons (see below, Scythian/Ashkenaz[4][4]).

SCYTHIANS This is by far the most important, and enduring designation given by the classical sources to the nomadic Iranians of the steppes; the name refers to the entire non-sedentary Iranians, both in the West, and in the East (the Saka). Greek records place them in southern Russia in the 8th century B.C., however, recent archaeological evidence testifies that they, Cimmerians, and other Steppe Iranians may have been there far earlier. Greek geographers of the 4th century B.C. also credit the Scythians with inhabiting the largest part of the known world (map Red 16).

Like other Iranians, these nomads probably called themselves by the generic term "Airya"; this is testified inter alia by the native name of their descendants in the present day Europe (see below); it seems, however, that they, or at least some of their powerful clans, also called themselves "SAKA" in the East, and *SKUنA, SKUDA, or SKUDRA [5][5] in the West. SKUDA is believed to be related to the German word "SACHS", meaning a type of throwing-dagger which the eponymic Saxons used to carry and shoot with[6][6]; indeed, it is possible that like the historical Saxons, the Skuda derived their name from their ability to shoot. [cf. Franks].

Their first appearance in recorded history is again in the Assyrian annals, where they chase the Cimmerians, their own kinsmen, first out of Europe, then out of Asia Minor into the Median territory; in the 7th century B.C. they allied themselves with the Assyrians, and attacked the combined forces of the invading rebellious Median vassal king, Khshathrita (Phraortes in Greek, Kashtariti in Akkadian) and his Cimmerians allies; the Assyrians repelled the Medes, killing Phraortes, and routed the Cimmerians; the real victors, however, were the Scythians; for the next 28 years, now allied with their erstwhile enemy, the Cimmerians, they ravaged most of the Ancient Near East, including Media; later they allied themselves with Khshathrita's son, the Median emperor, Hvakhshathara II (Cyaxares in Greek, Uaksatar II in Akkadian), and the Babylonian king, Nabopolassar, taking Nineveh in 612 B.C. and destroying once and for all the mighty Assyrian Empire. (beginning of the Kurdish calendar)

The Scythians were called by the Assyrians Ashkuza or Ishkuza (A/Iڑ-k/gu-za-ai); as with the Gimmiri, this word also appears to have found its way into the Old Testament; one of Gomer's (Gimmiri) three sons, in Genesis I.x.12, is called Ashkenaz, which has given us the modern Hebrew word, Ashkenazi[7][7].

The Scythians were known by the Achaemenians, as SAKA and SKUDRA, by the Greeks, SKغTHIA (سê?èéل), by the Romans, SCYTHIAE (pron. SKITYAI), which has given us the English word SCYTHIAN; they lived in a wide area stretching from the south and west of the River Danube to the eastern and northeastern edges of the Taklamakan Desert in China; this vast territory includes now parts of Central Europe, the eastern half of the Balkans, the Ukraine, northern Caucasus, southern Russia, southern Siberia, Central Asia and western China.

Physiognomy

We know a great deal about their physical appearance; they were long-headed giants with blond hair and blue eyes; this well-known fact is attested by various classical sources [8][8], and by their skeletal and other remains in numerous archaeological excavations, which give a fairly detailed description of these ancient Iranians [9][9]; recently, a large number of their mummified corpses were discovered in western China; these mummies, which are extremely well-preserved in the arid conditions of the Taklamakan desert, are now on display at the museums of khotan, Urumchi, and Turfan in Sinkiang; they are dressed in Scythian costume, i.e., leather tunic and trousers, and are usually displayed in the sitting position, exactly as described by Herodotus; what is extra ordinary apart from their northern European features, however, is their gigantic heights, well over two metres as they are now, in spite of the natural shrinkage expected during the past thousands of years.

Equestrian skill

The Scythians, and other early steppe Iranians are believed to have been the first Indo-Europeans to use domesticated horses for riding (as opposed to eating); this theory has acquired fresh credibility after the recent discovery of horse skeletons at the Sredny Stog archaeological culture, east of the River Dniepr, a well-known pre-historical Scythian site in eastern Ukraine; these bones were identified as belonging to bitted, therefore, ridden horses dating to 4000 B.C., at least 2500 years older than the previously known examples.

More recent excavations east of the Ural Mountains credit them also with the invention of the first two-wheeled chariot [10][10]; such mobility, naturally, turned them into a formidable fighting force; they never willingly fought on foot, and used armour both for themselves and their mounts; they also developed the famous steppe tactic of faked retreat, and the "Parthian shot", shooting backwards while on mounted retreat; this tactic, named after their well-known descendants, the Parthians, requires an amazing skill and balance in the saddle, and a dazzling co-ordination of eyes, arms and breath without the support of stirrups.

Their women

In this unique pastoralist equestrian warrior society, women fought alongside their men; not only they were held in an equal status with men, but also periodically they actually ruled them;

this so called upside-down society both fascinated and horrified the male dominated Greek culture; later, the Romans expressed the same horror, when they encountered the Celtic and Germanic female warriors. Greek writers called the fighting Iranian women they met in the Ukrainian steppes, the Amazons; later Greek sources placed them further east, in northeastern parts of Iran.

This incredible social equality, at such an early age, is irrefutably attested, not only by a host of classical writers, but also by a wealth of archaeological evidence; in many mound- burials in the former Soviet Union, it is by no means unusual to find remains of women warriors dressed in full armour, lying on a war chariot, surrounded by their weaponry, and significantly, accompanied by a host of male subordinates specially sacrificed in their honour; nonetheless, these young Iranian warriors, as evidenced by the archaeological remains of their costumes and jewellery, do not seem to have lost their femininity; they remained "feminine as well as female" as a great contemporary German scholar puts it [11][11].

Archaeological excavations also testify to the amazing skill of these people in making jewellery; some of the finds are so dazzling in quality and advanced in technique that it is hard to imagine that they are produced by an unsettled, nomadic culture; we are indeed very fortunate that these early steppe Iranians practised elaborate funerary rituals and interred their treasures with their dead in huge impregnable burial mounds; hence, the vast majority of the steppe Iranians' artifacts known to the learned world is attributed to the Scythians. http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/Zarathushtrian/Oric.Basirov/origin_of_the_iranians.htm

The royal scythians who ruled altaic, uralic, iranic elements were the ugurs or yuezhi or tocharians (uyghurs,hungarians, bulgarians, chuvashes, tatars)
They are from 5 scythian folks the sabir, daha,chus and hun, avar.
And these folks are from sumerian, subartuan and elamite expansions to Caspian Areas (Khwarezm-turán)
The Middle Eastern civilizations are from Europe (Vinca, Trypillia, Kurgan cultures)
Ugur realms: Bactria, Parthia, Xiongnu (in Xiongnu lived the mongolic and manchu elements too) Kushan and next White hunnic Empire, Euro hunnia.


Dragons have a long history in human mythology. How did the myth start? No one knows the exact answer, but some myths may have been inspired by living reptiles, and some "dragon" bones probably belonged to animals long extinct — in some cases dinosaurs, in others, fossil mammals. Starting in the early 19th century, scientists began to find a new kind of monster, one that had gone extinct tens of millions of years before the first humans evolved. Because the first fragments found looked lizard-like, paleontologists assumed they had found giant lizards, but more bones revealed animals like nothing on earth today. But early man most likely found plenty of fossils and stories arose around them.
http://www.strangescience.net/stdino2.htm

Regarding mythical creatures, Herodotus believed that some legends he heard preserved a kernel of genuine fact, and he played a role in spreading the legend of the griffin. Griffins, according to the nomads he interviewed, were four-legged and lion-sized, with wings and sharp beaks. What might the nomads have seen that prompted these myths? Modern paleontological digs in the region have revealed fossil skeletons of Protoceratops and Psittacosaurusdinosaurs. The nomads of his time may have seen similar skeletons eroding out of the sediments along the Silk Road. These weren't the only potential fossils mentioned in Herodotus's works. When in Egypt, he wrote, he was shown piles of "bones and spines." These may have belonged to spinosaurs, large Cretaceous reptiles with dorsal membraned spines, or to pterosaurs. And the giant skeletons of heroes he discussed may well have belonged to fossil mammals from the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.

Herodotus mentioned at least one unambiguous fossil find. "I have seen shells on the hills," he wrote of Egypt. He reached a conclusion that is common today: The area "was originally an arm of the sea." Herodotus also ventured into the field of geology, guessing (inaccurately) that in the recent geologic past, Egypt had been a gulf of the sea. Although he was wrong about Egypt's geology, he was right in concluding that the world we live in changes over time, thanks to natural processes.

Scythians (skyty, skify). A group of Indo-European tribes that controlled the Southern Ukrainian steppe in the 7th to 3rd centuries BC. They first appeared there in the late 8th century BC after having been forced out of Central Asia. The Scythians were related to the *Sauromatians and spoke an Iranian dialect. After quickly conquering the lands of the *Cimmerians they pursued them into Asia Minor and established themselves as a power in the region. In the 670s BC they launched a successful campaign to expand into Media, Syria, and Palestine. They were forced out of Asia Minor early in the 6th century BC by the Medes, who had by then assumed control of Persia, and retreated to their lands between the lower Danube and the Don, known as *Scythia.

The bellicose Scythians were often in conflict with their neighbors, particularly the Thracians in the west and the *Sarmatians in the east. They faced their greatest military challenge around 513--512 BC, when the Persian king Darius I led an expeditionary force against them. By withdrawing and undertaking scorched-earth tactics rather than engaging in pitched battles, they forced the Persians to retreat in order to preserve their army. The event had a significant impact on subsequent Scythian development, for it confirmed their position as masters of the steppes and spurred on the political unification of the various tribes under the Royal Scythians. By the end of the 5th century BC the *Kamianka fortified settlement, near present-day Nykopil, had been established as the capital of Scythia.

The Scythians reached their apex in the 4th century BC under King Ateas, who eliminated his rivals and united all the tribal factions under his rule. He waged a successful war against the Thracians but died in 339 BC in a battle against the army of Philip 11 of Macedon. In 331 BC the Scythians defeated one of Alexander the Great's armies. Subsequently they began a period of decline brought about by constant Sarmatian attacks. They were forced to abandon the steppe to their rivals and re-established themselves in the 2nd century BC in the Crimea around the city of *Neapolis. There they regained part of their strength and fought several times against the *Bosporan Kingdom, and even managed to conquer Olbia and other Hellenic city-states on the northern Black Sea (Pontic) coast. Continued attacks from the Sarmatians, however, further weakened the Scythians, and an onslaught by the Germanic *Goths in the 3rd century AD finished them off completely. The Scythians subsequently disappeared as an ethnic entity through steady intermarriage with and assimilation into other cultures, particularly the Sarmatian.

The Scythians were divided into several major tribal groups. Agrarian Scythian groups lived in what is now Poltava region and between the Boh and the Dnieper rivers. The lower Boh region near *Olbia was inhabited by Hellenized Scythians, known as Callipidae; the central Dniester region was home to the Alazones; and north of them were the Aroteres. The kingdom was dominated by the Royal Scythians, a small but bellicose minority in the lower Dnieper region and the Crimea that had established a system of dynastic succession. Their realm was divided into four districts ruled by governors who maintained justice, collected taxes, and gathered tribute from the Pontic city-states. A separate coinage, however, was not developed by the Scythians until quite late in their history. Their administrative apparatus was in fact quite loose, and the various Scythian groups handled most of their affairs through a traditional structure of tribal elders. Over time Scythian society became increasingly stratified, with the hereditary kings and their military retainers gaining an increasing amount of wealth and power. Although most Scythians were freemen, slaves were common in the kingdom.

The Scythians inhabiting the steppe were nomadic herders of horse, sheep, and cattle. Those in the forest-steppe were more sedentary cultivators of wheat, millet, barley, and other crops. (Some scholars believe that those agriculturists may have been the predecessors of the Slavs.) Scythian artisans excelled at metalworking in iron, bronze, silver, and gold. The Scythians also engaged in hunting, fishing, and extensive trade with Greece through the Pontic city-states; they provided grains, livestock, fish, furs, and slaves in exchange for luxury goods, fine ceramics, and jewelry.

The Scythians' military prowess was in large measure the result of their abilities as equestrian archers. They raised and trained horses extensively, and virtually every Scythian male had at least one mount. They lavished care and attention on their horses and dressed them in ornate trappings. Saddles and metal stirrups were not used by the Scythians, although felt or leather supports may have been. The foremost weapon of a Scythian warrior was the double-curved bow, which was used to shoot arrows over the left shoulder of a mounted horse. Warriors commonly carried swords, daggers, knives, round shields, and spears and wore bronze helmets and chain-mail jerkins. The Scythians became a potent force not only because of their impressive array of weapons and training but also because they shared a strong underlying military ethos and belonged to a warrior society that bestowed honors and spoils on those who had distinguished themselves in battle. That ethos was reinforced by the common rite of adopting blood brothers and the use of slain foes' scalps or skulls as trophies or drinking cups.

Because of their generally nomadic or seminomadic existence the Scythians usually had relatively few possessions. Those they did have were often of exquisite quality and craftsmanship and established the Scythians' reputation in the ancient world as devotees of finery (see *Scythlan art).

The Scythians never developed a written language or a literary tradition. They had a well-defined religious cosmology, however. Their deities included the fire goddess Tabiti, followed by Papeus (the 'Father'), Apia (goddess of the earth), Oetosyrus (god of the sun), Artimpasa (goddess of the moon), and Thagimasadas (god of water). The Scythians did not build temples, altars, or idols to worship their deities, but they maintained a caste of soothsayers and believed strongly in witchcraft, divination, magic, and the power of amulets. Representations of Scythians and their gold ornaments suggest that they were the first people in history to wear trousers.

Scythian burial customs were elaborate, particularly among the aristocracy. A chieftain remained unburied for 40 days after his death. During that time his internal organs were cleansed, his body cavity was stuffed with herbs, and his skin was waxed. He was then parad'ed through his realm accompanied by a large retinue indulging in ostentatious lamentation. After 40 days he was interred in a large *kurhan (up to 20 m high) together with his newly killed favorite wife or concubine, household servants, and horses, as well as weapons, amphoras of wine, and a large cache of goods. Lesser personages had less elaborate funerals. A common practice was the erection of anthropomorphic statues (*stone babas) as grave markers.

For many years the memory of the Scythians was best preserved by Herodotus, who included a lengthy, basically factual account of them in his Histories. After the last Scythians had died out in the 3rd century AD, the tribes were largely forgotten. Interest in them was revived as a result of some spectacular finds in Scythian barrows, starting with the *Melgunov kurhan in 1763 The ensuing search for richer caches impeded archeological research on the more prosaic aspects of Scythian life until Soviet archeologists undertook work in that realm in the 2oth century. Scythian archeological sites in Ukraine include the *Bilske, *Kamianka, *Karavan, $Nemyriv, *Pastyrske, and *Sharpivka fortified settlements and the *Chortomlyk, *Haimanova Mohyla, *Kul Oba, *Krasnokutskyi, *Melitopil, *Oksiutyntsi, *Oleksandropil, *Solokha, *Starsha Mohyla, and *Zhabotyn kurhans.



The people who lived in Steppes were overwhelmingly horsemen. Many were at least semi-nomadic with herds of livestock. Nomadism explains why there were waves of occupants. These Steppe people, Central Eurasians, traveled to and mated with people in the peripheral civilizations. Herodotus is one of our main literary sources for the Steppe tribes, but he isn't terribly reliable. The people of the ancient Near East recorded dramatic encounters with the people of the Steppe. Archaeologists and anthropologists have supplied more information about the Steppes people, based on tombs and artifacts.

1. CimmeriansThe Cimmerians (Kimmerians) were Bronze Age communities of horsemen north of the Black Sea from the second millennium B.C. The Scythians drove them out in the 8th century. Cimmerians fought their way into Anatolia and the Near East. They controlled the central Zagros in the early to mid 7th century. In 695, they sacked Gordion, in Phrygia. With the Scythians, the Cimmerians attacked Assyria, repeatedly.

Sources:
"Cimmerians" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Timothy Darvill. Oxford University Press, 2008.
Marc Van de Mieroop's A History of the Ancient Near East


2. Huns .Contrary to contemporary standards, Hunnish women mingled freely with strangers and widows even acted as leaders of local bands. Hardly a great nation, they battled amongst themselves as often as with outsiders, and were as likely to fight for as against an enemy -- since such employment offered unaccustomed luxury.The Huns are best known for their fear-inspiring leader Attila, the Scourge of God.

3. Kushans"Mediaeval Commerce (Asia)" From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1926.Kushan describes one branch of the Yuezhi, an Indo - European group driven from northwestern China in 176–160 B.C. The Yuezhi reached Bactria (northwest Afghanistan and Tajikistan) around 135 B.C., moved south into Gandhara, and established a capital near Kabul.The Kushan kingdom was formed by Kujula Kadphises in c. 50 BC. He extended his territory to the mouth of the Indus so he could use the sea route for trade and thereby bypass the Parthians. The Kushans spread Buddhism to Parthia, Central Asia, and China. The Kushan Empire reached its peak under its 5th ruler, Buddhist King Kanishka, c. 150 A.D. Source:
Christopher I. Beckwith Empires of the Silk Road. 2009.

4. Parthians© http://www.cngcoins.com CNG CoinsThe Parthian Empire existed from about 247 B.C.-A.D. 224. It is thought that the founder of the Parthian empire was Arsaces I. The Parthian Empire was located in modern Iran, from the Caspian Sea to the Tigris and Euphrates Valley. The Sasanians, under Ardashir I (who ruled from A.D. 224-241), defeated the Parthians, thereby putting an end to the Parthian Empire.To the Romans, the Parthians proved a formidable opponent, especially after the defeat of Crassus at Carrhae. See: How did Crassus die?

5. Scythians(Sakans to the Persians) lived in the Steppes, from the 7th to the 3rd century B.C., displacing the Cimmerians in the area of the Ukraine. Scythians and Medes may have attacked Urartu in the 7th century. Herodotus says the language and culture of the Scythians was like that of nomadic Iranian tribes. He also says Amazons mated with Scythians to produce the Sarmatians. At the end of the fourth century, the Scythians crossed the Tanais or Don River, settling down between it and the Volga. Herodotus called the Goths Scythians.

Source:
Amazons in the Scythia: New Finds at the Middle Don, Southern Russia, by Valeri I. Guliaev World Archaeology © 2003 Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

More on the Scythians6. SarmatiansThe Sarmatians (Sauromatians) were a nomadic Iranian tribe related to the Scythians. They lived on the plains between the Black and Caspian Sea, separated from the Scythians by the Don River. Tombs show they moved west into Scythian territory by the mid-third century. They demanded tribute from Greek towns on the Black Sea, but sometimes allied with the Greeks in fighting the Scythians.

Source:
Jona Lendering

7. Xiongnu and Yuezhi of Mongolia The Chinese pushed the nomadic Xiongnu back across the Yellow River and into the Gobi desert in the 3rd century B.C. and then built the Great Wall to keep them out. It is not known where the Xiongnu came from, but they went to the Altai Mountains and Lake Balkash, where the nomadic Indo-Iranian Yuezhi lived. The two groups of nomads fought, with the Xiongnu triumphant. The Yuezhi migrated to the Oxus valley. Meanwhile the Xiongnu went back to harrass the Chinese in about 200 B.C. By 121 B.C. the Chinese had successfully pushed them back into Mongolia and so the Xiongnu went back to raid the Oxus Valley from 73 and 44 B.C., and the cycle began again. Source:
Library of Congress: Mongolia


Herodotus on the Cimmerians
Herodotus IV.6 lists the 4 tribes of the Scythians:
From Leipoxais sprang the Scythians of the race called Auchatae; from Arpoxais, the middle brother, those known as the Catiari and Traspians; from Colaxais, the youngest, the Royal Scythians, or Paralatae. All together they are named Scoloti, after one of their kings: the Greeks, however, call them Scythians. Lipoxais became the ancestor of the Auchatae, Arpoxais that of the Catiari and Traspians, and from Colaxais sprang the Royal Scythians or Paralatae.


Sumerians, Scythians, and other Grail peoples

http://www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/starfire1.html
This is the article that got me interested in this subject in the first place!

http://www.whitestag.org/history/sumerian.html
and http://www.hunmagyar.org/hungary/myth/stag.html
The Hungarian White Stag Legends, and their connection to the Scythians, the land of Sumer,
and Enki, the Anunnaki lord who fathered humanity

http://www.giveshare.org/israel/arbroathdeclaration.html
The Declaration of Arbroath, in which St. Andrew speaks of the Scythian heritage of the Scottish people.

http://users.ev1.net/~gpmoran/mrn4.htm
A great site that discusses the archeological proof of the Scythian peoples' influence on the Celts.

http://www.electricscotland.com/history/wylie/vol1ch20.htm
Here is a site that also talks about the Scottish/Scythian connection,
and traces their possible migration path from their ancestral lands.

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/scythian.shtml
The expansion of the Scythians across Europe and Asia.

http://www.britam.org
This site discusses possible links between the Scythians and the Hebrews.



As Iljinskaja and Terenozhkin have established, the transition to the Scythian period has taken place here during the evolution of the Zhabotyn culture approximately in the middle of 7-th B.C. Thus, that fact is very important that findings of the Early-Scytian time are excavated in the right-bank forest-steppe up to the upper Dniester land. Due to the regular annual researches of the Lvov archeologists under L.Krushelnitska’s management, numerous settlements and burial grounds of the Late-bronze and the Late-iron time are discovered on the middle and upper Dniester land and in the Vorcarpathian. Among them are such remains which evidently show the gradual transition from the Chornolis to the Scythian culture, for example, the complex in the village of Neporotovo on the river Dniester in Chernovtsy Region: “In the area 6000 sq. m were excavated four settlements (Neporotovo I, II, III, IV), numerous separate remains and the remains of a burial ground. The findings and also the layers of the objects overlaping each other, enabled allocation of three chronological horizons: the upper –the Early-Scythian, the transitive - from the Pre-Scythian to the Scythian, and the lower which is synchronous with the Chornolis culture"(L.1993-1, 7).

The finds of the Early-Scythian time are revealed also in the Lvov Region - near to the village of Krushelnitsa in Skole Area and near the town of Dobromil on the river San (Krushelnitska L.1993-2, 226, 236). Scythian influences reach considerably further:

"The presence of the artifacts of Scythian type in the Central Europe (the authentic and made on Scythian samples) has allowed researchers to draw a conclusion that this territory was under influence of Scythian culture. The biggest concentration of finds of the Scythian type is observed in Transylvania and Hungary "(Popovich And. 1993, 250-251).

The Ukrainian archeologists as a whole recognize that the cultural continuity from the Pre-Scythian to the Scythian time is observed in the Ukrainian Forest-steppe first of all in the area of the spreading of the Chornolis culture and the finds of the Zhabotyn type which are considered as its continuation (Archeology of Ukrainian SSR, V 2, 1986, 50). The opinion about the succession of the Scythian culture in the Forest-steppe of the Dnieper Right-bank from local cultures does not cause objections even at supporters of Asian origin of the Scythian culture as a whole:

“A plenty of remains of the pastoral-agricultural population of the Scythian culture, which roots deeply go in local cultures of the Bronze Age, are concentrated in the Forest-steppe of the Right bank to the West from Dnieper” (Iljinskaja V.A., Terenozhkin A.I., 1983, 11 ).

Thus the following observation is important:

"The Scythian-Siberian barrow burial was spread in the Right-bank Forest-steppe ... Such ceremony, peculiar to early Scythians, has held steady on in the Forest-steppe of Right-bank up to the end of Scythian period " (Iljinskaja V.A., Terenozhkin A.I., 1983, 365).

This and other facts give the grounds to think that the Scythian culture was widespread to the Left bank of the Dnieper from the west, instead of from the east. Iljinskaja and Terenozhkin, supporters of its Asian origins, contradicted themselves when they spoke that in the Left-bank Ukraine the earliest remains of the beginning of the Iron Age are the settlements and the burial places of the second step of the Chornolis culture. Their occurrence has been caused by the consequence of the migration of a part of the population from the Dnieper Right banks at the end of 9-th or in the beginning of 8-th centuries B.C. Later a local version of the Scythian culture has been created on this basis. Other territory of the Left-bank Forest-steppe, on their supervision, has been populated later, at the beginning of the first half of 6-th century AD, and Scythian remains appear here already in a completely generated shape after Scythians have come back from assumed campaigns to For Asia(Iljinskaja V.A., Terenozhkin A.I.,1983, 366).

However, even supporters of the aboriginal theory did not occur that the Scythian culture could develop integrally on the basis of local cultures of the Western Ukraine. The opinion that the Scythian culture was brought here by newcomers whence from steppes dominates among scholars. Penetration of these carriers of the Scythian culture is supposed even till the territory of modern Hungary (Popovich I.1993, 282) and Germany. Scythian golden fish of the sixth century B.C. has been found in province of Brandenburg. This fact gives scholars grounds to say:

“With other objects of treasure, mostly, of gold, it documents the influence, and possibly the invasion, of Scythians, nomadic horsemen from the steppes north of the Black Sea, around 500 B.C.” (Dietrich Sahrhage, Johannes Lundbeck, 1992, 17).

Such opinions look surprising if to pay attention that the eldest remains of the Scythian culture in the village of Lahodiv (near to the city of Lvov) are dated by 5-th B.C., and further the chronological break begins to 1-st century AD when the period of the Lipetsk culture appears (Krushelnytska L.1993-2, 238). By Krushelnytska’s words, one can notice the same situation also "on the countries of the whole the forest-steppe Ukraine "(Ib.). Practically it means that the Late-Scythian culture had no place on these lands, but only the Early-Scythian one. Consequently, it looks illogical that the Scythian penetration in the Fore-Carpathian and further beyond the Carpathian Mountains began before the fullest flower of the Scythian culture in the steppes of the Northern Black Sea Coast.

Herodotus asserted that Scythians, coming from Asia, have superseded Cimmerians from the Black Sea Coast and pursued them even beyond the Caucasus. The area of Cimmerian cultures reaches beyond the Right bank of the Dnieper up to the Danube, therefore it is doubtful that Scythians, having arrived from the east, have superseded Cimmerians in the Transcaucasia. If Cimmerians receded before Scythians, they should escape somewhere beyond the Dnieper and further beyond the Danube, to the Balkans, but not to make the way through Scythians to the Derbent pass and further. In this case, Cimmerians attacks to For Asia should occur through the Balkans. The historical data testify that Cimmerians came in the majority from the Caucasian ridge and only any their part together with Thracians arrived to Asia Minor from Balkan Peninsula. This can take place only when Scythians came from the west, but not from the east.

Solving the question of the ethnic belonging of Scythians, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact of existence in the steppes near the Azov and the Caspian Seas in second half 1-st thousand two big states created by Bulgars and related to them Khazars. Bulgarian tribes have been incorporated in Great Bulgaria by one of the tribe leaders Kubrat into 635 and approximately at the same time Khazarian Khaganat started to develop too. Soon after Kubrats death, intense relations between both states led to disorder of Great Bulgaria. One Bulgarian horde migrated beyond the Danube where its leader khan Asparuh has created a new state - Danube Bulgaria while the second horde was got a part of the Khaganat. To the beginning of 8-th century Khaganat already possessed the large territory including foothills of Dagestan, the steppes about the river Kuban, the Sea of Azov, and a part of the Black Sea Coast, the most part of the Crimea. The young state had to conduct heavy struggle for existence with Arabs and consequently the most part of Bulgars has gradually departed on the north, in the basin of the river Kama where they have formed own state Volga Bulgaria in due course. (Pletneva S.A., 1986, 20-41). As we see, Bulgars should be very numerous people which history is traced on the ways of their migration from the Western Ukraine through the seaboard steppes up to the banks of the Kama. This numerous people which have to stay in the steppes of Ukraine in days of Herodotus therefore could not to be remained without the attention of this Greek historian. Hence, it is necessary to assume that Bulgars, at least, were among those tribes which are mentioned by Herodotus in his "Histories".

We know, that Proto-Bulgars moved to the right bank of the Dnieper from the end of 3-rd mill. B.C. First they have occupied only the steppe, but have promoted also in the forest-steppe strip later. This fact can to be testified by lexical coincidences between German and Chuvash languages (Stetsyuk V.,1998, 85-86). The hypothetical territory of Bulgar’s settlement should be somewhere to the south of the area of ancient Tuetons, that is in the basin of the upper Dniester, the rivers Vereschitsia, Zolota Lypa, Strypa. Bulgars stay in this territory can be proved by numerous toponymics. This theme has been considered in corresponding work more detailed (Stetyuk V., 2002, 13-20). Here it is possible to specify only that one the of congestions of Scythian toponymics is in the territory of the Cherepyn-Lahodiv group of archaeological remains which L. Krushelnytska binds with the Early-Scythian culture. On the whole, the greatest congestion of Bulgarian toponymics has been revealed on territory of the Lvov Region and further to the east up to the river the Hnyla Lypa though it is certified on all territory forest-steppe Rightbank Ukraine where it adjoins to the toponymics of Kurdish type. Thus Bulgarian toponymics lasts as the expressed chain up to Dnieper, passes it in the area of the river Vorskla’s mouth, further goes upwards the Vorskla, and then gradually becomes sparse. Also what is the most surprising, that the general area of Bulgarian and Kurdish toponymics mostly coincides with area the of the Chornolis culture together with the characteristic tongue on the Vorskla (see Fig.3). There is no doubt that exactly on this territory ancient Bulgars and Kurds lived in the close neighbourhood and this can be been displayed confirmed by numerous lexical parallels between Chuvash and Kurdish languages (see the previous chapter). As other ethnic groups were not present at the Rightbank Ukraine at this time, one may believe that creators of the ethnically not identified Chornolis culture could be only Proto-Bulgars and Proto-Kurds. Estimating of the proportional contribution of both ethnoses into this culture is difficult at present, but on all signs it seems to be that the leading role played Proto-Bulgars. Having taken into account the fact and the chronological frameworks of evolution of the Chernolis cultures to the Early-Scythian culture, one may go further to assume that Scythians should be identified with Bulgars and Kurds as creators of Early-Scythian culture in the Ukrainian Forest-steppe down to the Carpathian Mountains and the river San. According to toponimics, the nucleus of the Scythian culture began to arise on the banks of the left tributaries of the Dniester – the rivers Vereschitsia, Hnyla Lypa, Zolota Lypa, Strypa, Seret. Obviously, the well-known Scythian gold was extracted in the basin of these rivers as the numerous toponymics, which can testify former rich deposits of this metal, concentrates here (the Ukrainian root “zoloto” (gold) may be find in the names of the rivers Zolota Lypa, Zolota, the settlements of Zolochev, two villages of Zolochivka, of Zolotniks, of Zoloty Potik, of Ivane-Zolote, of Bilche-Zolote, of Zolota Sloboda).


Scythian Vocabulary and Names


Scythians and Druids

The Tocharians depicted in the cave shrines of Takla Makan are red haired and wear the same conical hat, sometimes called a Phrygian cap. A variant of this was worn by Mithras, the intermediary god adopted by the Persians and featured in the Indian pantheon of the Asuras.

In monarchical dualism he is depicted as balancing the forces of increase and decrease, represented by the gods Ahura Mazda and Ahriman and some classical authors identified him with Jesus Christ. His headgear is also depicted as the hat worn by gnomes and dwarves.

Accompanying the depictions of the Tocharian Lords in these cave temples are examples of the language attributed to them - Tocharian A script - which looks remarkably like one of the scripts that Tolkien attributes to his Elven peoples. That the Tocharians are Scythian-Aryans themselves means that the devotional language used by their High-Kings and Queens might justifiably be called an Elven language, the tongue of Tolkien’s Sundered Elves of the East.

The second Gaelic word for ’vampire’ is Sumaire, which is pronounced shimarie, with the accent on the middle syllable - shim AR ri. Sumaire is translated as ’vortex’, meaning a whirlpool or spiral, a labyrinth: a sucker, a reptile (serpent or Dragon).

There is a clear link here with Sumeria and Anu’s mother Tiamat, the Dragoness of the deeps, and with Anu’s childrenSamael and Lilith, the forebears of the fairies. Various pictures of the latter two depict them as entwined around a tree, often the tree is Lilith herself, with Samael as the serpent or dragon resting in her branches as in Hebraic Iconography where Lilith is the Tree of knowledge in the Garden of Eden.

The Sumerians appeared first in Mesopotamia in 3500 BC. Prior to their emergence they were preceded by the Ubaidmigrants from what is now southern Romania, from Carpathia and Scythia, who had fled south to escape the Black Sea flood of 4000 BC. Dated to about 5000 BC, archaeologists working in Tartaria in the UbaidTransylvania, discovered a ’tepes’ or Rath under which they found a fire-pit.
territory of
Buried amongst the ashes were the human remains of a cannibalistic sacrificial victim and two clay tablets. On these were inscribed the name of Enki (Samael), the number of Anu - 60 - and the image of a goat, Enki again, and a Tree - Lilith. In Hinduism Siva is the Goatherd of the Mountains.

The pictographic nature of the inscriptions convinced the archaeologists that the language was the forerunner ofSumerian and so they called it proto-Sumerian. Making it fairly obvious that the Sumerians were originally Ubaid Overlords from Central Eurasia.

Sadly however, because a bunch of right-wing Hungarian nationalists then claimed Sumerian roots by virtue of a discovery made in a backyard they had only recently overrun, subsequent to the discovery in the 1960’s and the attendant madcap claim, no academic would give the proto-Sumerian theory house room, not wishing to accommodate the views of a collection of neo-nazi cranks and quite rightly so.

What a group of Mongoloids thought they had in common with the Aryan race the author doesn’t know. Having invaded the region as the Magyar at so late a period in history the author fails to see how any claim to Sumerian or proto-Sumerian origins, that an isolated group of Hungarian lunatics might make, could possibly hold up under even the most cursory scrutiny.

Nevertheless the author also finds the attitude of those academics who opposed the definition to be obstructive and misleading, especially as it is now conclusively proved that the culture responsible for the production of the Tartarian clay tablets and the Rath structure was Ubaid - the founders of civilized Mesopotamia and, as it turns out, the Overlordsof the Indus valley civilization of Mohenjo Daro and Harrapa where Ishtar reigned as Queen.

Further east of Transylvania similar discoveries were made in the Ukraine or greater Scythia and the peoples who had settled the area were named after their dwellings, which in Russian were called Kurgans. They were mound houses exactly the same as the tepes of Tartaria and the Tells that the Ubaid built all the way down through Anatolia to Al’Ubaidand Sumeria.

To the Kurgan peoples, obviously the red-haired Aryan or proto-Aryan (if you must) horse lords, was attributed the invention of the chariot whose axle dimensions were copied on all horse drawn vehicles right up until the Victorian period, when they were incorporated into the axle width (4ft 8½ ins) of the standard gauge railways still in use today.

The influence that vampires have had on European culture should not be dismissed! They inspired modern wheeled transport, invented tourism in a big way and lent their images and their dress to the lids of every shortbread tin you’ve ever seen.

It seems fair to suggest, given the wealth of archaeological and anthropological evidence, that the Sumerians or Ubaidas we should call them, along with the pale-skinned and red-haired Lilith and her descendants, were the early Elven,Aryan-Scythian Dragon Overlords of what we know now as Transylvania and Greater Scythia.

This particularly in the light of the discoveries of bat winged, serpent-god statuary found in Dacia and Tibet (not too far from Takla Makan!) which is said to date back at least 5000 years, putting it into the period of the emergence of civilization in Sumeria.

Such figures we would readily identify as the Dragon or, in Gaelic - The Sumaire - whilst the Kurgans/Tells/Tepes that these early Transylvanian/Scythian Sidheans or Ubaid occupied were clearly duplicated in the Irish Raths of the Danaan, such as Newgrange with its spirally engraved stones, the Ziggurats of the Sumerians and the Pyramids of theEgyptians.

Whilst these ancient structures bore the marks of the sumaire, the spiral labyrinth or vortex design, thus emphasizing the creachaire - sumaire theme of the Dragon - witch - Vampire - Overlord theme, the Egyptians too adopted the labyrinth and used the spiral as a hieroglyph which they termed the ’Mer’, a symbol of irrigation associating it with water and, via weir spelt Vere and Mhaior, rendering Muir, returning once more to the Egyptian Mer - the fish trap or fish-woman trap, the enclosure of the mermaid, the maze or labyrinth and intimations of the wild hunt. (Muir and Mhaior name variants courtesy of Dr. Hugh Vere).

So at long last, having trudged through the backwaters of obscure knowledge we can now say that we know exactly who and what the Vampire was and is. A very rare individual, a God-King amongst the race of human kings, the Vampiredescends from the supernatural Dragon Royalty of Sumeria back to the Ubaid Overlords of what was to become known as Transylvania and Greater Scythia.

The Vampire: the Dragon King or Queen was an Archdruid, a Witch Queen or King, a Fairy Princess or Prince amongst the race of Elphame. Consequently the Vampire, the Fairy, the Dragon and the Witch were all the same individual and far from being the characters of fable they were in fact very powerful, very real beings whose vampiric natures and rituals sustained their superconsciousness, transcendent vision which in its turn maintained their positions as the overlords of mankind.

These gods of flesh and blood were the only gods that ever actually existed: Myth, however, transformed them into the ethereal deities whom we are conditioned to think of as Gods now, and who came to be worshipped worldwide. Nevertheless flesh and blood they were and their bloodlines descend to the present day.

The Druids
The word Druid is said to be Greek in origin and, as ’drys’: means ’tree’. Some authorities like to think it means ’oak tree’ but no evidence exists to confirm this irrefutably. As we shall see later druid is also related to ’dru’ meaning ’run’ inSanskrit and to Drys meaning a Wren - specifically the Goldcrest - one of the birds most sacred to the Druids. For the present however, we will concentrate on the Greek version of the word.

Though the Druids are associated with groves and, as some will insist, with oak trees, it is feasible to suggest that in the light of their Sumerian and Ubaid origins, the druids as priest kings of the Dragon, were connected specifically with the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge, rather than with any mundane or temporal shrubbery.

Accepting this we may further suggest that, as priests of these pre-eminent Trees of Life and Knowledge, they may be further identified with those magicians and scholars whose Transylvanian descendants, the Scythian Aryans or Sumerian Anunnaki - the Dragon God-Kings - were instrumental in establishing the Chakric system of Hindu and Buddhist Tantra and Hebrew, Arabic and Greek Qabalah whose magical systems, as we all know, contain a glyph called the Tree of Life.

Generally speaking this Tree, a system of pathways both macrocosmic and microcosmic in nature, links the various subtle energy centers which are said to exist both in the universe, as levels of density and emanation relating to the manifestation of cosmic power and being, and in the human body - on the microcosmic level - as energy centers corresponding to the glands in the endocrinal system. In Qabalah the spheres which do not relate to the glands may be seen as points in the meridian system adopted by the Chinese. On another level, the Qabalistic Tree of Life is agenealogical chart of the Gods.

The magical Tree is a universal symbol. As in the early Sumerian depiction of the Tree of Life; the abode of Lilith, many of the subsequent Arabic, Indian and European Holy Trees share common attributes. All have residing in their topmost branches some form of bird.

In Tantra it is the swan, whose head rests within the Ajna Chakra which corresponds to the pineal and pituitary glandsand the corpus callosum. In Welsh druidic lore the bird is represented as the eagle, a typically shamanic, totem bird which symbolizes the ascendent spirit. Here the eagle is the god Lleu (in Ireland he is the Danaan king Lugh), the father of the elven Llewelyn kings of Gwynnedd.

In Arabic Sufism the bird is a peacock whilst in Viking lore the Sacred Tree Yggdrasil has at its base a coiled serpent by a pool and in its highest boughs the bird of the released spirit accompanied by a white hart.

What a deer is doing up a tree is anyone’s guess, but have a stab at it and I’ll tell you later. Yggdrasil is called the Axis Mundi and is seen as the tree which contains within its branches and roots the nine worlds of the Viking philosophical system, including their version of the Hebrew Qlipphoth or underworld. Immediately the similarity between it and theQabalistic and Tantric Trees becomes quite apparent and this is no fluke.

In actual fact the druid’s most sacred tree wasn’t the oak, it was the apple tree, linked to which is the blue boar, both of which came originally, it was said, from the Otherworld. For this reason the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden was always depicted as the apple, but could be interchanged with the pomegranate for reasons which eventually will become apparent to the hardiest and most persistent reader.

The Mistletoe Bard, whom we will encounter later, cut the golden bough from the Apple prior to descending into the underworld. Where it has been suggested that the berries of the mistletoe represent the sperm of the Great Oak God (Jupiter/Thor/Jehovah/Enlil) and thus his fertility and life-force, this isn’t in fact the case.

The Mistletoe grew mainly on Apple trees which, as we shall see, are exclusively female. Therefore the berries of the Mistletoe represent the female and consequently the Goddess’ fluid, not the seminal fluid of a male deity.

The boar is sacred to both Mars and to Arduina or Diana. This link between the apple and the boar, and the boar and Mars and Diana or the Moon is identical with the association between the Apple Tree of Eden as Lilith (of the Moon) andSamael the Serpent or Dragon who embraces her. Essentially the symbols of the Boar and the Dragon have become interchangeable.

The Blue Boar is a druidic symbol of office and the Dragon is a symbol of bloodline descent, a clan badge of the druidic race. In the Scythian Dragon Tribe the individual totem animal badges vary from region to region and reflect the local fauna and the status of the clan or sept. As an example a high or archdruidic family badge would be the boar, whilst a junior sept of that clannad would have as its totem the hedgehog, which is rather amusing.

The symbol of Samael the Serpent reclining in the Branches of Lilith’s Apple Tree in the Garden of Eden actually depicts the concept of the Dragon eating the fruit itself. This can also be found slightly more abstractly but conversely and paradoxically more graphically at the same time, in the Tantric equivalent of the serpent
entwined around a female figure.
As the apple is also the favorite fruit of the boar in the wild, it is doubtless that the adoption of the Boar as a badge was because of this and further, that the identification of the boar with the dragon was through their mutual, actual and symbolic love of what the Irish druids called the apples of red-gold. The boar was also called Le Solitaire and for this reason has links with the Merlin which will be dealt with later.

The Apple Trees - either Lilith or her descendant scarlet priestesses - bore the fruit which symbolized the sephirah and the glands of the female body. These, the apples of red-gold, produce the enriched virginal womb blood that was consumed by both the male and female druids - the Boars in the Orchard and the Serpents or Dragons in the Trees.Red-Gold is also the Tantric Kaula term for womb blood: the Rtu or first flow of the womb.

In reinforcing the Uber-Oupire link - the identification between the witch (druidhe) and vampire - it is worth taking a look at the totem system of Mithraism, a close cousin of druidism. In the Mithraic initiatory grades there are 7 degrees.

The Highest is the Dragon and the penultimate is the wolf. Also included is the Raven and with variations across Europe these animals, along with Swans, Geese, Bears, Vipers, Hawks, eagles and so on, served as the tuadh or kingdom emblems for the various Scythian groups.

In Romania however, these grades with their animal totems or badges make up the degrees or conditions of vampirism. The most potent vampire is the Dracoi or female Dracoica, from whence the House of Drakul obtained its name, meaning ’Satan’ or ’Dragon’ whilst Drakulea or Dracula means ’son of Satan’ or ’son of the Dragon’. Lying at a close second place comes the Stregoi or female Stregoica, a being that manifests itself as either a wolf or a raven. We can see where this is leading, can’t we?

The Stregoi or Stregoica represents both the Morrighan or Morgana, the Valkyrie and the Werewolf or Verewolf, which is simply another manifestation of the vampire. Typically and especially where wolves were in short supply, the werewolf was represented variously by the Bear and the Fox; and elsewhere by the crocodile (the Sobekh of Egypt - patron and protector of Royalty - whose fat was used as the Messach or anointing oil of the pharoahs, the Messiahs or priest kings).

In this neck of the woods it was also common to replace the werewolf with the Panther who was sacred to the lunar goddess Diana and also to Bacchus. Panther was the clan name of Jesus, and much earlier, the Ubaid priests wore the skins of Panthers as their totem animal. The Panther’s feeding ritual involves it opening the jugular vein in its victims neck and drinking the blood prior to eating the carcass.

The association between werewolves and the moonlight which drove them loopy, according to fable, is repeated and reinforced by the traditional belief that witchesvampires) were sacred to Diana and worshipped her by the light of the full moon. The link between the full moon and the vampire of the Gothic Romance is also well represented in tradition.
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The reason that moonlight drove werewolves round the twist and elicited devotion from witches was because the full moon was seen as the menstrual moon that signaled the impending flow and was worshipped particularly by thewitches of Italy and the surrounding area.

These ladies were called Strega, that is the Italian name for a witch and rather than worshipping the full moon they were celebrating what the moon and Diana stood for - food for the soul - the blood of virgins! Give it a chance - it isn’t as gory or unsavory as it sounds.

This was the secret foundation for the High Romance and Courtly Love that initiated the exoteric Medieval Romantic Movement itself, so don’t get judgmental or picky. If you are health conscious and take supplements like HRT you might as well know that it comes in many cases either from the urine of Mares or French Nuns - yes the author did say: Nuns. It’s official. So don’t start turning your nose up at a bit of harmless but nevertheless profitable genital snogging. Its a lot more fun than taking the piss out of Catholics. Most of the time.

As Melatonin was the primary hormone extracted in the blood rites of Diana it’s your choice: would you have preferred the blood of beautiful virgins, romantically celebrating and giving joyously of their feminine power and status by moonlight then, or the urine of papists - in a pill - now? One type of melatonin is live whilst the other is stone dead and useless - guess which is which. And Melatonin is only the beginning of the story.

In addition to the Dragon Court’s research into DNA, over two years ago the author who, many years ago, was the first to pinpoint the potential chemicals indictated in the precise hormonal makeup of the Holy Grail and Grant’s Starfire phenomena (which information he subsequently passed, in part, on to Laurence Gardner), also commissioned the assay of various organic fluids in order to discover and prove the presence of a range of these vital psychotropic and restorative chemicals discharged by the human female system.

These included oxytocin, prolactin, melatonin, seratonin, adenosyne triphosphate, dopamine, telomerase and retinol. The results of these assays should be known soon. Richard Dufton had also been working independently on identifying the same chemical presences for some years and when he and the author met in 1995 they began to work closely on the Melatonin basis for the Holy Grail. Out of this joint research the author discovered the wider implications of the discovery and restructured the Kabalistic and Tantric systems with precise chemical indices for each sephiroth orchakra.

The association between Scythian Totem beasts, Romanian animal vampire types and Mithraic grades of Initiation indicates clearly that vampirism, far from being random or opportunist, was in fact part of an ancient system of elven rites manifest in Tantra, Mithraism and Druidism.

Having said that the symbol of the panther and the werewolf were apposite, as the Scythian warrior nobility were a tad bloody-minded at times and Roman reports from the early part of the first millennium state how the Pictish Danaan had been witnessed eating the flesh and drinking the blood of their defeated foes following victories in battle.

Undoubtedly this was a corruption of earlier ritual practice as we shall see later. Certainly going out and ’eating Italian’ had a unique and disturbing meaning for the Roman soldiery of the day, as the Ninth Legion in Albany discovered to their cost. Drinking the blood of friend or foe in battle was a common practice in Eire and Scotland, the former in remembrance of fallen comrades, the latter to obtain the strength of the enemy. Contrary to Royal Vampirism, the whole point of Martial Vampirism was to clog your arteries with someone else's adrenaline

Another ritual familiar to those who have read Stoker’s Dracula was the hauling of soil from the Scythian homelands in boxes. The Scythians initiated this practice with the idea that the earth was the source of sovereignty and power and that ones soul was linked to ones homeland.

This isn’t entirely daft because we are what we eat, and what we eat affects the ’soul’ (biochemically derived and mediated collection of responses and attachments called ’ME’, the ego, personality or whatever, dependant for its existence on the continuity of the mind-brain interface) through the body, both body and soul being inextricably linked as they are. What we eat comes from the land where we are born and so the soil of ones country and its inherent sovereignty and identity literally flow in the blood that courses through one’s veins.

Up until the last century, the displaced Scots who traveled to America would slip a little soil from their former Crofts into the soles of their boots in order that, wherever they went they would always be walking on the earth of their homeland.

The Scythian Overlords brought the dragon culture with them as they traversed the many regions of Europe and finally settled in the British Isles. All their kings, indeed all Scythians of the royal caste were dragons, particularly the druidsand their high kings were called Pendragons or chief dragons and were picked by their druidic peers from druidic families.

Variant spellings for the name Druid include ’Draoi’ - thought to mean Dragon - which is close in spelling to the Romanian ’Dracoi’ and ’Dracoica’ which, if related to ’Drys’, associated with wood nymphs or tree spirits, suggests that the ’Drys’ or ’Dryads’ were the female druids who were symbolized by the apple tree of Lilith whilst the ’Draoi’ or ’Dracoi’ - the highest degree of the male druids - were represented by the serpent entwined in the branches of those apple trees.

The Priestess Queens and Priest Kings, as we have seen, dwelt in the holy places, the royal Raths that served as both temple and tomb. These subterranean palaces mimicked the the Bergs or mound houses of the Scythians’ ’proto’-Sumerian ancestors, who originated in Transylvania and Carpathia.

Similarly the Mithraic underground temples resembled places like Newgrange, in that they had an aperture above the doorway that allowed a shaft of sunlight into the building. This ray would hit the back wall of the temple where, in the case of Mithraic rituals, there were placed figurines, the sequential illumination of each in its turn, as the day progressed onwards, would tell an initiatory story, bathed in the dying light of the midwinter sun.

Beneath the doorways of various of these buildings have been discovered the remains of headless corpses whose skulls would have been secreted within these Sidhe Mounds. Their functions were to serve as Guardians of the Portals, spirit defenders of the power and sanctity of these shrines - the dwellings of the Dragons - the Goddess-Queens and God-Kings incarnate.

The cult of the severed head, as part of Celtic religious practice originated with the druids and therefore the Scythians. Examples of the head as the seat of the soul and the source of mystical wisdom, a bestower of gifts or cornucopia finds expression both in the legend of the head of Bran the Blessed or Bendigaid Fran, Archdruid of Britian, retold in the Mabinogion; and the Trial papers of the Templars, who owned a head which was said to speak words of transcendent wisdom. This head, along with that of Bran, have both been cited as being aspects of the Grail with whom both Bran and the Templars were connected.

The Knights Templars restructured by Baldwin of Bourcq in 1118 appended to their name "and of the Temple of Solomon" whilst the original Order of Templars, a Vere foundation which emerged in 1100 were called "Guardian Princes of the Royal Secret". However the original Temple Guard was founded 1500 years earlier in Jerusalem.

A close examination of the ’Song of Songs’ attributed to Solomon will reveal to the reader certain esoteric references tothe Grail. It has been further revealed that Solomon’s bloodline had Scythian Dragon origins and therefore connections with the Cult of the Head. That a head, said to be that of the Magdalene, successor to Sheba, to turn up in the inventory attached to the Templar trial papers should therefore come as no surprise.

The Scythians believed that the head contained the immortal soul. Descartes, writing in the 1600’s, was of the same opinion and elaborated by asserting that the seat of the soul was the pineal gland. Others, writing later, have suggested that this organ is the mediator of inspiration and the translator of intuitive or cosmic information.

In Indian Tantric Yoga the Pineal is the physical seat or anchor of the Ajna Chakra which also corresponds to thePituitary as well. In this philosophy the Pineal is symbolized as being the head of the swan, whose body comprises the various areas of the rest of the brain. As we have seen, the dove and the Raven also fulfill this symbolic function.

The Pineal Gland is specifically associated with Grail Lore and closely aspected to manifestations of the Grail in the forms of a Cup, a Stone, a Cauldron, a Well, Merelake; a fountain, (such as that found in certain kabalistic rituals) and an underground stream.
or
Within the theme of the severed head we also find the dressed head of Llewelyn, King of Gwynedd, which was severed from his body and garlanded with Ivy (sacred to Bacchus) before being dispatched to Edward I following the victory of his armies over the Welsh in the 1200’s.

Some two hundred years later, on his death in 1477, Prince Vlad Draculea’s body was taken to an Abbey he had built on an Island in the middle of a lake in Smyrna. Such a sanctuary has distinct Arthurian overtones and associations with the Isle of Avallon, upon which there was also built an abbey of the quasi-druidic Celto-Scythian Church.

This replaced the early Rath temple, grove and sanctuary of the Morganas, the ladies of the lake who were the Swan Maiden-Valkyries of the Scythian world, vampires and head hunters. In such sanctuaries headless corpses, as we have seen, were placed as portal guardians and it is in just such a condition that we discover that, according to local tradition, Draculea’s head was removed from his body and his corpse was buried beneath the stone flags beneath the doorway of the Abbey’s chapel.

A similar incident is reported to have occurred with the establishment of the Celtic Christian Shrine on the Island of Iona. Here it is St Columba who is said to have severed the head of one of his disciples and buried the blood drained corpse beneath the doorway of the chapel.

The blood of the victim was then consumed as a eucharist in thanksgiving for the monks’ safe arrival to the island. Here we can see that early Christianity was indeed tied up with the cult of the head, as was the collateral Johannite Cult of the Baptist, who himself was a sacrificial king of Dragon descent.

Draculea’s name means son of the Dragon as we have seen, and his burial replicates the Scythian burials in the Holy-Royal Sidhe or power mounds found in EireScotland. In Draculea’s case there are a number of symbols associated with him that connect him directly with the Scythian druidic tradition.
and
Furthermore these symbols, some of which we can also find, surprisingly enough, in Stoker’s novel, lead to the conclusion that Stoker knew a great deal about his subject. Much of the information in ’Dracula’ the novel, is of an esoteric and highly specialized psycho-biological nature, which does not detract from or conflict with, but rather elucidates upon, the character of the Draculea of history.

Bram Stoker was a close friend and associate of the Welsh magician and writer Arthur Machen who wrote numerous works, including a paper on the alchemical significance of the dragon and a novel on the Twllyth Teg - the fairies of Wales.

It is a common device to convey esoteric knowledge via the medium of supposed fiction and it appears that both Stokerand Machen involved themselves in such ventures. Stoker was also acquainted with Aleister Crowley and MacGregor Mathers, both of whom were leading lights in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Machen and Wilde were members of this organization which, it is said, had its roots in the ancient Rosicruciana Anglicae.

Oscar Wilde was one of only four people associated with The Golden Dawn and the later breakaway group: the Ordo Templi Orientis headed by Crowley, who himself undertook to perform the rituals leading to the accomplishment of a variant of the ancient "Mass of the Vampire".

The amazing Jack Parsons, OTO., attempted it in the 1940’s and joined Wilde in succumbing to the ruin and degradation that accompanies it. Jack died in an inexplicable explosion in the garage of his home in California.

Whilst Crowley accomplished the rite and walked away virtually unscathed, eventually dying of old age in Hastings,Wilde’s fate is known to all. Having said that ’Death in Hastings’ has none of the romantic je ne sais quoi of say, ’Death in Venice’, or even Paris. Perhaps Wilde, vilified as he was, had the better of it after all, at least in terms of style!

It has been suggested that Stoker was either a member of the OTO or the Golden Dawn and it would appear that the cohesion and integrity of the symbolism in his ’Dracula’ must therefore point to Stoker having a source of esoteric information far more informed in historical and alchemical terms than any that he might have obtained, as it has been suggested, purely from the folklore of Romanian peasants or from contemporary literary sources.

Historical accounts of Prince Draculea’s life confirm that he was born in and became Prince of Wallachia, not Transylvania. In linking Draculea with TransylvaniaStoker suggests to the reader that the origin of the vampire tradition was indeed linked to the Ubaid Homeland.
however,
Recent research has uncovered the fact that Draculea did indeed, like his Scythian Warrior ancestors, drink the blood of his impaled and decapitated victims. Decapitation is distinctly a Scythian practice and although it has been suggested that Draculea learnt the custom of impaling from his Turkish captors, this practice had been used as a punishment by the Aryans of Persia as early as 500 BC.

Although Stoker has Dracula impaled and decapitated at his castle when in fact Draculea was beheaded at the Abbey where he was buried, Stoker is rightly attempting to associate Dracula, via these rituals, with an entire vampiric cultural tradition of which his character was destined to become the definitive archetype.

This is no bad thing because the picture of Dracula and his accoutrements and behavior is not far from the actual truth of the matter. The finer details of the novel confirm that Stoker was probably being prompted by others in the writing of this work, which contains secret information that is still generally unknown outside certain circles.

It was generally thought that the only way to kill a vampire was to impale the body through the heart, in order to pin the wandering body to the earth, remove the head and cremate the remains. At that time cremation was forbidden in Christian Europe because it was believed that the bodily remains should be left intact to rise again on the Day of Judgment.

Obviously the Church thought that reconstituting the fetid and rotting remains of sinners on the Last Day would be a doddle for God, whereas he would be powerless to reconstruct the former human being from a handful of dust. Typically stunning christian logic in action here.

Cremation was practiced by Hindus, a race of people originally extracted from the Aryan Horse Lords. Considering this as a funerary practice in relation to decapitation and impaling, which was reserved as a royal punishment in Persia, perhaps the peasant memory, prompted by the church, recalled the link between royalty and these rituals and thence assumed that the only way to kill a vampire who was, after all exclusively a member of the Fairy or Royal Race, was to put the body through a series of ritual processes, some of which had been variously, components of Scythian royal sacrificial or funerary practice.

Royal decapitation we can see in the stories of Bran and Llewelyn, and although Celts buried their common dead, we might suggest, given the earliest evidence from Tartaria and other later sites, that Royal Scythians, like their Viking andHindu cousins, cremated the sometimes decapitated remains of their sacred dead, depending on the requirements of specific ritual necessity. Perhaps to the peasantry, impaling was seen as poetic justice in dispatching one assumed to be of a race for whom impaling was a common punishment.

We have seen that impaling was thought to nail the body of the vampire to the earth and perhaps where the body wasn’t burnt, impaling was considered sufficient to keep in its grave, the body of one belonging to a race that the crows in cassocks said was so terrifying and seemingly so indestructible.

It will be remembered though that many of the stories concerning vampires were contrived by the church to encourage the flock to remain in fear for its life and thus faithful to its only means of protection and salvation, the fat scheming pervert in the black frock.

It was immaterial to them that vampirism was rarely committed against outsiders except when they were opponents in war. Nevertheless the vampire scare went on longer than the witch craze and was just as effective in keeping the poor peasant in bondage to the evil doctrines of a lying church.

As a Scythian custom, impaling would have been as common in Galatia, later Turkey, where the Cult of the Head thrived in Roman times; as it was in Persia where it was reserved for one royal in particular - Bress - who betrayed his brotherDarius following the successful invasion by Alexander.

Essentially Stoker’s Dracula is as much a part of the Grail Cycle as the Druidic stories of King Arthur and ofEschenbach’s ’Parzifal’. In these stories as in most Druidic teaching fables, the Bards delighted in presenting material that could be read on several different but related levels which often have hermetic, macro and microcosmic components.

In particular where Stoker is concerned, an extract from Solomon’s ’Song of Songs’ features in a couple of obscure lines in his Dracula and these directly refer to the central alchemical theme of the Grail Cycle and put the seal on the book as being an esoteric work, rather than just simply a Gothic novel.

Historically Draculea himself attended the ’Solomon School’ in Hermannstadt, an alchemical, hermetic college that taught magic to the sons of Royalty. Two other schools like this existed in Europe, one was in Toledo in Spain and the other was said to be in Transylvania. At the ’Solomon’ only one person per class ever graduated, or ’rode the Dragon’ as it was termed.

Fanciful christian theory says that the rest of the students ended up with Satan in Hell! Reminiscent of a Druidic’Bangor’ or university, the ’Solomon School’ finished Vlad’s education and fitted him to become a Dacian counterpart of the British Pendragon, with all the brutal wisdom of his fairy ancestors and predecessors who, as God-Kings of the specifically intermediary, guardian-class of Anunnaki deities, were inhumed in the same manner that Dracula himself was laid to rest.

Draculea the prince of Wallachia was little different in actuality from the Dracula character of Stoker’s novel. This Sacred Prince, a Hermetic scholar and initiate, a student of magic, Magus, Witch Lord and Dragon Prince, counterbalanced the bloodlust of his forebears with a refined knowledge and advanced practice of Grail procedure which, shining forth radiantly from the pages of Stoker’s little masterpiece, echoed the teachings that the historical Draculea would have received at the ’Solomon School’: teachings and encountered in the Dragon Court of which he was a member, teachings which were held in common by Archdruids, Alchemists, Tantric Yogis, Hermeticists and Qabalists alike, each discipline originating from one ancient Fairy Tradition in Sumeria and Transylvania - the heartlands of the Dragon Kingsand Queens of the Sacred Danaan Peoples.

In Draculea’s day christian kings sent their sons to christian universities but still, true kingship, the Sobekh or Messiahkingship, symbolized since antiquity by the Dragon or Sacred Crocodile, required that the true kings’ sons learnt priest-kingship and in Draculea’s case, this education was still clearly of a Druidic nature, even as late as the 15th century.

In the Celtic British Isles after the Romans decamped, Princes were required to become priests or druids and as late as 660 AD we can find references concerning the education of the Merovingian Prince Dagobert at Slane University inIreland where, up until the year 664 AD, Celtic, Druidic Christianity still held sway.

In those days and as late as 751 A.D. Kings still came exclusively from the King Tribe who supplied much of the Celtic world, as well as Eurasia, with Draconian offspring to serve as Royal Priests. This King Tribe, the Arya or Sidhe - theScythians - included the Merovingian dynasty who, although it was an amalgam of Jesus’ Egyptian and Aryan blood, it was also closely related to the Irish and Scots Royal Danaan and the Druidic castes integral to these Houses still educated this dynastic progeny up until the Carolingian usurpation and the ascendance of the Church of Rome in 664 AD.

Gradually at first the Roman church replaced the true royal, elven blood with its own bloodless puppets and made christian education the norm for the sons of the new christian kings and nobles whom the church had created. The Solomons of Hermannstadt, Toledo and Transylvania became the hidden leftovers of an ancient, originally druidic educational system which necessarily went underground and became the subject of myth and fairytale, along with the bloodlines it once educated openly.

The Dragon Colleges produced the ’Uber’, the Overlords who, in Britain were called the Pendragons and in Transylvaniathe ’Dracoi’ or ’Dracoica’ - the ’vampires’. Only the highest graduates of the Druidic bangors would be thought of as true men or women of power, true Sidhe or Fairy Royalty and thus it was only the prince who ’rode the Dragon’ who could be said to fit the same criteria for inclusion in the bloodline of the vampire, the witch and the fairy families - The Dragon Kings.








The Scythians
Ellis Hovell Minns Scythia (Gr, xx), originally (e.g. in Herodotus iv, 1. 142), the country of the Scythae or the country over which the nomad Scythae were lords, that is, the steppe from the Carpathians to the Don. With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and the Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.

Herodotus (I.c.), to whom with Hippocrates (De aere, %c. 24, sqq) we own our earliest knowledge (Homer, Il. Xiii, 5, speaks of "mare-milkers," and Hesiod, ap. Strabo vii. 3 (7) mentions Scythae) of the land and its inhabitants, tries to restrict this merely geographical usage and to confine the word Scyth to a certain race or at any rate to that race and its subjects, but even he seems to slip back into the older use. Hence there is much doubt as to his exact meaning.

His account of the geography falls into two irreconcilable parts; one (iv. 99 sqq), in connexion with the tale of the invasion of Darius, makes of Scythia a kind of chessboard 4000 stades square on which the combatants can make their moves quite unhindered by the great rivers: the other (16-20), founded on what he learned from Greeks of Olbia and supplemented by the tales of the 7th century traveler Aristeas of Proconnesus, is not very far removed from first-hand information and can be made more or less to tally with the lie of the land. In accordance with this we can give the relative positions of the various tribes, and an excursus on the rivers (47-57) lets us define their actual seats. In western Scythia, starting from Olbia and going northwards, we have Callippidae on the lower Hypanis (Bug), Alazones where the Tyras (Dnister) and Hypanis come near each other in their middle courses, and Aroteres ("Ploughmen") above them.

These tribes raised wheat, presumably in the river valleys, and sold it for export; in the eastern half from west to east were Georgi (perhaps the same as Aroteres) between the Ingul and the Borysthenes (Dnieper), nomad Scyths and Royal Scyths between the Borysthenes and the Tanais (don). Above all these stretched a row of non-Scythian tribes from west to east: on the Maris (Maros) in Transylvania the Agathyrsi; Neuri in Podolia and Kiev, Androphagi and Melanchlaeni in Poltava, (Ryazan) and Tambov. On the lower Don and Volga we have the Sauromatae, and on the middle course of the Volga the Budini with the great wooden town of Gelonus and its semi-Greek inhabitants.

From this region started an important trade route eastward by the Thyssagetae among the southern Urals, the Iyrcae on the Tobol and Irtysh and the Kirghiz steppe, where dwelt other Scyths, regarded as colonists of those in Europe: then by the Argippaei in the Altai and the Issedones in the Tarym basis, to the one-eyed Arimaspi on the borders of China, who stole their gold from the watchful griffins, and who marched with goat-footed men and Hyperboreans reaching to the sea. To the south of Scythia the Crimean mountains were inhabited by a non-Scythic race, the Tauri. (See also articles on these tribes.)

Ethnology : - Herodotus expressly divides the Scythians into the Agriculturists, Callipidae, Alazones, Aroteres and Georgi in the western part of the country, and the Nomads with their Royal Scyths to the east. The latter claimed dominion over all the rest. The question arises whether we have to do with the various tribes of one race in different stages of civilization, or with a mixed population called by foreigners after the ruling tribe. The latter seems by far the more probable. The affinities of this tribe have been sought in various directions, and the evidence suggests that it was itself of mixed blood. We know that in the 2nd century A. D., when the steppes were dominated by the Sauromatae (q.v.), the majority of the barbarian names in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais, and Panticapaeum were Iranian, and can infer that the Sauromatae spoke an Iranian language.

Pliny speaks of their descent from the Medes. Now the Sauromatae are represented as half-caste Scyths speaking a corrupt variety of Scythian. Presumably, therefore, the Scyths also spoke an Iranian dialect. But of the Scythic words preserved by Herodotus some are Iranian, others, especially the names of deities, have found no satisfactory explanation in any Indo-European language. Indeed they rather suggest a Ugrian origin. Nevertheless, the general opinion has been that the Scyths were Iranian. The present writer believes that they were a horde which came down from upper Asia, conquered an Iranian-speaking people, and in time adopted the speech of its subjects.

The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them, may have been connected with their neighbors beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like. The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity. Herodotus gives three legends of the origin of the Scyths (iv. 5-12); these, though they contradict each other, can be reconciled with the view stated above. Two of them seem to be the same story; one is very strongly Hellenized, the other, in more or less native shape, is shortly this.

The tribe is autochthonous, claiming descent from a son of the river Borysthenes Targitaos, who lived a thousand years before. Of his three sons the youngest Colaxais, is preferred by an ordeal of picking up certain objects which fell from heaven, - a plough, a yoke, an axe, and a cup, - and becomes the ancestor of the ruling clan of Paralatae; from the other sons, Lipoxais and Harpoxais, are descended minor clans, and the name of the whole people is Scolotai, not Scythae, which is used by the Greeks alone. In this story the names make sense in Iranian, the tribes are not again mentioned except when this passage is copied, the objects are hardly such as would be held sacred by nomads, the form of ordeal is to be paralleled in Iranian legends, and the people say themselves that they are not really Scythae. Surely this is the national legend of the agricultural Scythians about Olbia, and the name Scoloti, by which careful modern writers designate the Royal Scyths, is the true designation of the subject race. The royal line of these is quite distinct from the true Royal Scyths, who, like most nomad conquerors, allowed their subjects to preserve their own organizations.

The third account fails chiefly in being too plausible, but there seems no reason to reject it as an artificial combination of unconnected facts. According to it the Scyths dwell in Asia, and were forced by the Massagetae over the Araxer(Volga?) Into the land of the Cimmerians. Aristeas says that the first impulse came from the Arimaspi, who displaced the Pasodones, who in turn fell upon the Scyths. This comes to much the same thing, as the Massagetae seem to have contained an element which had come in from the land of the Pasedones. The Scyths having fallen upon them from the north-east, the Cimmerians appear to have given way in two directions, towards the south-west, where the tombs of their kings were shown on the Tyras (Dniester) and one body joined with the Treres of Thrace in invading Asia Minor by the Hellespont; and towards the south-east where another body threatened the Assyrians, who called them Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen. Xi.).

They were followed by the Scyths (Ashguzai, Heb. Ashkenax) whom the Assyrians welcomed as allies and used against the Cimmerians, against the Medes and even against Egypt. Hence the references to the Scyths in the Hebrew prophet (Jer. Iv.3, vi. 7). This is all put in the latter half of the 7th century B. C. Herodotus says that the Scyths ruled Media for twenty-eight years, and were then massacred or expelled. The Assyrian evidence is in the main a confirmation of Herodotus, though most writers think that the Scythians who troubled Asia were Sacae from the east of the Caspian (H. Winckler, Altorientalische Forschungen, p. 484 sqq.) If the Scyths came out of upper Asia, the Scythian colonists beyond the Iyrcae might be a division which had remained nearer the homeland, but in dealing with nomads were can suppose such a return as that of the Calmucks (Kalmuks) in the 18th century.

The physical features of the Scyths are not described by Herodotus, but Hippocrates (l.c.) Draws a picture of them wich makes them very similar to the Mongols as they appeared to the Franciscan missionaries in the 13th century. He says they are quite unlike any other race of men, and very like each other. The main point seems to be a tendency to slackness, fatness and excess of humours. The men are said to be in appearance very like eunuchs, and both sexes have a tendency to sexual indifference amounting in the men to impotence. When a man finds himself in this condition he assumes the women's dress and habits.

Herodotus mentions the existence of this class, called Enarees, and says that they suffer from a sacred disease owing to the wrath of the goddess of Ascalon whose shrine they had plundered. Reinegg describes a similar state of things in the Nogai in the 18th century. The whole account suggests a Tatar clan in the last stage of degeneracy. Hippocrates says that this only applies to the ruling class, not to the slaves, but gives as the reason the want of exercise among the former. The skulls dug up in Scythic graves throw no light on the question, some bring round and some long. The representations of nomads on objects of Greek art show people with full beards and shaggy hair, such as cannot be reconciled with Hippocrates; but the only reliefs which seem to be accurate belong to a late date when the ruling clan was Sarmatian rather than Scythic.

Customs. - Herodotus gives a good survey of the customs of the Scyths: it seems mostly to apply to the ruling race. Again the closest analogy is the state of the Mongols in the 13th century, but too much weight must not be put on this, as the natural conditions of steppe- ranging nomads dictated the greater part of them. Still the correspondence of religion and of funeral rites is very close. The Scyths lived upon the produce of their herds of cattle and horses, their main food being the flesh of the latter, either cooked in a cauldron or made into a kind of haggis, and the milk of mares from which they made cheese and kumiss (a fermented drink resembling buttermilk). This necessitated their constantly moving in search of fresh pasture, spending the spring and autumn upon the open steppe, the winter and summer by the rivers for the sake of moisture and shelter.

The men journeyed on horseback, the women in wagons with felt tilts. These were drawn by their cattle, and were the homes of each family. Hence the Greek names, Abii, Hippemolgi, Hamaxobii. The women were kept in subjection, and were far from enjoying the liberty granted them among the Sauromatae, among whom they rode on horseback and engaged in war. Polygamy was practices, the son inheriting his father's wives. Both men and women avoided washing, but there was something of the nature of a vapour bath, with which Herodotus has confused a custom of using the smoke of hemp as a narcotic. The women daubed themselves with a kind of cosmetic paste. The dress of the men is well shown upon the Kul Oba and Chertomlyk vases, and upon other Greek works of art made for Scythic use. It must not be confused with the fanciful barbarian costumes that are so common upon the Attic posts. They wore coats confined by belts, trousers tucked into soft boots, and hoods or tall pointed caps.

The women had flowing robes, tall pointed caps, and veils descending over most of the figure. Both sexes wore many stamped gold plates sewn upon their clothes in lines or seams. Their horses had severe bits, and were adorned with nose pieces, cheek pieces and saddle cloths. True stirrups were unknown. In war the nation was divided into three sub-kingdoms, and these into companies, each with its commander. The companies had yearly feasts, at which the commander honoured warriors who had slain one or more of the enemy. As evidence of such prowess, and as a token of his right to a share of any spoil.

The warrior was accustomed to scalp his enemy and adorn his bridle with the trophy. I n the case of a special enemy or an adversary overcome in a private dispute before the king, he would make a cup of the skull, mounting it in bull's hide or in gold. The tactics in war were the traditional nomad tactics of harassing the enemy on the march, constantly retreating before him and avoiding a general engagement. Their weapons consisted of bow and arrows, short swords, spears and axes. The government was a despotism, but a king who aroused the extreme dissatisfaction of his subjects was liable to be murdered.

Religion - The religion of the Scyths was nature worship. Herodotus (iv. 59) gives a list of their gods, with the Greek deities corresponding, but we cannot tell what aspect of the Greek deity is in question. He says they chiefly reverence Tabiti (Hestia), next Papaeus and his wife Apia (Zeus and Ge), then Oitosyros (Apollo) and Argimpasa (Aphrodite Urania). These are common to all the Scythians, but Thamimasadas (Poseidon) is peculiar to the Royal Scyths. They set up no images or altars or temples save to Ares only. To Ares they make a heap of faggots three stades square, with three sides steep and one inclined, and bring to it a hundred and fifty fresh loads of faggots every years. Upon the top is set up a sword which is the image of Ares; to this they sacrifice captives, pouring their blood over it. The account of the cult of Ares, for whom no Scythian name is given, appears to be an addition, and the mention of such masses of faggots suggests the wooded district of the agricultural Scythians, not the treeless steppe of the Royal tribe.

The Scythian pantheon is not distinctive, and can be paralleled among the Tartars and among the Iranians. The Scyths had a method of divination with sticks, and the Enarees, who claimed to be soothsayers by grant of the goddess who had afflicted them, used another method by splitting bast fibers. They intervened in case of the king's falling sick, when it was assumed that some man had sworn by the king's hearth and broken his oath. If a man accused of this denies it, other diviners are called, and if these concur, he is beheaded and his sons slain and his goods given to the diviners. But if a majority of diviners decide against the accusers, the latter are set upon a wagon-load of brushwood and burned to death. The burial rites are the most fully described. Private persons were merely carried about among their friends, who held wakes in their honour, and then buried forty days after death. But the funerals of the kings were much more elaborate. They exhibit the extreme development of the principle of surrounding the dead man with everything in which he found pleasure during his life.

The tombs of the kings were in the land of the Gerrhus near the great bend of the Dnieper where the chief tumuli have been excavated. The body was embalmed and filled with aromatic herbs, and then brought to this region, passing through the lands of various tribes. The Royal Scyths who followed the body were accustomed to cut about their faces and arms, and each tribe that the cortege met upon its way had to join it and conform ti this expression of grief. Arrived at the place of burial, the body was set in a square pit with spears marking out its sides and a roof of matting. Then one of the king's concubines and his cup-bearer, cook, groom, messenger and horses were strangled and laid by him, and roundabout offerings of all his goods and cups of gold 0 no silver or bronze. After this they raised a great mound, striving to make it as high as possible. A year later they strangled fifty youths of the dead man's servants (all Scyths born) and fifty of the best horses, stuffed them and mounted them in a circle about the tomb.

Tombs. - The description is generally born out by the evidence of the tombs opened in the Scythic area. None agrees in every point, but almost every detail finds a close parallel in some tomb or other. The chief divergence is in the presence of silver and copper objects, but the great quantity of gold is the most striking fact, and to say that there was nothing but gold seems merely an exaggeration. Tombs to which the name Scythic is generally applied form a well- defined class.

They are preceded over the whole area by a much simpler form of burial marked by the practice of staining the bones with red ochre, and the presence of one or two rude pots and nothing more; yet that some were tombs of great chiefs is shown by the great size of the barrows heaped over them. They have been referred to the Cimmerians, but for this there is no clear evidence. The Scythic tombs can be roughly dated by the objects of Greek art that they contain. They seem to begin about the 6th century B. C., and to continue til the 2nd century A. D.' that is, they cover the period of the Scythic domination according to the account accepted above, and that of the Sarmatian, and so suggest that, as far as the archaeological evidence goes, there was little more than a change of name and perhaps of substitution of one ruling clan for another - not a real change of population.

The finest of the class were opened about the bend of the Dnieper, where we should put land Gerrhus. Others are found to the south-west of the central area, and in the governments of Kiev and Poltava we have many tombs with Scythic characteristics, but a difference (e.g. the fewness of the horses) which makes us think of the settled tribes under Scythic domination. Others occur in the flat northern half of the Crimea, and even close to Kerch, where the famous Kul Oba seems to have held a Scythic chieftain who had adopted a veneer of Greek tastes, but remained a barbarian at heart. East of the Maeotis, especially along the river Kuban, are many groups of barrows showing the same culture as those of Gerrhus but in a purer form. Farther to the north and east the series seems to expend into Siberia, but in this region excavations have been few.

Unfortunately very few of these barrows have come down to us un-plundered, and we cannot find one complete example and take it as a type. Soon after they were heaped up, before the beams supporting the central chamber had rotted, thieves made a practice of driving a mine into the mound straight to where the valuables were deposited, and it is only by the collapse of this mine and the crushing of the robber after he had thrown everything into confusion that the treasures of the Chertomlyk barrow, on the whole the most typical, were preserved to us. This was 60 ft. Height and 1100 ft. Round' about it was a stone plinth, and it was approached by a kind of stone alley. A central shaft descended 35 ft. 6 in. Below the surface of the earth, and from each corner of it at the bottom opened out side chambers.

The north-west chamber communicated with a large irregular chamber into which the plunderer's mine opened. In the central pit all was in confusion, but here the king seems to have lain on a bier. His belongings, found piled up near the mine. Seem to have included a combined bow-case and quiver and a sword sheath, each covered with plates of gold of Greek work, there swords with gold hafts, a hone with gold mounting, a whip, many other gold plates and a heap of arrow-heads. In the north-west chamber was a woman's skeleton, and she had here jewels, mostly of Greek work. She was attended by a man, and three other men were buried in the other chambers. They were supplied with simpler weapons and adornments, but even so their clothes had hundreds of stamped gold plates and strips of various shapes sewn on to them.

By every skeleton were drinking vessels. Store of wine was contained in six amphorae, and in two bronze cauldrons were mutton-bones. The most wonderful object of all was a great two-handled vase standing 3 ft. High and made to hold kumiss. The greater part of its body is covered by a pattern of acanthus leaves, but on the shoulder is a frieze showing nomads breaking in wold mares, our chief authority for Scythian costume. To the west of the main shaft were three square pits with horses and their harness, and by them two pits with men's skeletons. In the heap itself was found an immense quantity of pieces of harness and what may be remains of a funeral car. The Greek work would seem to date the burial as of the 3rd century B. C.

At Alexandropol in the same district was an even more elaborate tomb. But its contents were in even greater confusion. Another tomb in this region, Melgunov's barrow, found as long ago as 1760, contained a dagger-sheath and pollen of Assyrian work and Greek things of the 6th century. In the Kul Oba tomb mentioned above the chamber was of stone and the contents, with one or two exceptions, of purely Greek workmanship, but the ideas underlying are the same - the king has his wife, his servant and his horse, his amphorae with wine, his cauldron with mutton-bones, his drinking vessels and his weapons, the latter being almost the only objects of barbarian style. One of the cups has a frieze with reliefs of natives supplementing that on the Chertomlyk vase.

East of the Maeotis on the Kuban we have many barrows; the most interesting are the groups called the Seven Brothers, and those of Karagodeuashkh, Kostromskaya, Ul and Kelermes, the latter remarkable for objects of Assyrian style, the others for the enormous slaughter of horses; on the Ul were four hundred in one grave.

Art .- Certain of the objects which occur in these Scythic graves are of special forms typical for the Scythic area. Most interesting of these is the dagger or sword, always very short, save in the latest graves, and distinguished by a heart-shaped guard marking the juncture of hilt and blade; its sheath is also characteristic, having a triangular projection on one side and usually a separate shape: these peculiar forms were necessitated by a special way of hanging the dagger from two straps that might not interfere with a rider's movements. Just the same form of short sword was used in Persia and is shown on the sculptures at Persepolis. Another special type is the bow-case, made to take a short curved bow and to accommodate arrows as well. Further, there is the peculiar cauldron on one conical foot, round which the fire was built, the cylindrical hone pierced for suspension, and the cup with a rounded bottom.

Assyrian and afterwards Greek craftsmen working for Scythic employers were compelled to decorate these outlandish forms, which they did according to their own fashion: but there was also a native style with conventionalized beast decoration, which was almost always employed for the adornment of bits and horses' gear, and very often for weapons. This style and the types of dagger, cauldron, bit and two-looped socketed axehead run right across from Hungary to the upper Yenisei, where a special Bronze Age culture seems to have developed them. But even here it seems impossible to deny some influence coming from the Aegean area, and Scythic beasts are very like certain products of Mycenaean and early Ionic art. Again, the Scythic style is interesting as being one element in the art of the barbarians who conquered the Roman Empire and the zoomorphic decoration of the early middle ages.

The dominance from the Yenisei to the Carpathians of a distinct style of art which, whatever its original elements may have been, seems to have taken shape as far east as the Yenisei basin is an additional argument in favour of a certain movement of population from the far north-east towards the south Russian steppes. It would correspond in time with the movement of the Scyths of which Herodotus speaks, and it may be inferred that immigrants coming from those regions were rather allied to the Tatar family of nations than to the Iranian. Similar movements from the same regions appear also to have penetrated Iran itself; hence the resemblance between the dress and daggers of certain classes of warriors on the sculptures of Persepolis and those shown on the Luk Oba vase. An Iranian origin would not account for the presence of analogous types on the Yenisei.

History . - To sum up the history of Scythia, the oldest inhabitants of whom we hear in Scythia were the Cimmerii; the nature of the country makes it probable that some of them were nomads, while others no doubt tilled some land in the river valleys and in the Crimea, where they left their name to ferries, earthworks and the Cimmerian Bosporus. They were probably of Iranian race; among the Persians Herodotus describes a similar mixture of nomadic and settled tribes.

In the 7th century B. C. these Cimmerians were attacked and partly driven out by a horde of newcomers from upper Asia called Scythae; these imposed their name and their yoke upon all that were left in the Euxine steppes, but probably their coming did not really change the basis of the population, which remained Iranian. The newcomers adopted the language of the conquered, but brought with them new customs and a new artistic taste probably largely borrowed from the metal-working tribes of Siberia. About the same time similar peoples harassed the northern frontier of Iran, where they were called Saka (Sacae), and in later times Saka and Scyths, whether they were originally the same or not, were regarded as synonymous. It is difficult always to judge whether given information applies to the Sacae or the Scyths.

About 512 B. C. Darius, having conquered Thrace, made an invasion of Scythia, which, according to the account of Herodotus, he crossed as far as the Oarus, a river identified with the Volga, burned the town of Gelonus and returned in sixty days. In this march he was much harassed by the nomads, with whom he could not come to close quarters, but no mention is made of his having any difficulty with the rivers (he gets his water from wells), and no reason for his proceedings is advanced except a desire to avenge legendary attacks of Scyths upon Asia.

After losing many men the Great King comes back to the place where he crossed the Danube, finds the Ionians still guarding the bridge in spite of the attempts of the Scyths to make them desert, and safely re-enters his own dominions. Ctesias says that the whole campaign only took fifteen days and that Darius did not get beyond the Tyras (Dniester). This is also the view of the reasonable Strabo; but it does not account for the genesis of the other story. It seems best to believe that Darius made an incursion in order to secure the frontier of the Danube, suffered serious reverses and retired with loss, and that this offered too good a chance to be missed for a moral tale about the discomfiture of the Great King by a few poor savages. The Greeks had been trading with the Scyths ever since their coming, and at Lobia there were other tales of their history.

We can make a list of the Scythian kings - Spargapeithes, Lycus, Gnurus, Saulius (whose brother, the famous Anacharsis (q.v.), traveled overall the world in search of wisdom, was reckoned a sage among the Greeks and was slain among his own people because they did not like his foreign ways). And Idanthyrsus, the lead king at the time of Darius, probably the father of Ariapeithes. This latter had three wives, a Greek woman from Istrus, Opoea a Scythian, and a Thracian daughter to the great chief Teres. Scyles, his son by the Greek mother, affected Greek ways, had a house in Olbia, and even took part in Bacchic rites. When this came to the knowledge of his subjects he was murdered, and Octamasadas, his son by the third wife, reigned in his stead. Herodotus adduces this to show how much the Scyths hated foreign customs, but with the things found in the graves it rather proves how strong was the attraction exercised upon the nomads by the higher culture of their neighbors.

Octamasadas did shortly before the time of Herodotus. We cannot place Ariantas, who made a kind of census of the nation by exacting an arrow-head from each warrior and cast a great cauldron out of the bronze, nor Taxacis and Scopasis, the under-kings in the time of Idanthyrsus. After the retreat of Darius the Scythians made a raid as far as Abydos, and even sent envoys to King Cleomenes III of Sparta to arrange that they should attack the Persian Empire from the Phasis while the Spartans should march up from Ephesus. The chief result of the embassy was that Cleomenes took to the Scythian habit of drinking his wine neat and went mad therefrom (Herodotus vi. 84). Hence forward the Scyths appear as a declining power: by the middle of the 4th century their eastern neighbors the Sarmatae have crossed the Tanais (Don) and the pressure of the Scyths is felt on the Danube.

Here Philip II, of Macedon defeated and slew their king Ateas in 339 B. C., and from this time on the representatives of the old Scythic power are petty chieftains in the western part of the country about Olbia, where they could still be dangerous, and about Tomi. Towards the second half of the 2nd century B. C. this kingdom seems to have become the nucleus of a great state under Scilurus, whose name appears on coins of Lobia, and who at the same time threatened Chersonese in the Crimea. Here, however, he was opposed by the might of Mithradates VI of Pontus and his power was broken.

Henceforward the name "Scythian" is purely geographical. Meanwhile Scythia had become the land of the Sarmatae (q.v.). These, as has been seen, spoke a cognate dialect, and the tombs which belong to their period show exactly the same culture with Greek and Siberian elements. It is probable that the Iranian element was stronger among the Sarmatae, whose power extended as the ruling clan of the Scyths became extinct; but it is quite likely that they in their turn were officered by some new horde from upper Asia. Like the Scyths they were pressed towards the west by yet newer swarms, and with the coming of the Huns Scythia enters upon a new cycle, though still keeping its owl name in the Byzantine historians.

AUTHORITIES - (1) Ancient: Herodotus iv, 1 - 142 (editions of Blakesley, Rawlinson, Macan); Hippocrates, De Aere, &c., c. 24 sqq.; for geography alone : Strabo vii. Cc.3,4; xi.cc.1,2,6; Pliny iv. 75 sqq.; Ptolemy, Sarmatia; Diodorus Sic. Ii, 2, 45-47; and Justin in. cc.1, 4, do not seem to add anything of which we can be certain. (2) Modern: E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909), gives a summary of various opinions and a survey of the subject from all points of view. See also for ethnological questions, Mongolian hypothesis: K. Neumann, Die Hellene im Skythenlande (Berlin, 1855). Iranian hypothesis: K. Mullenhoff, "Uber Herkunft und Sprache der Pontischen Skythen und Sarmaten," in Monatsber. D. Berl. Ak. (1866), reprinted in Deutsche Altertumskunde, vol. Iii. For the archaeology; Kondakoff, Tolstoi and Reinach,Antiquitesde la Russie Meridionale (Paris, 1892); more fully in Antiquites de la Russie d'Herodote and Compte rendu de la commission archeologique de St-Petersbourg, passim.

They vigorously pursued breeding their horses for equine perfection,
and essentially purebred themselves the same noble way.

The Akhal-Teke is a desert breed of horse that is thought to have descended from an ancient Scythian type. It is thought that four principal types of ancient horse served as the progenitors for all of today's modern breeds, with a fifth type being represented by Przywalski's horse. The Akhal-Teke's heritage is thought to be from the fourth, almost gazelle like and light bodied horse of the arid deserts of Central Asia.
The grasses of this region were sparse, although nutritious and along with the extreme heat, a light bodied yet wiry horse had a better chance for survival than slower thicker horse types. The landscape was treeless and open, so a swift horse with stamina, capable of outrunning predators had again the best chance for survival. These desert types were built for speed, they had a "hot" temperament and very quick reactions, and a long body ensured plenty of room for long periods of deep athletic breathing.

These adaptations to the environment served the ancient peoples of the area very well. The Akhal-Teke horses were originally bred as war and raiding, or "Alaman" (translates to raiding) horses which was also naturally suited as a race horse. Its lineage and breeding was kept pure through an oral tradition of maintaining bloodlines and due to the relative isolation of the Teke tribes. "Akhal" translates to "pure". The horse was so named to identify with the Teke tribe, "Pure Teke". Akhal is also the name of an isolated oasis located in Turkmenistan on the Northern slope of the Kopet-Dag mountain, center for the nomadic Akhal-Teke tribe.

The Scythians were renowned as warriors and as early as 700 BC, had huge cavalries. Their horses were known under a variety of names, Turanian, Bactrian, Median and Parthian horses. They eventually came to be known as Turkmene horses after the tribes who kept them. An ancient royal Scythian frozen gravesite was found to contain slaves, pack animals and supplies for the king to take with him in the afterworld, much like the Egyptian tombs. It is estimated that this site dates back to 500 B.C. and because it was frozen, much of its contents were found in good relative condition for its age. Horse skeletons and even some frozen skin has been examined which bears a high resemblance to today's Akhal-Teke horse.

The Tekes were a nomadic people descended from the ancient Scythians who regularly traveled between summer and winter ranges. The region is frequently subject to drought however, so in order to survive, people traveled from place to place to find arable land. This frequently displaced other tribes already settled the few irrigated areas. To provide for the shortfalls of an unreliable environment, the Tekes took to routinely invading neighboring tribes or countries to take what was of necessity and value then quickly leaving on their swift horses. Or they hired themselves as mercenaries for others to accomplish similar missions.

The Teke tribes built on the natural proclivities of the ancient Scythian horse to breed horses of imposing height, incredible stamina and fiery temperament in order to withstand long distance raiding journeys. The pride the Tekes had in their horses became intertwined with their reliance upon them to support their way of life.

The Teke people revered their prized horses and were highly devoted to them. Their horses were brought into the family tents, the horses were blanketed against the cold desert nights and winter winds. They were given the best foods that could be found, including grains, animal proteins and fat.

Horses were valued as the single measure of true wealth. From as young as two, Teke children learn to ride and then care for the family's horse or if wealthy enough, more than one horse. When Russia took over Central Asian areas and prevented customary raiding, the Turkmene focused on racing their prized Akhal-Tekes. Today, racing Akhal-Tekes and maintenance of the breed itself is a principal source of national and cultural pride.


Traditional and Common Uses
Race horses and war horses as described above.

Improvement of other lineages of horses for height, stamina, refinement and animation

Currently, Akhal-Tekes are promoted in a number of equine sports to make the world aware of this ancient and unique breed including dressage, jumping, endurance, eventing and the Olympics. In 1960, an Akhal-Teke purebred stallion, Absent, won the dressage gold medal and by the end of his career, had won 6 Olympic medals. Akhal-Teke crossbreds are competed as warmbloods in a number of sports.

The desirable characteristics of the breed are many and therefore crossbreeding them was and is vigorously pursued. This came to such an extreme however that as recently as 1973, there were only 18 purebred mares and 3 purebred stallions known to exist in Russia. Since that time, the Akhal-Teke has been bred for purity, while still contributing its outstanding qualities to cross-breeding efforts.

Historical Anecdotes
It has been accepted as a fact generally that the Arabian horse is the oldest of the purebred horse breeds. This may be a fact to many in the West, but to those of the upper Middle East and Central Asia, the Akhal-Teke is just as or an older purebred horse breed. As is described below, Akhal-Teke owners will state as a fact that these horses contributed to the development of today's Arabian breed among many others.

"Blood Sweating"
The fame of the Akhal-Teke in the ancient world spread very far, and they were highly desired by ancient Chinese emperors. One emperor in particular, Emperor Wu Ti of 141 B.C. single-mindedly pursued acquisition of the Parthian "blood sweating" horses, as the Akhal-Tekes were then known in the Chinese court. He was relentless. He sent an initial expedition including large amounts of gold to exchange for these horses. His offer was refused and the treasure was captured. Several years later, he sent another expedition this time of 60,000 soldiers, 30,000 horses and 10,000 cattle. He accomplished a coup and was presented with 10 "elite" horses and 3,000 average horses. Only 1,000 survived the return trip. It is believed that the "elite" horses were horses of Akhal-Teke type.

The reference to "blood sweating" horses has received some recent scientific study. Emperor Wu Ti believed the blood sweating horses to be touched with a divine grace and the blood sweating set them apart as a special breed touched by Heaven. They were worth it to him to expend an enormous fortune to obtain.

Horses of the region today also "sweat blood". It was thought for many years that this was due to their thin skin and when heavily exercised, that blood burst through their skins. It has been discovered however that the bleeding is due to a parasite that is picked up in drinking water. The rivers that are known to carry the parasite are the Gorgan and Fergana rivers. At a certain point in the lifecycle of the parasite, it breaks through the skin causing the bleeding. This bleeding is known to occur in other animals such as donkeys and cattle, but not people.

Outstanding Stamina and Endurance
One of the most outstanding exhibitions of equine endurance ever recorded occurred in 1935 with the Akhal-Teke horse. The Turkmene people took a group of Akhal-Teke stallions over 2,500 miles from the capital of Turkmenistan, Ashkabahad to Moscow in 1935 in 84 days. 225 miles of the journey crossed the KaraKum desert, which was covered in 3 days with almost no water available. Temperatures of the desert can reach 149° Fahrenheit during the heat of the day. They rode from 4:00 in the morning to 9:00 am, rested during the day, then rode again from 5pm to 10pm. They rode up to 75 km per day. This endurance ride was repeated in 1988. This extreme long distance trek served to put the world, (most importantly, Russian officials), on notice that the Akhal-Teke was a rare and valuable breed of horse worthy of preservation and devotion to keep pure. In addition, it was pointed out that the Akhal-Teke could provide refinement, stamina and athletic ability to crosses with other breeds of horses.

The Akhal-Teke Influence on Other Breeds
Horses of Turkmene type were known to Alexander the Great. A great many horses from the Turkmenistan region were taken or imported by both Alexander and his father into ancient Greece. Some even suppose that Bucephalus was actually of Turkmene breeding rather than Thessalonian, however this is disputed.

Draft Breeds
Taller and faster than other breeds of horses of this time, Akhal-Tekes were valued by the Romans to develop large and strong war horses from the small yet stocky European breeds. And of course, these Roman war horses are supposed to have become the progenitors of many today's heavy draft horse breeds. Enthusiasts of Akhal-Tekes refer to ancient historical texts in which within 200 years A.D., there is no mention of horses to be found as war booty of defeated Arab tribes. There is no mention of horses or horse traditions in Arabia by writers of the time who do however, write of horses of other contemporaneous peoples. At this time, Arab tribes principally relied upon camels for transportation and wealth, not horses.

The Arabian
Mohammad in 600 AD is generally credited with "starting" the Arabian purebred lines and his beliefs for the necessity of purity of the Arabian are mentioned in the Koran. Horses of Akhal-Teke type however pre-date Mohammad by many centuries. In fact, it is suggested that Akhal-Tekes played a role in developing the modern Arabian breed, particularly the Muniqui line of Arabians, known as the "racing type" of Arabian horse. Many people in fact assume that the finest Arabian horses were developed on the Saudi Arabian peninsula. This is not at all correct, and is substantiated by the Saudi's themselves. As Bonnie Hendricks reports in her book, "International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds", pp 40: "despite the legends, I was told, the Arab horse did not originate on the Arabian Peninsula, but with the "Arab" peoples of Iran (Persia), Iraq, Syria and Turkey – countries all referred to as "Arab" before Saudi Arabia existed as a country." These regions are all where the Akhal-Teke was well known for hundreds of years. Turkmene horses were used extensively in Russian tsar's stables from the 14th to the 17th centuries. They were found in the ancient city of Baghdad in the 8th to 10th centuries. It is a given that these elite horses contributed to local breeds of horses.

The Thoroughbred
In addition to development of large draft breeds, Arabians and others, Akhal-Tekes perhaps have their strongest link and more recent influence over the development of today's Thoroughbred. Everyone knows that the three foundation stallions of the modern Thoroughbred to be the Godolphin Arabian, the Byerly Turk and the Darley Arabian with the Darley Arabian's lineage the most prevalent in today's horses. These have always been simply called "Arabian" horses. Turkmene imports were included automatically by Europeans as "Arabian" horses, and many European breeders dealt directly with Arab people rather than Teke tribes. The Europeans of the 17th and 18th centuries frankly generally did not care to precisely identify the nationality of the people they dealt with or the precise breeding of the horses. They were simply interested in acquiring the fastest running horses with the most stamina that could be had, and those were said to be "Arabians". All horses of Oriental type were "Arabians" and they were purchased from "Arab" traders. So there while there was not a verbally defined distinction between Akhal-Tekes and Arabians at the time the English Thoroughbred was being developed, it is believed that the rather sloppy reference to "Arabians" actually includes Akhal-Teke horses. A comparison between the Arabian and the Thoroughbred, and the Akhal-Teke and the Thoroughbred reveals a closer morphological appearance between Akhal-Tekes and Thoroughbreds, rather than to Arabians. There were many "Turkish" horses imported to Europe around the time of the original development of the Thoroughbred breed. Through these factors along with the tradition of breeding Akhal-Tekes for speed as well as stamina, it is thought that the Godolphin Arab, (or Barb as he is sometimes known), the Darley Arabian and the Byerly Turk were actually Akhal-Tekes, or of at least Turkmene descent. The Darley Arabian's breeding is the best known of the three. He was from the Muniqui strain of Arabians which carries ancestors to Turkmene type horses.
TRAKEHNER BREED




Scythians


The Scythians expanded into the West in several major waves (see map 2). The first, which Gimbutas describes as "proto-Scythian," originated well east of the Urals. Known archaeologically as the Timber-Grave Culture, this wave began expanding westward as early as 1800 B.c.E. A second wave, this time of Scythian mounted nomads who buried their dead in timber-lined tumuli, swept across the more settled, agricultural communities of the north Pontic steppes and incorporated some of the indigenous cultivators, who became known as "Agricultural Scythians" (ca. 1100 B.C.E.).S Then, ca. 600-550 B.C.E., a third wave migrated westward out of southern Siberia. These latecomers, who eventually pushed west along the north coast of the Black Sea as far as Bulgaria and who invaded northeast Iran as well, bore several ethnic labels (see map 3). Among them were the Massagetae (southeast of the Aral Sea), the Saka (northeastern Iran, western Afghanistan), the Thyssagetae (the central Urals), and a people Herodotus calls the "Sauromatae," who seem to have been the immediate ancestors (or earliest known example) of the Sarmatians.

Although all of these subtribes seem to have shared a similar way of life, the westernmost group, which roamed the Pontic steppes in the fifth century B.C.E. (ca. 450 B.C.E.), provided most of our nonarchaeological information about Scythian culture. According to Herodotus there were three major social strata (or tribes): "Royal Scythians," pastoral nomads who formed the ruling elite; "Warrior Scythians," also nomads, who maintained and extended the power of the former group; and "Agricultural Scythians," most likely comprising conquered, "Scythianized," indigenous peoples.

The Scythian economy was a mixture of pastoralism and settled cultivation, although the former seems to have taken precedence, as it still does among the Kazakhs and other modern inhabitants of the eastern portion of this region. As among those Altaic peoples who came to the region in more recent "mes, the horse was the primary, or at least the most prestigious, animal herded. The Scythians were the first great cavalry nation. Unlike the ancient Celts, who still relied on horse-drawn chariots as late as the first century C.E., the Scythians were mounted warriors who fought with both lances and bows, as well as long, slashing swords. These steppe nomads also wore trousers, overlapping scale armor, and conical helmets.

A millennium and a half later this warfare pattern, which was also characteristic of the Sarmatians and the Alans, was to have a fundamental impact on medieval European society; as Nickel points out, it was the basis upon which the concept of chivalry developed.

Unlike the Romans and, for the most part, the Celts, Arthur's people, as they are depicted in the medieval chivalric romances, seem to have preferred to fight from horseback and to have relied primarily upon a long slashing sword rather than upon a heavy thrusting spear and a javelin (or pilum) characteristic of the foot-slogging legionnaires. This, together with their relatively heavy body armor, which consisted of overlapping scales attached to a leather tunic, tallies well with what evidence we have of Sarmatian military technology, such as the images on Trajan's Column (see plate I). Even the custom of designating warriors by means of an emblem, which eventually evolved into the medieval concept of the heraldic device, may have its roots in the Sarmatian and Alanic practice of identifying clans and other kinship units by means of tamgas ("sacred symbols") emblazoned on helmets, shields, and other pieces of equipment (see fig. 2), many examples of which have been found in south Russian sites associated with the cultures in question.

As with the Alans draft animals and carts also played an important part in the Scythian economy, and we have evidence that while on the move they lived in wagons: indeed Herodotus said that they had no other homes. These carts were covered by felt tents that functioned like the yurts still to be found among the steppe nomads of central Asia.

The role of women in Scythian society, and in Northeast Iranian society as a whole, also needs to be noted, as it not only differed markedly from that played by women in the Greco-Roman world but also has implications for the role of women in the Arthurian tradition. The Greek legends about the Amazons are almost certainly derived from their observations of this culture. Scythian wives were expected to fight alongside their husbands when the occasion demanded, and Herodotus went far as to assert that among their eastern cousins, the "Sauromatae,... [there is] a marriage law which forbids a girl to marry until she has killed an enemy in battle."

According to Herodotus the Scythian religion centered on seven divinities, chief among them a goddess called Tabiti, whom he glosses as "Hestia." Another was a war-god whom he refers to as the "Scythian Ares," who was symbolized by a sword thrust into a pile of wood. Yet another major divinity seems to have been called Don Bettyr, who most likely was associated with the Don River (known to the Greeks as the Tanais) and who presided over plant and animal fertility.

The way the Scythians conceived of their own origins also has important implications for our thesis. According to Herodotus the primeval being, whose name he transliterates as "Targitaos," had three sons. When three burning golden objects fell from the sky—a cup, a battle-ax, and a yoked plow—each son in turn attempted to gather them. Only the youngest, whom Herodotus calls "Kolaxais," was successful. From him were descended the "Royal Scythians" (the Paralatai), who had sovereignty over all. From the second son, "Lipoxai's," descended the "Warrior Scythians" (the Aukhatai), while from the eldest, "Arpoxai's," sprang the "Agricultural Scythians" (the Katiaroi and the Traspies). While there is still some argument as to whether these were separate tribes or social classes within a single tribe, one aspect of this myth is extremely important for our purposes: the emphasis placed on cups (see chaps. 8, 9, and 10).

Golden objects figure prominently in Scythian expressive culture, that is, graphic art, particularly in the so-called "animal style": highly realistic depictions of both wild and domestic animals on buckles, harnesses, brooches, and other objects (see plate 2). Often these pieces were made of the gold that is still to be found in the region, especially in the streams that issue from the northern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains.

Although the Scythians dominated the steppe region for several centuries, trading furs and gold for the manufactured products of the civilized world to the south and the west, by the beginning of the fourth century B.C.E. the western part of Scythia, or at least the territory controlled by the "Scythians proper", had been invaded by their eastern cousins, the Sarmatians.
 

 



 

Dracula 'Son of the Dragon'

DRACULA THE DRAGON

The name "Dracula" has links with the Romanian word "drac" (derived from "draco") which can mean both "dragon" and "devil." Vlad Tepes, Prince of Wallachia, was a figure in the Medieval era who has become connected with the Dracula legend. He impaled friend and foe alike.

The Dacian Draco was the standard of the ancient Dacian military. It consisted of a gaping bronze dragon or wolf head with a fabric body similar in shape to a short snake behind it. Wind flowed through the bronze dragon mouth and billowed out the cloth tail much like a modern wind-sock. It was put on a rod and if held in the air while galloping, it made a whistling sound, due to the air which entered the wolf's mouth. The draco was originally developed by the Sarmatians and Alans, cavalry peoples of the steppes. The earliest evidence of the Draco in Dacia was found on 4th century BC pottery discovered in the Prahova county of Romania. On Trajan's Column the Dacian soldiers are often represented carrying a Dacian Draco: there are no less than 20 representations of the Draco. The only copy left was found in Germany, which was probably a trophy won by the Roman troops from the wars with the Dacians. After the Dacian wars the draco was adopted by Roman cavalry.


The old Dacian Wolf-Dragon banner, having a wolf head ending through a dragon tail had two significations: it showed that the bearer is initiate into the wolves' brotherhood, therefore a brave warrior, and was meant to protect the bearer against the evil forces. The dragon motif was also common to the Bathory family from Transylvania, whose crest showed a dragon encircling a wolf teeth and biting its tail, this being a symbol of immortality.


The Order of the Dragon was a branch of the "wolfs' brotherhood" constituted by Slavic rulers and warlords and Sigismund of Luxemburg, the king of Hungary and emperor of the romano-germanic empire. All the members were sworn to uphold the Christian faith by fighting off the advancing Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
The famous Vlad "The Impaler" was born in the town of Sighisoara in the early fourteen hundreds. He was the second son of the Prince of Wallachia, Vlad "Dracul" (the Dragon) who was a member of The Order of the Dragon (a position from which he derived his surname). Vlad "Dracul" ruled between 1436 and 1446 AD, when warfare was almost continuous in Wallachia and the surrounding areas and the local nobles (boyars) were fighting for power. He wore the dragon medallion, showing a dragon swallowing its own tail, crucified on a double cross, which is the Slavic cross and prefigures the German swastika.  For the Slavs the swastika was a magic sign.

DRACULA THE DRAGON

The old Dacian Wolf-Dragon banner, having a wolf head ending through a dragon tail had two significations: it showed that the bearer is initiate into the wolves' brotherhood, therefore a brave warrior, and was meant to protect the bearer against the evil forces.
The dragon motif was also common to the Bathory family from Transylvania, whose crest showed a dragon encircling a wolf teeth and biting its tail, this being a symbol of immortality.
The Order of the Dragon was a branch of the "wolfs' brotherhood" constituted by Slavic rulers and warlords and Sigismund of Luxemburg, the king of Hungary and emperor of the romano-germanic empire. All the members were sworn to uphold the Christian faith by fighting off the advancing Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
The famous Vlad "The Impaler" was born in the town of Sighisoara in the early fourteen hundreds. He was the second son of the Prince of Wallachia, Vlad "Dracul" (the Dragon) who was a member of The Order of the Dragon (a position from which he derived his surname). Vlad "Dracul" ruled between 1436 and 1446 AD, when warfare was almost continuous in Wallachia and the surrounding areas and the local nobles (boyars) were fighting for power. He wore the dragon medallion, showing a dragon swallowing its own tail, crucified on a double cross, which is the Slavic cross. Vlad received the three cloaks of the order: green for the dragon's scales, red for the blood of martyrs, and black for the mystery of Christ's passion, all of which he wore proudly.
Two of Vlad "Dracul"'s sons, Vlad and his brother Radu, were kept as hostages in Galipoli where Sultan Mehmed II, conqueror of Constantinople, was trying to indoctrinate them into Islam, making allies of them. He hoped to use their claim to the Wallachian throne to his advantage. Radu converted quickly, and was released from prison. Vlad, however, was far more stubborn. It has been suggested that Vlad's sadistic tendencies started as a result of his imprisonment by the Sultan.
Vlad "Dracul" fought aside of Iancu of Hunedoara, but in 1445 AD he was forced to make peace with the Ottoman Empire, because many local nobles were aside the Turks, who were ready to invade the country. As result, Vlad "Dracul" and his oldest son Mihnea were killed by Dan, who was supported military by Iancu of Hunedoara (John Hunyadi or János Hunyadi), the Vlach Governor of Hungary, the same person who introduced him to Sigismund of Luxemburg, who accepted him into the Order of the Dragon. At the time of his death, his son Vlad was 17 years old and was still the Sultan's hostage.

After his father's death, Vlad was released and is believed that he made a pilgrimage to the Order of the Dragon chapel in the imperial fortress at Nuremberg, where he joined the twenty-three other members of the inner circle, pledging to protect Christendom from the forces of the Muslims.
On July 22, 1456, Iancu of Hunedoara attacked the Ottoman troops having the Belgrade under siege. He won a famous victory, which saved Hungary from Ottoman conquest for 70 years. A few days later Iancu of Hunedoara died of an epidemic that had broken out among the troops. Less than two weeks after his sudden death, Vlad seized the Wallachian throne.

Vlad ruled for six years, spreading the terror among his enemies and was called Vlad "The Impaler" or Dracula (the son of the Dragon). In April 1462 he won a famous victory against Mahomed II, who led "the mightiest army after the conquest of Constantinople", according to the chronicle of Laonic Chalcocondil.
 

Vlad received the three cloaks of the order. Two of Vlad "Dracul"'s sons, Vlad and his brother Radu, were kept as hostages in Galipoli where Sultan Mehmed II, conqueror of Constantinople, was trying to indoctrinate them into Islam, making allies of them. He hoped to use their claim to the Wallachian throne to his advantage. Radu converted quickly, and was released from prison. Vlad, however, was far more stubborn. It has been suggested that Vlad's sadistic tendencies started as a result of his imprisonment by the Sultan.

Vlad ruled for six years, spreading the terror among his enemies and was called Vlad "The Impaler" or Dracula (the son of the Dragon). In April 1462 he won a famous victory against Mahomed II, who led "the mightiest army after the conquest of Constantinople", according to the chronicle of Laonic Chalcocond

If the Order of the Dragon did not exist, with all its symbols and its being awarded to a Romanian Ruler, the name "Dracula" would not be famous today. In Transylvania, it appeared in the coats-of-arms of the families Bathory, Bocskay, Bethlen, Szathmary, Rakoczi and many others, even though the Order of the Dragon had lost its importance after the death of Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1437 and it practically disappeared. It occurred as a divine or imperial emblem in Babylon and Rome, and also for the early kings of England and Wales.

In the Romanian space to which Vlad Dracul and his son Vlad Tepes belonged, the dragon, named "balaur", a thraco_dacian word, or "zmeu", a slavonic word, had its roots in geto-dacian antiquity, whose military flag was representing a snake with the head of a wolf, included the large category of dragons used as flags, which one finds from the times of the Greeks and Romans until the fifteenth century. This divinity represented on the "geto-dacian" flag, became known in the time of the Roman ruling of Dacia as "draco" (in Romanian "drac" (meaning devil). Along with Christianity, it spread all throughout Europe, and came to symbolize Satan. However, we must also remember the fact that, despite the fact that it had been defeated by the Saints Michael and George and subdued, the snake-like dragon and the flying dragon still were evil and the symbols of Satan.

The well-known legend of St George and the Dragon has its counterpart in many ancient traditions: the conflict between Horus and Typhon, Bel and the Dragon, Marduk and Tiamat, Perseus and Medusa, Bellerophon and the Chimera, Apollo and the Python, Hercules and the Hydra, Thor and the Dragon; added to these there are endless 'local' slayers of dragons. Dragons represent the power of darkness in Summer-Semitic myth, they are the Adversary. In Babylonian lore Marduk, the Sun, slays Tiamat, the force of evil and chaos. The Egyptian dragon was an emblem of Soirees as God of the Dead, but it was also an imperial attribute. The dragon of darkness, Apophis, was overcome each morning by the Sun God, Ra. In Greek-Roman myth it was an attribute of Heracles/Hercules as a sliver of monsters. Ceres flew to heaven in a chariot drawn by two dragons and later lent it to Triptolem to distribute corn all over the world; Medusa fled Jason in a chariot drawn by winged dragons and Apollo may be taken as a dragon-slayer when he killed the Python, the dragon and serpent being largely interchangeable in mythology. In Semitic lore dragons were associated with death and destruction. The Hebrew symbolism of the malefic powers of darkness depicted by the dragon was carried over into Christianity when it was equated with 'that old serpent', the power of evil, symbolizing the Devil, the Tempter in conflict with God and the powers of righteousness.

 

In the Old Testament the 'place of dragons' was associated with the 'shadow of death' and the waters of the deep. In the Middle Ages the dragon was synonymous with sin, paganism and heresy, the Devil and all evil that is overcome by St Michael. In the Apocalypse the dragon is again the 'old serpent', the deceiver. St George is only one of the saints involved with dragons. SS Cado, Clement, Keyne, Margaret, Martha, Samson, Sylvester, Guthlac and the Apostle Philip were all associated with the dragon in one way or another. In the Bestiaries the dragon or Draco is 'the biggest of all serpents, in fact of all living things on earth'. It has a crest and its strength is in its tail. It symbolizes the Devil, who also has a crest, or crown, because he is the King of Pride. The Celtic and Teutonic dragon represents sovereignty, power or a chief, such as Pendragon, the Celtic word meaning .chief'. The Red Dragon of Cadwallader or Cadwaller is the emblem of Wales - 'upon a mount vert, a dragon passant, wings expanded and endorsed gules - the Red Dragon Dreadful'. The Tudor Red Dragon indicates Welsh origins, and a Welshman always holds the position of Rouge Dragon in the College of Heralds. Dragon-Tygre and Dragon-Wolf are composite creatures and support the arms the City of London. In early Britain it depicted supreme power.
 

More than anything else the historical Dracula is known for his inhuman cruelty. Impalement was Dracula's preferred method of torture and execution. Impalement was and is one of the most gruesome ways of dying imaginable. Dracula usually had a horse attached to each of the victim's legs and a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body. The end of the stake was usually oiled and care was taken that the stake not be too sharp; else the victim might die too rapidly from shock. Normally the stake was inserted into the body through the buttocks and was often forced through the body until it emerged from the mouth. However, there were many instances where victims were impaled through other bodily orifices or through the abdomen or chest. Infants were sometimes impaled on the stake forced through their mothers' chests. The records indicate that victims were sometimes impaled so that they hung upside down on the stake.

Thousands were often impaled at a single time. Ten thousand were impaled in the Transylvanian city of Sibiu (where Dracula had once lived) in 1460. In 1459, on St. Bartholomew's Day, Dracula had thirty thousand of the merchants and boyars of the Transylvanian city of Brasov impaled. One of the most famous woodcuts of the period shows Dracula feasting amongst a forest of stakes and their grisly burdens outside Brasov while a nearby executioner cuts apart other victims.

Impalement was Dracula's favorite but by no means his only method of torture. The list of tortures employed by this cruel prince reads like an inventory of hell's tools: nails in heads, cutting off of limbs, blinding, strangulation, burning, cutting off of noses and ears, mutilation of sexual organs (especially in the case of women), scalping, skinning, exposure to the elements or to wild animals and boiling alive.

No one was immune to Dracula's attentions. His victims included women and children, peasants and great lords, ambassadors from foreign powers and merchants. However, the vast majority of his victims came from the merchants and boyars of Transylvania and his own Wallachia.

 

 


Vampires were called strigoi, after the Roman word for screech owls.
Catholicism- During the reign of Pope Innocent III in 1215, the Roman Catholic Church formalized the dogma of transubstantiation - the belief that the body and blood of Christ were physicially present in the communion wafer and wine used in the celebration of mass. Thus, the essential act of vampirism - the literal drinking of human blood.

•Garlic- In vampire stories, garlic affords protection against the undead when worn wreathed around the neck, festooned on doors, or rubbed around windows and entrances. Garlic is, medically, known for its blood-purifying and immune-boosting properties.

•Werewolf- In European folklore, the images of vampire and werewolf often blur, but in the twentieth century they have evolved into discrete entities. The werewolf can be killed by silver bullets, and a vampire by stake. Werewolves have tended to attach themselves more to the Jekyll/Hyde formula than to vampire tradition.

Vlad's father was known as Dracul, the Dragon, the Devil. Vlad was the son of the dragon/devil. Dracula.

 

the royal Racoczi family line, into which line was born the mysterious Cmte. (Count) Saint Germain (coincidentally reputed to be both of great age [several hundred years] and a vampire, though considered by women -- including the infamous Mdme. de Pompadour -- as a superior lover to other men, much to the displeasure and envy of another contemporary, the Master Skirtchaser archetype himself, Giovanni Casanova).
 

 



The Slavic Vampire: the Only Actual Vampire Archetype

Despite the claims from most "vampirologists" and other vampire "experts" that vampiric beings existed in the folklore of almost all cultures, worldwide, the fact is that the "vampire" did not exist outside the Slavic countries:





"These writers, and others, established the notion that 'every culture has a form of vampire belief', that 'vampires' were a universal, even archetypal human superstition, and that they were found world- and history-wide, buried in every body of myth, hidden in every holy book, lurking behind every fairy-tale.

"And of course, they were quite wrong!!! The folklorists managed this feat by taking each separate element of the vampire metaphor and using it to qualify as a 'type of vampire' absolutely anything whatsoever that fitted even one aspect of the definition. Was it a supernatural being that drank blood? Then it's a 'type of vampire'! Was it something that came back from the grave? Then it's a 'type of vampire'! Was it an entity or revenant that was 'hungry' or that pestered the living for sex? Then it's a 'type of vampire'! Never mind that the individual cultures concerned had complex histories and belief systems to which these 'types of vampire' really belonged. They all got lumped together, and suddenly the word 'vampire' included at least half of the myths, legends, and folklore ever known on the planet. Child-killing demons, blood-drinking gods, hungry ancestor spirits, cannibalistic demons, fierce animal ghosts, night-hag entities, incubi/succubi, the restless dead, plague demons...these and many other very culture-specific beliefs, all with their own context and history, suddenly became part of the definition of 'vampire'." -


In 1487 CE, two Dominican monks, who had previously been fully endowed by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 with unlimited prosecutory powers against "witches," Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, penned the truly despicable and virulently misogynist Malleus Maleficarum (the "Witches' Hammer"). Doing to females what Goebbels' own propaganda had done to the Jews of the Holocaust, the Malleus Maleficarum was used as the handbook by all Church-sponsored and privately operating inqisitors and magistrates throughout Europe for centuries thereafter in the wholesale slaughter of women across the continent. While it has been amply stated following these horrific centuries of slaughter that women were targeted primarily for having been midwives, free-thinking women, healers, or otherwise generally undermining male authority, yet despite statements like these found in such commentaries as well as the pop-culture explanations of such movies as "The Da Vinci Code," the "Malleus" defines quite minutely what is and is not witchcraft and the reason for which women were specifically targeted for imprisonment, torture, and slaughter as witches:

"To conclude: All witchcraft comes from carnal lust,
which is in women insatiable."
- Malleus Maleficarum, Question VI; 1487 CE

And there it was, the same equivalent term of "insatiable" "carnal lust" repackaged and vilified once again as a capital crime. Only now, this term was made inextricably linked with and, in fact, the single defining characteristic of "witchcraft."


From these bloodlines has come the origin of the "divine right of kings", the belief that only certain bloodlines have the god-given right to rule. In truth this is not the "divine" or "God" at all. It is the right to rule from the reptilian "gods" by way of your hybrid genetics.

These bloodlines later became the royal and aristocratic families of Europe and, thanks to the "Great" British Empire and the other European empires, they were exported to the Americas, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and right across into the Far East, where they connected with other reptilian hybrid bloodlines, like those, most obviously, in China, where the symbolism of the dragon is the very basis of their culture.

These vampyr lines became the political and economic rulers of these lands occupied by the European empires and they continue to rule these countries to this day.



The United States of America has been home to hundreds of millions of people since 1776. What's more, these people came from an amazingly diverse genetic pool. And yet, wait for this, the 42 who have become Presidents of the United States are all related!!! Thirty-Three of them alone go back to Charlemagne, & Roman Catholic Empire.


Prince Charles .. His ancestors include Charlemagne and Count Dracula ..

 


He just happens to be a major figure in the story of these bloodlines and their expansion out of Britain, France, Germany, and elsewhere.

See Related Articles:

The Windsor-Bush Bloodline

Bush-Windsor-Piso Bloodline Chart

The Rothschilds, Rockefellers, the British royal family, and the ruling political and economic families of the US and the rest of the world come from these SAME bloodlines.



This is why the so called Eastern Establishment families of the United States interbreed with each other as obsessively as the European royal and "noble" families have always done. And similar families across the world. It is not because of snobbery, it is to hold as best they can a ruling class with more then half the worlds money
 


And the huge dragon was cast down and out -- that age-old serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, he who is the seducer (deceiver) of all humanity the world over; he was forced out and down to earth, and his angels were flung out with him." [Revelation 12:9]

Satan is a serpent! That is what this verse truly says. He is "that age-old serpent" whose name is "the Devil and Satan"! Thus, it was no surprise that Satan appeared in the form of a serpent in the Garden of Eden.
 

His current power, throne, and 'great authority' literally derive from the 'red dragon', i.e., Satan. [Chapter 8]

Recently, Prince Charles has been noted visiting a couple of very important occult sites.

NEWS BRIEF: "Prince Charles to see Dracula park as count's family seeks heir", May 3, 2002, Yahoo News.

" Britain's Prince Charles is to visit Transylvania on Friday, [May 3, 2002] two weeks after the last surviving descendant of Count Dracula advertised for a noble English heir to carry on the line made famous by his blood-sucking ancestor. The heir to the British throne is to tour the mediaeval town of Sighisoara, near to where the Romanian authorities are building a Dracula theme park, Mediafax news agency reported on Thursday ... The 60-hectare park is based on the fictional blood-sucking count created by Irish novelist Bram Stoker in his 1897 novel, Dracula, which was inspired by the Romanian 15th-century prince Vlad the Impaler."

"The self-proclaimed last surviving descendant of Count Dracula said last month he was seeking a blue-blooded English heir to carry on the family line. Ottomar Rodolphe Vlad Dracula Prince Ketzulesco ... was himself adopted in 1987 by Prince Ketzulesco, the last living member of Vlad the Impaler's family ... the 62-year-old said he would seek an English lord or lady "who might want to become part of the family and carry on the line". But not a commoner, he insisted. 'We would like to adopt -- but a real prince or princess. I cannot just take anyone from the street', he told Britain's Independent newspaper. 'They must be nobles and should be younger than me, obviously. It would be a great advantage if they could have children too'. Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, is 53 and has two sons by the late Princess Diana."
 

If you wish to control a mass population, you have to disconnect them from the true knowledge of who they are and their own infinite potential to manifest their own destiny and control their own lives. You have to persuade them that they are insignificant and powerless so they will live their lives in accordance with that.
THE ABUSE AND SATANIC RITUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN, AND HUMAN SACRIFICE CEREMONIES IN GENERAL
Staggering as it may seem, all of the above are massively widespread all over the world.
 

 The gold mines of Transylvania made him rich beyond the imagination. (Scythian Gold)
 

This bloodline also connects to Herod the Great, the "Herod" of the Jesus stories, and continues to the Roman Piso family

The same bloodline includes Constantine the Great, the Roman Emperor who, in 325AD, turned Christianity, based on his ancestors' stories, into the religion we know today

King Ferdinand of Spain and Queen Isabella of Castile, the sponsors of Christopher Columbus, who instigated the horrific Spanish Inquisition (1478-1834) in which people were tortured and burned at the stake for in any way questioning the basis of the religion their various ancestors had created

More than that, the most used version of the Bible was commissioned and sponsored by another strand in the same bloodline, King James 1st of England.
The bloodline moved into France and northern Europe through the Franks and Meroveus or Merovee, who gave his name to the Merovingian bloodline, and it continues with the rest of the Merovingian clan like Clovis and the Dagoberts who connect into the elite secret society, the Priory of Sion and the Rennes-le-Chateau "mystery" in Languedoc [Provence], Southern France. Many books have been written recently which claim that the Merovingians are the bloodline of "Jesus".

Some of these authors have just been mistaken, others have blatantly sought to confuse and mislead. The Merovingians are a key bloodline, yes, but it has nothing to do with Jesus, who was invented by an earlier family in the same line, the Pisos. Authors like Sir Laurence Gardner (Bloodline of the Holy Grail and a favorite of Nexus Magazine and its owner, Duncan Roads) MUST know this and yet they still connect the Merovingians to "Jesus". Why??

The Merovingians were Goddess Diana worshippers, as are so many in this line to the present day. They founded the city we call Paris and on one of their former sites of Diana ritual, Princess Diana was murdered in the Pont d'Alma tunnel (meaning "bridge or passage of the Moon Goddess") on August 31st, 1997. As The Biggest Secret points out, the Windsors, another Merovingian bloodline, were very much involved in this ritual murder.

From the Merovingians, this bloodline's connections to the present day include: Charlemagne (742-814), who ruled as Emperor of the West in the Holy Roman Empire; a stream of French kings, including Robert II, Philip Ist, II and III, and Louis Ist, II, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, XIII, IX, XV, and XVI.



The latter married Marie Antoinette of this same bloodline and both were executed in the French Revolution. But they produced the son who became Daniel Payseur, who, as The Biggest Secret explains, was taken to the United States where he became the secret force behind the Morgan and Carnegie empires and owned vast amounts of real estate, banking, and industrial holdings.

This bloodline also connects to the de Medici family which supported Christopher Columbus and produced Catherine de Medici, the Queen of France who died in 1589. Her doctor was Nostradamus: It includes Rene d'Anjou, Duke of Lorraine, and the House of Lorraine which employed Nostradamus and Christopher Columbus.



The bloodline relatives of the de Medicis and the House of Lorraine, Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Spain, were also sponsors of Columbus when he "discovered" the Americas.

This bloodline also includes:

the Habsburgs, the most powerful family in Europe under the Holy Roman Empire

Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Plantagenet royal dynasty in England

King John, who signed the Magna Carta

King Henry Ist, II, and III, who were extremely close to the Knights Templar, as was King John

Mary Stuart and the Stuart Dynasty, including King James Ist of England, sponsor of the King James version of the Bible

King George Ist, II, and III

Edward Ist, II, and III, Queen Victoria

Edward VII

George V and VI

Queen Elizabeth II

Prince Charles and Elizabeth's other offspring, Anne, Andrew and Edward

Princes William and Harry from Charles' "marriage" to Princess Diana

US Presidents, George Washington, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and George Bush are all named in the charts as strands of this bloodline

it was passed on to the year 2000 US presidential favorite, George W. Bush Jr., and his brother, Jeb Bush, the Governor of Florida

In fact if you go deeply enough into the genealogical research you will find that ALL the presidents are from this line.



Genealogical sources, like the New England Historical Genealogical Society and Burkes Peerage, have shown that 33 of the 42 presidents to Clinton are related to Charlemagne and 19 are related to England's Edward III, both of whom are of this bloodline.



A spokesman for Burkes Peerage, the bible of royal and aristocratic genealogy based in London, has said that every presidential election since and including George Washington in 1789 has been won by the candidate with the most royal genes. Now we can see how and why. United States presidents are not chosen by ballot, they are chosen by blood!

This same bloodline also includes:

key Scottish families like the Lords of Galloway and the Comyns

Marie-Louise of Austria, who married Napoleon Bonaparte

Kaiser Wilhelm II, the king of Germany at the time of the First World War

Maximilian, the Habsburg emperor of Mexico, who died in 1867

On and on it goes into country after country. This bloodline connects into every surviving royal family in Europe, including King Juan Carlos of Spain and the Dutch, Swedish, and Danish royal lines.

And this is just ONE of the reptilian bloodlines and just SOME of its offshoots.

There are others which connect with these names and span the same period and beyond to thousands of years BC. Detailed family trees of the above are available on:
 

 


The Red Dragon and Rome.


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See Empires Diagram

Rev 12:3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
Rev 12:4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

The above verses make clear, in even superficial reading, that the Great Red Dragon is Satan. But there is another relationship that is not as readily apparent. Verse 4 is referring to the birth of Jesus, and Satan's attempt to kill the infant Jesus. Satan however, did not attempt this act of murder on his own. He made his attempt through the power of one man on earth. This man is identified:

Mat 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.

Herod the Great, the King of Judea and Palestine was the agent Satan used in his attempt to kill the infant Jesus. It is significant to note that Herod received his office from the Roman Empire. In 37 B.C. Herod the Great conquered Jerusalem with the aid of Roman armies and made himself king.

Now notice again in Rev 12:3 that Satan is described as having seven heads, ten horns and seven crowns. This is important because it is a key to identify Satan and his agents elsewhere in Revelation:

Rev 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
Rev 13:2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

Here another agent of Satan can be found. Although nearly identical in description, it is not Satan, because verse 2 says this beast power gets his power from the dragon - a clear reference to Satan. As we observed in Matthew, Satan used the power of the ancient Roman Empire to attempt the murder of Jesus. The dragon and Rome worked with the same mind toward the same goal. So in Rev 13:2 we can possibly substitute Rome for the word Dragon. Lets explore a little farther.

Note the animals that are mentioned. This is a reference back to Daniel 7. John the Revelator was looking backwards in sequence at the previous empires, to give us a time hack if you will, to identify this Sea Beast in the stream of time. The Lion (Babylon) is referred to as the head of Gold in Dan 2, the Bear (Medo-Persia) which is also the chest of silver in Dan 2, and the Leopard (Greece) the thighs of brass in Dan 2. Now there is also a fourth beast in Dan 7, to match the legs of iron in Dan 2 -

Dan 7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had TEN HORNS.

This fourth diverse beast with ten horns correlates to ancient pagan Rome. Ancient pagan Rome, when it disintegrated, was followed by the divided kingdoms, which is to say a divided Europe (a condition that exists today), represented by the feet and TEN TOES of clay and iron in Dan 2.



The Winged Dragon and Rome

In 312 A.D. Emperor Constantine was about to enter into battle with his rival emperor Maxentius. Greatly outnumbered by his opponents army, Constantine on the day before the impending battle saw a vision in the sky of a cross with the words "In Hoc Signo Crucis Vinces" emblazoned about it, which means "In This Sign (the Cross) You Shall Conquer". Constantine immediately adopted the cross as his emblem and had it put on troops and banners. The following day Constantine defeated Maxentius in the battle of Milvian Bridge. Constantine went on to declare Christianity the state religion of Rome and was himself later baptized a Christian.

A fresco in the Vatican, (The Sala di Constantino, Palazzi Vaticani, Rome) painted by RAFFAELLO (1509-10 A.D.) depicts Emperor Constantine's Vision of the Cross.



In the fresco, note what is in the upper right-hand corner (and shown above). There you will see a winged serpent, or dragon. Raffaello was depicting a pivotal moment in the conversion of Pagan Rome to Christianity, the dragon he painted being symbolic of ancient Pagan Rome.


Curiously, one of the Popes adopted the winged serpent or dragon as his symbol on his heraldic shield. Here is the heraldic coat of arms of Pope Gregory XIII, 1572-1585 A.D., who is most known for initiating the calendar reform in use today, the Gregorian calendar. This is something you can confirm in the book The Pope Encyclopedia by Matthew Bunsen, published by Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1995, ISBN 0-517-88256-6, page 163.

The coat of arms of Gregory XIII shown here is one of two that can be found above the doors in the Gallery of Maps in the Vatican. Revelation 12 clearly tells us that the dragon is symbolic of Satan, so why did a pope use it as his symbol?

In 1582, by decree of Gregory XIII (Inter Gravissimas), 10 days were dropped from the calendar, and a new system of leap years was inaugurated.

The Red Dragon and Rome.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

See Empires Diagram

Rev 12:3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
Rev 12:4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

The above verses make clear, in even superficial reading, that the Great Red Dragon is Satan. But there is another relationship that is not as readily apparent. Verse 4 is referring to the birth of Jesus, and Satan's attempt to kill the infant Jesus. Satan however, did not attempt this act of murder on his own. He made his attempt through the power of one man on earth. This man is identified:

Mat 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.

Herod the Great, the King of Judea and Palestine was the agent Satan used in his attempt to kill the infant Jesus. It is significant to note that Herod received his office from the Roman Empire. In 37 B.C. Herod the Great conquered Jerusalem with the aid of Roman armies and made himself king.

Now notice again in Rev 12:3 that Satan is described as having seven heads, ten horns and seven crowns. This is important because it is a key to identify Satan and his agents elsewhere in Revelation:

Rev 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
Rev 13:2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

Here another agent of Satan can be found. Although nearly identical in description, it is not Satan, because verse 2 says this beast power gets his power from the dragon - a clear reference to Satan. As we observed in Matthew, Satan used the power of the ancient Roman Empire to attempt the murder of Jesus. The dragon and Rome worked with the same mind toward the same goal. So in Rev 13:2 we can possibly substitute Rome for the word Dragon. Lets explore a little farther.

Note the animals that are mentioned. This is a reference back to Daniel 7. John the Revelator was looking backwards in sequence at the previous empires, to give us a time hack if you will, to identify this Sea Beast in the stream of time. The Lion (Babylon) is referred to as the head of Gold in Dan 2, the Bear (Medo-Persia) which is also the chest of silver in Dan 2, and the Leopard (Greece) the thighs of brass in Dan 2. Now there is also a fourth beast in Dan 7, to match the legs of iron in Dan 2 -

Dan 7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had TEN HORNS.

This fourth diverse beast with ten horns correlates to ancient pagan Rome. Ancient pagan Rome, when it disintegrated, was followed by the divided kingdoms, which is to say a divided Europe (a condition that exists today), represented by the feet and TEN TOES of clay and iron in Dan 2.



The Winged Dragon and Rome

In 312 A.D. Emperor Constantine was about to enter into battle with his rival emperor Maxentius. Greatly outnumbered by his opponents army, Constantine on the day before the impending battle saw a vision in the sky of a cross with the words "In Hoc Signo Crucis Vinces" emblazoned about it, which means "In This Sign (the Cross) You Shall Conquer". Constantine immediately adopted the cross as his emblem and had it put on troops and banners. The following day Constantine defeated Maxentius in the battle of Milvian Bridge. Constantine went on to declare Christianity the state religion of Rome and was himself later baptized a Christian.

A fresco in the Vatican, (The Sala di Constantino, Palazzi Vaticani, Rome) painted by RAFFAELLO (1509-10 A.D.) depicts Emperor Constantine's Vision of the Cross.



In the fresco, note what is in the upper right-hand corner (and shown above). There you will see a winged serpent, or dragon. Raffaello was depicting a pivotal moment in the conversion of Pagan Rome to Christianity, the dragon he painted being symbolic of ancient Pagan Rome.


Curiously, one of the Popes adopted the winged serpent or dragon as his symbol on his heraldic shield. Here is the heraldic coat of arms of Pope Gregory XIII, 1572-1585 A.D., who is most known for initiating the calendar reform in use today, the Gregorian calendar. This is something you can confirm in the book The Pope Encyclopedia by Matthew Bunsen, published by Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1995, ISBN 0-517-88256-6, page 163.

The coat of arms of Gregory XIII shown here is one of two that can be found above the doors in the Gallery of Maps in the Vatican. Revelation 12 clearly tells us that the dragon is symbolic of Satan, so why did a pope use it as his symbol?

In 1582, by decree of Gregory XIII (Inter Gravissimas), 10 days were dropped from the calendar, and a new system of leap years was inaugurated.
 

A second pope, Paolo V (1605-1621) also used a winged dragon on his heraldic shield along with an eagle. In the Vatican Gardens there is a fountain called the Fountain of Towers, bearing the inscription and papal shield of Paolo V, in which the central figure of the fountain is a winged dragon centered in water spouts. Flanking either side of the fountain are fortress like towers topped by sculptures of winged dragons.
Photo by Mario Carrieri


Because it somewhat resembles an altar, this fountain has also been called the Fountain of the Sacrament, or in Italian, Fontana del Santissimo Sacramento. The spray of water from the dragon's mouth is said to imitate the rays of a sunburst monstrance.
Fountain of Towers, Vatican Gardens



As we established with Rev 12:4, the dragon's agent in trying to kill Christ was ancient Rome (through Herod). With this relationship of Dragon = Rome we can see that the beast from the sea of Revelation 13 should get his power and seat and great authority from the Ancient Roman Empire, through Satan, just like Herod did. This prompts the question, did ancient Rome formally bestow its power and authority on any existing power?

A check of history will reveal the successor to the Roman emperors. With the move of the Roman capitol to Constantinople, there was a political power vacuum that was quickly and willingly filled by the Bishop of Rome-

Whatever Roman elements the barbarians and Arians left … [came] under the protection of the Bishop of Rome, who was the chief person there after the Emperor’s disappearance… [p. 270] The Roman Church in this way privily pushed itself into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation; the empire has not perished, but has only undergone a transformation … That is no mere “clever remark,” but the recognition of the true state of the matter historically, and the most appropriate and fruitful way of describing the character of this Church. It still governs the nations … It is a political creation, and as imposing as a World-Empire, because the continuation of the Roman Empire. The Pope, who calls himself “King” and “Pontifex Maximus,” is Caesar’s successor.

 

One of the most famous forged documents ever was the Donation of Constantine, which it was claimed, proved that Emperor Constantine had given authority and property to the Pontiff of Rome. For many centuries the Donation of Constantine was used by the Catholic church to validate it's claim to authority. OK, you say, but that was a forgery - it was not an authentic transfer of power to the Papacy. True. There was such a document however, the authenticity of which is not challenged even to this day. In 533 A.D. Roman Emperor Justinian declared in a letter to the Archbishop of Rome "We have exerted Ourselves to unite all the priests of the East and subject them to the See of Your Holiness", and that "because you are the head of all the Holy Churches, for We shall exert Ourselves in every way (as has already been stated), to increase the honor and authority of your See." (See Justinian Code.) This was the formal transfer of power from the Emperor of Pagan Rome to the Papacy. It should be noted however, the implementation of this decree did not actually occur until 538 A.D. when a siege of Rome by the Ostrogoths was broken.

Dan 7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.

Rome is described in Dan 7:7 as diverse, or different from previous powers. This is because, as we have seen, the ancient Pagan Roman empire GAVE political power and religious authority to it's successor, the Roman Catholic Church.

Note that each of the beasts in Daniel can be described as UNIVERSAL powers that dominated the world at the time. Ancient Rome also was a universal power, yet in time, the Roman empire faded. It's clear successor is the UNIVERSAL (Catholic) CHURCH - again another universal power. Rome was the diverse fourth power because it evolved from a Pagan Political power, into a Christian religious AND political power, though still dominated by Pagan beliefs.
 

Pope Pius IX gave this remarkable testimony:

"It is, therefore, by a particular decree of Divine Providence that, at the fall of the Roman Empire and its partition into separate kingdoms, the Roman Pontiff, whom Christ made the head and center of his entire Church, acquired civil power." - Pius IX, Apostolic Letter Cum Catholica Ecclesia, March 26, 1860.
 

Rev 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which [1] keep the commandments of God, and [2] have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
 

Pope Gregory XIII, with the dragon of Satan as his heraldic symbol, was also the pope who upon hearing of the wholesale slaughter of Protestant French Huguenots, known as St. Bartholomew's massacre, had a medal struck to celebrate the bloody event. The reverse side of the medal, shown above, depicts an angel with a cross and sword murdering the Huguenot heretics.
 


 

Continuing to follow the trail of seven heads and ten horns in the Bible leads us also to a beast in Rev 17, the same beast destroyed in Rev 19:20 as we have just seen.

Rev 17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
Rev 17:5 And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.

Note the contrast of this woman with the woman found in Rev 12. In scripture a woman commonly represents a church (Jer 6:2, Isa 54:5-6, Hos 2:19-20, John 3:29, 2 Cor 11:2, Rev 19:7-8). The symbolic woman of Rev 12 represents the righteous church of believers that brought forth Jesus and is described in admirable terms. Compare that with the symbolic woman described here in Rev 17, the apostate church. Note that this church is described as the Mother of Harlots. There is only ONE Christian church that is self-described as the Mother church - the Roman Catholic Church - and her Protestant daughters are called harlots.
 

Above are three 100 Lire coins minted by Vatican City, or the "City of Prophecy". (Click on a coin for a closer look.) Vatican City is unwittingly declaring itself to be that woman of Revelation 17, the church that claims to rule over the kings of the earth, because the Catholic Church is portrayed on the coins as a woman (FIDES = FAITH) with a cup in her hand (a golden cup of the Mass with sunburst Eucharist host) as described in Rev 17:4:

Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
Rev 17:5 And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
 

The woman of Rev 17, holding a golden cup, is described in verse 6 as being drunk with the blood of martyrs of Jesus. There is only one Christian church responsible for the death of thousands and thousands of fellow Christians during prolonged periods of persecution - the Roman Catholic Church. This happened in what is called the Dark Ages of European history. Christians were burned at the stake for possessing a Bible, speaking verses in the common tongue rather than Latin, or contradicting the policies of the Papacy. Uncounted thousands were slaughtered during this persecution. Note the following:

(Rev 13:15) ... And cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be put to death.

Christ does not do so, neither his Prophets or Apostles teach so, neither have the kings that are Christians received any such instructions to kill men, or to make them think that the worship of Christ is to be stained with blood; for the true God doth not desire any forced, but voluntary service. Wherefore by his mark especially will he make it evident to all that have any understanding, that indeed he is the Antichrist; that indeed he is not Christ, but, according to his name, opposite and contrary to Christ. He is Christ that sheds his own blood, he is Antichrist that sheds the blood of others. -- Rupertus, Abbot of Tuits, in his12th century commentary on Revelation, Apoc. lib. 3. cap. 13.
 

She also bears the name of Mystery. Mystery is the term used by the Roman Catholic Church to refer to the Mass, specifically the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. It is a key part of Catholic dogma. These are the words of the priest in Latin or English (emphasis is mine):

HIC EST ENIM CALIX SANGUINIS MEI, NOVI ET AETERNI TESTAMENTI: MYSTERIUM FIDEI, QUI PRO VOBIS ET PRO MULTIS EFFUNDETUR IN REMISSIONEM PECCATORUM.

FOR THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD, OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL TESTAMENT, THE MYSTERY OF FAITH, WHICH FOR YOU AND FOR MANY SHALL BE SHED UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS.

Conspiracy of Silence is far from an exaggeration when it comes to the horror stories lived by thousands of orphans in Quebec who suffered torture, abuse and even assassinations at the hands of priests and nuns in Catholic institutions.


The book, "Collusion: The Dark History of the Duplessis Orphans" by Rod Vienneau invites you to see the evidence of this organized crime between church and state in Canada, now referred to as the "Duplessis Orphans". Here you will find proof of the falsification of records, illegal internments, sexual abuse, arbitrary lobotomies, repeated electro shocks, making lab rats out of normal children, selling infants, murder and the secretive disposing of bodies...

This is not only a human tragedy on a grand scale in which, at the highest levels, members of governments, the catholic Church and the psychiatric establishment betrayed an intertwined agenda – it also reflects an ongoing collusion at the heart of society which still refuses to
acknowledge its former grave errors.

The world is awakening to the fact that the Vatican, better known as the Catholic Church, is the worst criminal organization in existence whose end is near.
In fact, this corrupt organization known as the Catholic Church has proven to be the cause of all world poverty, famine, crimes and slavery and evidence of this is surfacing worldwide. Aside from taking down www.vatican.va, the hacking group also claimed responsibility for attacking several Vatican-related sites including that of its newspaper.
 

Killings for Christianity
The Church started killing unbelievers as early as the 4th century. The killing (often with torture) of heretics, church splinter groups, dissenters, atheists, agnostics, deists, pagans, infidels and unbelievers was supported by almost all mainstream Christian theology for over a thousand years, starting with the intolerant St. Augustine (died 430 AD).


The martyrdom of Christians at the hands of the Romans
Persecution of Pagans by the Christian Roman Empire

Christian thinkers such as St. Thomas Aquinas continued to justify the killing of heretics and unbelievers throughout the medieval period.
St. Thomas Aquinas justifies killing people who are not convinced by his arguments.
 

The First Crusade
In 1095, Pope Urban II made this speech to launch the blood-letting of The Crusades.
The capture of Jerusalem, 1099. When they took Jerusalem, the Christian army butchered almost every man, woman and little child in the city. and ate them

The Second Crusade
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (see search) said when launching the Second Crusade: "The Christian glories in the death of a pagan, because thereby Christ himself is glorified."

The genocide of the Cathars (1209–1229)
In 1209, Pope Innocent III (also here) called for a crusade to exterminate the Cathar people of France (the Albigensians), simply because they had different superstitious beliefs to his own stupid beliefs. Men, women and children were butchered by the Pope's forces.
Rudolph J. Rummel estimates they butchered 200,000 innocent men, women and children.
The Church's War on the Cathars

In 1233, Pope Gregory IX encouraged the extermination of the Stedinger people of Friesland, on the imaginary grounds that they were in league with the (equally-imaginary) Devil. "The devil appears to them in different shapes", said his holiness, "sometimes as a goose or a duck". The entire people were exterminated.
 

he Inquisition
The Inquisition
The Inquisition and Slavery
Rudolph J. Rummel estimates that the Inquisition butchered 350,000 innocent men, women and children.

The Spanish Inquisition
The Spanish Inquisition under Ferdinand and Isabella was approved by Pope Sixtus IV in 1484.
The butcher Torquemada
Expulsion of the Muslims and Jews from Spain, 1492.

The Jewish Virtual Library
The Inquisition
The Spanish Expulsion of the Jews, 1492

The pioneer atheist and scientific thinker Giulio Cesare Vanini was burnt by the Inquisition of Rome in 1619.
 

The Witch-hunting
Witch-hunting - perhaps Christianity's worst crime. Think how many poor innocents have been killed for God; how few have ever been killed for Satan.
Many people think 1 million innocents were killed by the witch-hunters, though Rudolph J. Rummel thinks 100,000.

Extraordinary Popular Delusions And The Madness Of Crowds
The Witch-hunting (and here)

Timeline of Witch-hunting (and detailed). Reading this should make you angry.
The Burning Times: The Christian extermination of Witches and other heretics

The Papacy's crimes of witch burning were based on the grossest superstitions - for example, the weather cannot have natural causes but must be caused by witches. This would be comical provided we do not think about what happened to the utterly innocent victims of these delusions - men, women and little children picked from the populace at random and tortured and put to death. The Papacy should hang its head for ten thousand years in shame for what it did.

Pope Innocent VIII - probably the most evil of all the Popes, in the number of innocent men, women and children killed because of his words. Read his moronic declaration against witches in 1484. Essentially, because the causes of disease, bad weather, and other problems were not known in those dark times, their causes were attributed to imaginary witches who must be hidden in the populace.
This was followed by The Witch Hammer (1486).

Protestantism had no problem with the witch-burning, and continued the butchery of innocents long after the Reformation. For example, the "King James Bible" comes from one of these murderers. Luther, Calvin and Wesley supported the killing, just as they opposed science.
The Salem witch hunt, 1692.


A blood ritual is any ritual that involves the intentional release of blood.

A common blood ritual is the blood brother ritual, which started in ancient Europe and Asia. Two or more people, typically male, intermingle their blood in some way[citation needed]. This symbolically brings the participants together into one family. This can be an unsafe practice where blood-borne pathogens are concerned; the use of safe, sterilized equipment such as a lancet can mitigate this problem.

Body piercing can also be part of a blood ritual. Though piercing does not always cause bleeding, it certainly can. Piercing has been practiced in a number of indigenous cultures throughout the world, usually as a symbolic rite of passage, a symbolic death and rebirth, an initiation, or for reasons of magical protection[citation needed].

Blood rituals often involve a symbolic death and rebirth, as literal bodily birth involves bleeding. Blood is typically seen as very powerful, and sometimes as unclean. Blood sacrifice is sometimes considered by the practitioners of prayer, ritual magic, and spell casting to intensify the power of such activities. The Native American Sun Dance is usually accompanied by blood sacrifice[citation needed].

Some blood rituals involve two or more parties cutting themselves or each other followed by consumption of blood. The participants may regard the release or consumption of blood as producing energy useful as a sexual, healing, or mental stimulus[citation needed]. In other cases, blood is a primary component as the sacrifice, or material component for a spell. Blood rituals are practiced by various groups of people, including those with religious or political affiliations. Some of the rituals involving blood have been practiced for many centuries, and are still being practiced in the 21st century (Baker 1, Copeman 2, Malik 2). The Shi’ite Muslims practiced a ritual called Matam in 2002 in Britain (Malik 2). However, the Aztecs participated in blood rituals around 500 years ago (Pendragon 1). The blood in the rituals has a symbolic meaning, depending on the group and ritual being performed.
 

Participants in blood sacrifice rituals experience a sense of awe, danger, or exaltation because they are daring to approach the gods who create, sustain, and destroy life. The buildup of tension prior to the blood sacrifice gives way to a festive sense of triumph and relief. Morale is strengthened by the ritual killing because the group has itself performed the godlike act of destruction and is now capable of renewing its own existence. The underlying philosophical assumption is that life must pass through death.

According to ancient rites of sacrifice, the sacrificial animal or human should be of high value. The gods would be offended by a sickly or inferior offering. In Old Testament tradition, Abel was obeying what was already an ancient tradition when he sacrificed the firstborn of his herds to God. Bulls were sacred to Egyptians more than 5,000 years ago, being associated with Taurus, a god with both animal and human features. For the Egyptians, then, the sacrifice of a bull was the gift of a demigod to the gods. In the years immediately preceding the emergence of Christianity some mystery cults switched from bull to human sacrifices, using the same ceremonies in which the victim was first honored as a god, then put to bloody death. Osiris, the legendary Egyptian ruler who, murdered, became the god of fertility, cast a long shadow over these proceedings. Biblical scholars have often commented that the death of Jesus had been prefigured by other events in which a person was raised to the status of a god and then sacrificed for the good of the people. The significance of blood as a link between Jesus and his followers is consistent with that tradition.


Sacrifice and Society

Human sacrifice is sometimes regarded as a bizarre practice carried out by a few scattered societies who either were uncivilized or exceptionally cruel and violent. However, there is persuasive evidence that the sacrificial impulse has been common throughout history and has played an important role in society.

The origins of blood sacrifice are lost in the mist of prehistory. Nevertheless, inferences can be drawn from archaeological research and from the practices and beliefs of people whose rituals continued into the historical period. The same societies usually performed other types of sacrifices as well, but these examples demonstrate the widespread use of ritual murder as an approved component of social policy.

Foundation and passage sacrifices. There is abundant archaeological evidence that many societies practiced both animal and human sacrifice to persuade the gods to protect their buildings and ensure safe passage through dangerous areas where their own gods might lack jurisdiction. Burials suggestive of sacrifice have been found in the sites of ancient bridges and buildings throughout Asia, Europe, and North Africa. It was widely believed that territories were under the control of local gods who might be angered by intrusions. Blood sacrifice at border crossings (often marked by rivers) and within buildings were thought to be prudent offerings. Sacrificial victims were also interred beneath city gates.

Children were often selected as the sacrificial offerings. Excavation of the Bridge Gate in Bremen, Germany, and several ancient fortresses in Wales are among the many examples of this practice. According to the Book of Kings, when Joshua destroyed Jericho he prophesized that the man who rebuilds Jericho "shall lay the foundation stones thereof upon the body of his first born and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates thereof." In rebuilding the city, Hiel later sacrificed his oldest and youngest sons in precisely this manner. The historian Nigel Davies observes that biblical accounts of foundation sacrifices have been supported by archaeological investigations:


In the sanctuary in Gezer were found two burnt skeletons of six-year-old children and the skulls of two adolescents that had been sawn in two. At Meggido a girl of fifteen had been killed and buried in the foundations of a large structure. Excavations show that the practice of interring children under new buildings was widespread and some were evidently buried alive. (Davies 1981, p. 61)

Foundation sacrifices dedicated to fertility (as, for example, in storage buildings) often involved infant and child victims. Captives, slaves, and criminals have also been selected as sacrificial victims on many occasions. That foundation sacrifices belong only to the remote past could be an erroneous assumption. In early twentieth-century Borneo an eyewitness testified that a criminal was buried alive in every posthole for a new building so that he might become a guardian spirit.


Attempts to Explain Blood Sacrifice

No one attempt to explain blood sacrifice seems adequate for the variety of forms and purposes associated with this practice in many societies over many years. Nevertheless, it is useful to consider the following accounts as informed attempts to explain the relationship between blood sacrifice and society.

Male bonding and collective killing. Hunters learned to cooperate with each other to improve their chances of success. This common purpose led to a sense of brotherhood, what is often called "male bonding" in the twenty-first century. Their mutual allegiances and rituals set them apart from others as they swore their oaths on blood and became the specialists in killing. Some theorists suggest that the basic forms of society were derived from the distribution of roles within the hunting group and their codes of loyalty. The structure of society in general has been modeled on male-bonded groups who relied on blood sacrifices to achieve their own survival and success—or so upholds this theory that seems to seriously underestimate the contribution of women to the shaping of society.

Sacrifice reduces violence. It may seem peculiar to suggest that sacrifice reduces violence, but some anthropologists and historians have drawn this inference. Aggressive tensions within a society can lead toward violence against fellow members. Ritual sacrifices provide a relatively safe framework to keep violence within bounds while at the same time offering emotional release through killing substitute victims. This theory suggests that, at least in some circumstances, ritual killing of a designated victim can restrain the larger group from tearing itself apart.

Sacrificial companions to the next life. Many societies have considered their leaders as representative of their people both in this life and the next. It was important, then, to make sure that the ruler of the land (be it a king or otherwise) was accompanied to the afterlife with a retinue of loyal attendants. Rulers often had their concubines and servants (as well as household animals) entombed with them. Even distinguished ministers might be among the companions who were either entombed or immolated in order to serve their ruler after death. Examples include major archaeological finds in Egypt and China where the bodies of numerous attendants were discovered in chambers adjoining the royal coffin. There is evidence that elaborate ceremonies were conducted to honor the chosen companions prior to their deaths. It appears that the sacrificial victims often were given libations that provided a drug-induced insensitivity prior to their deaths.

The practice of burying the living with the dead encountered increasing criticism through the centuries. Eventually many societies shifted to symbolic sacrifices; for example, the later Egyptian practice of placing figurines ( Shabti ) in the royal tombs. China, Japan, the Greek states, and other ancient civilizations also moved toward symbolic rather than actual sacrifice of companions upon the death of their rulers. Furthermore, with the development of Christianity and Islam, a life after death appeared more likely to be within reach of individuals other than royalty, therefore making voluntary sacrifice a less attractive proposition.

Sacrifice keeps the world going. The most sweeping theory is based on an interpretation of history that pictures the human condition as fearful and perilous, beset with threats to survival from starvation, attack, and events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods that were taken to be the work of angry gods. Possessing limited knowledge and technology, societies tried to find a way of negotiating with rival, demanding, and frequently unpredictable gods if the world and their own lives were to continue. Sacrifice soon became a significant form of exchange with the gods, a sort of currency in an age before the establishment of a monetary system. In modern parlance, sacrifice was a way of doing business.

Human sacrifice was considered so crucial a measure that it persisted for some time even in societies that had become more complex and sophisticated. For example, the practice of sacrificing the eldest son was a salient feature of Mediterranean cults 5,000 years ago and still a powerful theme in Judaism and early Christianity. Sacrifice would be tamed slowly as societies developed more effective ways to manage their needs and cope with their environments. The gradual and still


Among the ruins of Montsegur in southern France, a memorial stands in the Field of the Burned to commomorate the sacrifice of over 200 Cathar heretics in 1244.
FORTEAN PICTURE LIBRARY
incomplete abolition of slavery throughout the world also reduced the supply of potential victims. And, again, the slow and still incomplete movement toward according full human rights to females eventually spared many the death of a sacrificial victim.


Controversies and Unsettled Questions

Many questions and differences of opinion continue to exist around the issue of human sacrifice. This situation is not surprising, considering the limits and ambiguity of some of the evidence and the strong emotions aroused by the subject.

Death does not always signify sacrifice. Bodies dating from the first and second centuries B.C.E. have been recovered from bogs in England, Denmark, Wales, and other Northern European sites. These have often been considered sacrificial victims because the bodies showed many signs of having been subjected to ritualistic treatment. More sophisticated examination of the remains, however, indicates that at least some of the bodies had been accorded high honors, not put to death by sacrifice or punishment. It is probable that other errors have been made in identifying sacrifice victims, although enough clear and substantial data are available to demonstrate that sacrifice has been a common practice throughout much of the world.

Why child sacrifice? One of the most dramatic episodes in Judeo-Christian Scripture begins with God's command that Abraham sacrifice Isaac, his son. Abraham sorrowfully prepares to obey, but God intervenes and provides a ram as a sacrificial substitute. The meaning of this episode has been the subject of intense discussion through the centuries, although it is most often interpreted as a celebration of faith on Abraham's part and mercy on the part of God. Another human sacrifice reported in the Bible has remained more difficult to interpret in a favorable light and, therefore, has received less attention. Jepthah pledged he would sacrifice the first living creature that he saw when returning home if God would grant him victory in an upcoming battle. The victorious Jepthah was greeted by his daughter upon returning home. True to his pledge, Jepthah made a burnt offering of his daughter (who is not given a name in the biblical account). Why would God intervene for Isaac but not for Jepthah's daughter? Was Jepthah pious or callous in carrying through with the execution? These questions continue to haunt scholars and ethicists.


Le Cercle is clearly managed by people representing the British Throne and some powerful interests in the City of London.



Queen Elizabeth II is head of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, an order descended from the Knights Hospitaller (which absorbed the possessions of the Knights Templar in the early 14th century). Another great influence on Le Cercle has been (and possibly still is) the Vatican's Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), also descended from the Knights Hospitaller.



SMOM is headed by Andrew Bertie, descendent of Mary Stuart and a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. One of the founders of Le Cercle was Otto von Habsburg (once heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) who was the longtime president of the European Council of Princes.



This Council of Princes is now being headed by HRH Prince Michael Stewart. In the past, the Council has been funded by the CIA (because of its anti-communist sympathies), an intelligence agency set up and headed by members of the Knights of Malta.



On the Stewart's/European Council of Princes' website you can see how,

the European Council of Princes

The Order of St. John of Jerusalem

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta

the Ordo Draconis

 

I wondered if he carried the same ideas as the Stewarts or the other royal and noble families of Europe. De Vere claims in a lot of detail that an ancient (non-extraterrestrial) Dragon race once interbred with humanity.

It also gives them special powers (to communicate with god-knows-what) through the practice of royal witchcraft. In short, they're destined to rule, because common ordinary peasants don't have the ability to develop any of these special powers. But as usual there's a lot of infighting about who's got the most pure genes.
 


After reading de Vere used to be head of the British Dragon Court, I wanted to know if this was the same Dragon Court you can find on the website of the Stewarts. I certainly don't believe de Vere, or any other royal for that matter, is more divine than the common man in the street, but I find it very interesting that the nobles of the United Kingdom and the royal families of Europe might actually be interested in Dragon genes and the 'divine right to rule' concept.



Can't remember I heard anything about this in my biology classes. From the website of the Ordo Draconis (Sarkany Rend), where Prince Michael Stewart is Grand Master of, we can read something that is very similar to what de Vere is claiming:



Dragon Court officers in New York city

"...Shortly after this foundation, Szigmond was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1411 and, although the Court's ancient origins were steeped in pre-Christian lore, Pope Gregory XII was obliged to approve his Emperor's establishment, for the nature of the Dragon is such that its princely tradition surmounts the mundane constraints of denominational dispute.
 

Gardner has been the Presidential Attache of the European Council of Princes. This is the same Council Le Cercle founder Otto von Habsburg has been the long time president of and which today is headed by Prince Michael Stewart.

An interest in bloodlines, without the Dragon theme, is quite common in these aristocratic circles. As has been shown earlier on this site, the leaders of several genealogical organizations have been recruited in the Pilgrims of the United States.



Among them are the Order of the Crown of Charlemagne and the Order of the Merovingian Dynasty.

the Imperial and Royal Dragon Court represented herein, legitimately recognized as the Sovereign Court of The Sovereign Dragon Nation by the relevant and appropriate Government of a European Member State, is a closed fraternity of individuals, representing those who trace their ancestry and affiliations back to the ancient Grail and Dragon families.
 

When the Imperial and Royal Dragon Court was reconstituted by King Sigismund in 1408 as the Societas Draconis, it was based upon an ancient bloodline tradition which Sigismund assumed that he had inherited from his Scythian ancestors

One of the most famous members of Sigismund’s misappropriated organization was Vlad Basarrab or Draculea, the son of Vlad Drakul.



After Draculea’s death, his son Michael wrote that his father proudly claimed a linear descent from the Priests of the Dragon Court



The genealogy of the House of Drakul, Dracula or Basarrab is well known and widely documented.  The ancestry actually can be traced back to the Scythian Dragon Princess Scota, and the Cult of the Dragon.

Undoubtedly Dracula assumed that he had received this ancient mystical status during his investiture into Sigismund’s Societas Draconis,

Sigismund assumed a personal entitlement to this legacy in 1397, the date upon which he sought to reconstitute Princess Melusine’s Dragon Court - as Societas Draconis - in a manner that he deemed the most suitable to enhance his power base and establish his royal claims. Following its subsequent formal inception in 1408, the Court recruited members from a number of prominent royal and noble houses. Historians have noted that these were not particularly known for their religious orthodoxy, including the later House of Vere in England, as one authority on Sigismund’s Dragon Court has asserted.

Today, however, the Imperial and Royal Dragon Court itself exists as a closed fraternity, a collective of individuals, comprising those who, can trace their ancestry and affiliations back to the ancient, Dragon families. The Court retains the traditional three tier degree system that Sigismund borrowed and to which he appended three separate representations of the alchemical Ouroboros emblem for the distinct ranks of the Court.

The tripartite system was peculiar to the Scythians and Celts, whose Druids incorporated a similar structure within their orders and colleges.
 

The Inner Temple is presided over by the Vere Grand Masters, who are currently resident in Britain and Europe. Being essentially an organization which emphasizes the crucial links between Dragon families, the rank system within the Court takes second place to the sense of blood relationship and the natural bond of co-operation engendered by that relationship.
 

The first PenDragon (Head Dragon) of the Britannic Isle (Pen Draco Insularis). From this stock was King Cymbeline of the House of Camu, who was installed in about AD 10.


As the generations passed, the ideal of dynastic kingship spread through the Mediterranean lands into the Balkans, the Black Sea regions and Europe.

its graphic representation was a red cross

In 1408 (when Britain was in her Plantagenet era), the Dragon Court was formally reconstituted as a sovereign body at a time of wars and general political turmoil. As we have seen, the Court’s dubious re-emergence was instigated by Sigismund von Luxembourg, King of Hungary. Having assumed to have inherited the bloodline legacy in 1397, he drew up a pact with twenty-three royals and nobles who swore to observe ’true and pure fraternity’ within the Societas Draconis, a style subsequently misidentified as the Ordo Draconis (Hungarian: Sarkany Rend).

Along with Sigismund and the twenty-three nobles, Sigismund’s second wife, Barbara Cille (daughter of the Austrian Duke Hermann of Styria), was joint sovereign. Barbara was a Vampire who was taught by Ibrahim Eleazar, the keeper of the Magic of Abramelin the Mage, and it is she who is the model for the beautiful Countess Carmilla Karnstein in Le Fanus novel of the same name.

Sigismund’s daughter Elizabeth was also a member of the Court, and the inclusion of the entire family thereby achieved the traditional overall standard of twenty six members or two magical circles of thirteen. Others prominent in the Societas Draconis were the Kings of Poland and Aragon, the Duke of Lithuania and the Duke of Split.

The founding document of the Court confirmed that members might wear the insignia of a Dragon incurved into a circle, with a red cross, the original emblem of the Rosi Crucis. Members were required to wear black attire on Friday
Shortly after this foundation, Sigismund was crowned Holy Roman Emperor and, as a result, the noble fraternity achieved a heightened status as an imperial edifice.
 

The great enlightenment of the ’Grail Code’ of service was condemned in a series of brutal Inquisitions from 1203, and anything remotely connected with the female ethic was dubbed Witchcraft.
 

Oswald von Wolkenstein - Portrait from the Innsbrucker Handschrift, 1432 - wearing the Order of the Dragon chain
The Order of the Dragon (Latin Societas Draconistrarum) was a monarchical chivalric order for selected nobility,[1] founded in 1408 by Sigismund, King of Hungary (r. 1387-1437) and later Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1433-1437). It was fashioned after the military orders of the crusades, requiring its initiates to defend the Cross and fight the enemies of Christianity, in particular the Ottoman Turks.

The Order flourished during the first half of the 15th century, primarily in Germany and Italy. After Sigismund's death in 1437 its importance declined in Western Europe, but after the Fall of Constantinople of 1453, it continued to play a role in Hungary, Wallachia and Serbia, which bore the brunt of the Ottoman incursions.
 

Sigismund faced fierce struggles for power leading up to the foundation of the order in 1408. In 1387, the Bohemian royal son Sigismund of Luxembourg was elected King of Hungary and Croatia, a title which he owed chiefly to his marriage to Queen Mary of Hungary in 1385, without her consent. During the next decade, he constantly sought support or employed ruthless methods to strengthen his unsteady hold on the throne. His rule was weakened in 1395 when Mary, who was pregnant, died in an accident. In 1389, the Ottoman Sultan Murad I had defeated Lazar, Prince of Serbia at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, in which both leaders died. Two years later, the Turks had taken the fortress of Nicopolis. In 1396, Pope Boniface IX proclaimed a crusade against the Ottomans, and a campaign was organised to recapture the fortress and put a halt to the Ottoman expansion. Sigismund was nominally in charge; however, in the 1396 Battle of Nicopolis the French leader, John of Nevers, commanded the French half of the forces and ignored Sigismund's entreaties by charging the Turks. About 15,000 crusaders died with only a few leaders, including Sigismund, escaping. He returned to Hungary in 1401 and, facing a number of revolts, gradually resumed control and re-asserted himself as the King of Hungary. This he achieved by allying himself with the political party of Nicholas II Garay and Hermann II of Celje, in return for their military support, which enabled him to fight off domestic rivals. He campaigned against the Croats and Bosnians, which culminated in 1408 with the Battle of Dobor — fought for the possession of Bosnia — and a massacre of noble families. His pact with Hermann II was secured in 1408, when Sigismund married Herman II's daughter Barbara of Celje (also called Cilli).

On December 12, 1408, following the Battle of Dobor[5][6][7] in which he slaughtered most of Bosnia's nobility, many of whom had fought the Turks;[8] Sigismund and his queen, Barbara of Celje, founded the league known today as the Order of the Dragon. Its statutes, written in Latin, call it a society (societas) whose members carry the signum draconis (see below), but assign no name to it. Contemporary records, however, refer to it by a variety of similar if unofficial names, such as Gesellschaft mit dem Trakchen, Divisa seu Societate Draconica, Societate Draconica seu Draconistrarum and Fraternitas Draconum. It was to some extent modelled after the earlier Hungarian monarchical order, the Order of St. George (Societas militae Sancti Georgii), founded by King Carol Robert of Anjou in 1318.

dragon wars

It likewise adopted St. George as its patron saint, whose legendary defeat of a dragon was used as a symbol for the order.

The statute of the Order, which was expanded by Bishop Eberhard of Nagyvárad, chancellor of Sigismund's court, survives only in a copy made in 1707. An edition was published in 1841. The prologue to these statutes of 1408 reports that the society was created:


"in company with the prelates, barons, and magnates of our kingdom, whom we invite to participate with us in this party, by reason of the sign and effigy of our pure inclination and intention to crush the pernicious deeds of the same perfidious Enemy, and of the followers of the ancient Dragon, and (as one would expect) of the pagan knights, schismatics, and other nations of the Orthodox faith, and those envious of the Cross of Christ, and of our kingdoms, and of his holy and saving religion of faith, under the banner of the triumphant Cross of Christ ...


Though described in general terms, the primary representatives of "the perfidious Enemy" remained the Ottoman Turks, who continued to be problem for Sigismund's successors.

The Order's outward focus on foreign threats was also aimed at achieving a level of domestic cohesion. The statutes go on to describe the order's symbols of the ouroboros and the red cross, which were worn by its members and gave the order its corporate identity (see below). They also list the mutual obligations of the king and his nobles. The members were to swear loyalty to the king, queen and their future sons and to protect the royal interests. Boulton argues that "the Society of the Dragon was clearly intended to serve as the institutional embodiment of the royal faction its founder had created." In return for their services, the nobles could expect to enjoy royal protection, honors and offices.

The creation of the order is an instance within a larger fashion of founding chivalric orders during the 14th and early 15th centuries, not infrequently dedicated to organizing "crusades", epecially after the disaster of the battle of Nicopolis (1396). Sigismund's order was particularly inspired from the Order of Saint George of 1326. Another influential model may have been the Sicilian Order of the Ship, founded in 1381. A comparable order founded after the Order of the Dragon was the Order of Calatrava, founded in 1409, also dedicated to battling Turks.


Members of the order, known as "Draconists", are referred to in the statutes as barons (barones, occasionally socii). They were mostly Sigismund's political allies and supporters, who were at first largely confined to the political factions of Stefan Lazarevic, Nicholas II Garay and Hermann II of Celje, including such magnates as Stibor of Stiboricz and Pipo of Ozora. The initial group of inductees for Sigismund's Order numbered 21 men, which extended to about 24 in 1418.

After some time, Sigismund chose to expand the ranks of the Order. A second group of inductees was initiated between 1431-1437.  As membership grew, the Order of the Dragon came to have two degrees. There was a superior class, which between 1408 and 1418 wore both the dragon and the cross as the Order's emblem and a more elaborate version afterwards. The second degree had a large number of members, and its symbol was only the dragon.

Following Sigismund's death in 1437, the prestigious emblem of the Order was retained on the coat of arms of several Hungarian noble families, including Báthory, Bocskai, Bethlen, Szathmáry and Rákóczi.
 

The edict of 1408 describes two insignia to be worn by members of the Order:
" ... we and the faithful barons and magnates of our kingdom shall bear and have, and do choose and agree to wear and bear, in the manner of society, the sign or effigy of the Dragon incurved into the form of a circle, its tail winding around its neck, divided through the middle of its back along its length from the top of its head right to the tip of its tail, with blood [forming] a red cross flowing out into the interior of the cleft by a white crack, untouched by blood, just as and in the same way that those who fight under the banner of the glorious martyr St George are accustomed to bear a red cross on a white field ..."
The dragon described here, with its tail coiled around its neck, bears comparison to the ouroboros. On the back of the dragon, from the base of the neck to the tail, is the Red Cross of Saint George, with the entire image on an argent field. The Order's dragon emblem has not survived in any original form, but it has been referenced on coins, art, and in writing.
 

The 'Atlanteans' originated in Transylvania or "Little Scythia"


 
The death of Vlad Dracul's half-brother in 1436 advanced Dracul's eldest son, Mircea II, to the throne of Wallachia, and the death of Sigismund the following year in 1437 left Dracul with the political leeway to negotiate a peace treaty with the Turks.

Just five years later, the new regime of Hungary launched an all-out attempt to drive the Turks from Europe, and Hungarian general Janos Hunyadi demanded that Dracul fulfill his sworn obligations to the Order of the Dragon and join the battle. It was an invitation that Vlad Dracul — perhaps wisely — declined, although he later sent his son Mircea II with a token contingent of Wallachian warriors into the crusade to placate the Roman Church.

The crusade was a series of decisive victories and dismal failures over the next two years, and the Christian army was finally routed by the Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Varna in eastern Bulgaria in 1444, bringing an end to the campaign of Janos Hunyadi, but not to his bitter hatred of the Turks. Although Hunyadi escaped the carnage, the stage had already been set for animosity between Hunyadi and the family of Dracul that would have a lasting effect on the still adolescent Vlad Dracula, who would enter his teens in the midst of conflicts over which he had, as yet, no control.

After the Battle of Varna, internal power struggles within the Ottoman Empire forced the sultan, Murad, to negotiate a peace treaty with Hungary in an unsteady arrangement that would boil over into battle during the coming years.



The dominant political and social system of medieval Europe during Vlad Dracula's lifetime is known as feudalism. Under feudal rule, landowners were invariably considered nobility who operated under the auspices of the reigning Crown, and to whom they pledged military support. Although the word itself doesn't describe active feuding among opposing powers, there's no question that quarrels between the nobility of the realm were common and often led to bloodshed.

The Intrigues of Infidels

It's recorded that Vlad Dracul actually relinquished control of Wallachia to his eldest son, Mircea II, in 1442 and traveled to the Ottoman-Turkish court to negotiate a separate treaty in order to maintain his regency. While Vlad Dracul was away, Hungarian leader Janos Hunyadi attacked Wallachia and drove Mircea from the throne, installing Basarab II as his own chosen regent.

With the aid of Ottoman-Turkish military might, Vlad Dracul retaliated and regained the throne within a year, and in a diplomatic negotiation that required the Wallachian principality to pay annual tribute to the Turks, Vlad Dracul was also compelled to leave his young sons, Vlad Dracula and Radu, as an insurance policy to confirm Wallachian loyalty.

In the hands of the Ottoman-Turkish sultan Murad, the two sons were seen as serving dual purposes: they ensured an alliance with Vlad Dracul in the short term, and they were of royal Wallachian blood and could be groomed into puppet rulers of Wallachia for the Ottoman Empire.


One of the confusing points in the lineage of the House of Basarab is the name association between his descendants, Vlad Dracul and Dracul's son, Vlad Dracula. Vlad Dracul's father, Mircea cel Batrin, or Mircea the Old, was revered in Wallachia for his adamant determination to rid Wallachia of the Ottoman-Turkish regime.

After Mircea's death, the elder Vlad came to power as a military leader under the auspices of the Hungarian Empire and was stationed in the Transylvanian town of Sighisoara to continue fighting off the repeated incursions of the Turks, while Vlad Dracul's half-brother, Alexandru I Aldea, assumed full control of Wallachia.

It was during this duty in 1431 that Vlad was summoned by Sigismund, then the Holy Roman Emperor in Hungary, to receive initiation into the Order of the Dragon, which had been created as an institution of military and religious loyalty to defend the Holy Roman Empire from the threat of Turkish encroachment.

This fortunate honor would become a pivotal point in Vlad's life, and he attached the Wallachian word for “dragon” to his own name, becoming Vlad Dracul, which translates to Vlad the Dragon.

Vlad's illegitimate son, born in Vlad's military post of Sighisoara in approximately 1431, by birthright became known as “Vlad, the son of the dragon,” which, serendipitously for Bram Stoker and millions of vampire enthusiasts, effectively translates into Vlad Dracula.

Vlad Dracula was born in 1431 in Transylvania, in the German town of Schassburg (Sighisoara in Romanian). Schassburg is located about sixty-five miles south of Bistrita. Its castle lies on a hillside location dominating the valley of the Tirnava River. It is enveloped by thick walls of stone and brick three thousand feet long, with fourteen towers named after the guilds whose purses financed the building works -butchers, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, barbers, tailors, jewelers, furriers, rope makers. With narrow, cobbled streets and numerous stairways linking the clock tower to the upper towers on the hill the fortress burgh catered to the needs of the German merchant community that traded with other German cities. The town was a warehouse for goods moving between Germany and Constantinople; it also served the trade routes to the Poles, the Baltic Sea, and the German cities linked to the Hanseatic Union. Dracula and his brother Radu were born in a fairly nondescript three story townhouse, the likes of which one might resist paying any more than ,000 these days, even if it were situated, say, in the Dordogne.

The building is identified by a small plaque mentioning the fact that their father, Dracul, lived there from 1431 to 1435. The yellowed building served also as quarters for the small garrison assigned to Vlad Dracul. Recent restoration on the second floor revealed a painted mural depicting three men and a woman seated at a table. Of the quartet, only the central figure has survived fully intact. The figure is a fat guy with a double chin, a long, waxed moustache, arched eyebrows, and a finely chiseled nose. This may be the only surviving portrait of Dracula's father, Vlad Dracul. Dracula's mother, Princess Cneajna, was of the Musatin dynasty of neighboring Moldavia and she raised young Dracula with the assistance of her ladies-in-waiting within the household. Dracul’s mistress, Caltuna, bore a second son also called Vlad. So if you just shouted Vlad out of the window at dinner time, you could guarantee that most of the family would turn up. Caltuna eventually entered a monastery and took the name Eupraxia. Her son later followed in his mother's footsteps pursuing a religious vocation for which posterity remembers him as Vlad the Monk. Dracula grew up in a Germanic atmosphere; his father held sway over the local German townships and defended Transylvania against the threat of Turkish attacks.

Vlad Dracul was a minion of Sigismund of Luxembourg, and was educated at the Emperor's court in Nuremberg. Dracul hit the political jackpot in 1431, when two singular events took place at Court: the first was his investiture into Societas Draconis, along with King Ladislas of Poland and Prince Lazarevic of Serbia, the second was his investiture as Prince of Wallachia. This second investiture, presided over by the Emperor Sigismund himself, found Dracul bound over to the thankless and dubious enterprise of attempting to seize the insecure Wallachian throne (which included duchies of Amias and Fagaras in Transylvania). At the time this particular gilded edifice was being warmed by the backside of Prince Alexandra Aldea, who was Dracul's half brother. Thus begun the lengthy and predictable feud amongst the Basarabs, which itself was highlighted by numerous crimes, raised up and coloured for posterity by the needlepoint of fascinated horror.
 

All that one can now see of Dracula’s Tirgoviste are the remains of the princely palace, which was destroyed and rebuilt many times. Dracula’s grandfather, the redoubtable Mircea the Old, laid the first foundation stone at the beginning of the fifteenth century. Nearby is the reconstructed sixteenth-century Chindeia watchtower built by Dracula himself to watch the atrocities.

 Dracula took particular delight in ensnaring the unwary in a compromising statement. The following incident is typical: in September 1458, Dracula was entertaining a Polish nobleman, Benedict de Boithor, who had come as the ambassador of an alleged ally, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. The usual trivial conversation was pursued in the dining hall of the palace at Tirgoviste. At the end of the repast, a golden spear was brought in by some servants and set up directly in front of the envoy, who watched the operation cautiously, having heard of Dracula s reputation.

"Tell me," said Dracula, addressing the Pole with some amusement, "why do you think that I have had this spear set up in the room." "My lord," he answered with verve, "it would seem that some great boyar of the land has offended you and you wish to honor him in some way." "Fairly spoken," said Dracula. "You are the representative of a great king. I have had this lance set up especially in your honor." Maintaining his savoir faire, the Pole replied: "My Lord, should I have been responsible for something worthy of death, do as you please, for you are the best judge and in that case you would not be responsible for my death, but I alone." Dracula burst into laughter. The answer had been both witty and flattering. "Had you not answered me in this fashion," said Dracula, "I would truly have impaled you on the spot." He then honored the man and showered him with gifts.

Of Dracula's married life in this period, far too little is known. His first wife or mistress (it mattered little since all male descendants were considered legitimate claimants to the throne) was a Transylvanian commoner with whom he had fallen in love following his escape from the Turks in 1448. From the native Romanian Dracula tales, it would appear that their marriage was not a happy one, for the prince was often seen wandering alone at night on the outskirts of the city, usually in disguise, seeking the company of the beautiful but humble women who in time became his mistresses. Such relationships indicated both Dracula’s distrust of the boyars and his plebeian instincts.

But as one might expect, loving Dracula could be a dangerous thing, and so it turned out for one particular young woman. Romanian peasant tales state that the luckless mistress was assassinated by her suitor for infidelity, though she met a far more cruel death than Anne Boleyn. She was impaled and had her sexual organs cut out.

Like a good medieval pietist, Dracula was most concerned with the survival of the soul in the afterlife. He had particular qualms concerning those victims for whose death he was personally responsible, and presumably he gave his mistress a Christian burial, a reflection of the morbid religiosity inspired by the enormity of his crimes.

He took the precaution of surrounding himself with priests, abbots, bishops, and confessors, whether Roman Catholic or Orthodox. He often spent long moments of meditation within the saintly confines of monasteries, such as Tismana in western Wallachia, where he was known as a generous donor. All the Draculas seemed intent upon belonging to a church, receiving the sacraments, being buried as Christians, and being identified with a religion. Even the famous apostate Mihnea in due course became a devout Moslem.

Like the average penitent of pre-Lutheran times, these men felt that good works, particularly the erection of monasteries, along with rich endowments and an appropriate ritual at the moment of death, would contribute to the eradication of sin. Mircea, Dracul, Dracula, Radu, Vlad the Monk, and Mihnea were collectively responsible for no less than fifty monastic foundations or endowments. (Dracula alone was responsible for five.)

Even the degenerate Radu erected a monastery, Tanganul, and was probably buried there. Monastic interest was, of course, a perfect pretext for interfering in and controlling the affairs of both Catholic and Orthodox churches in Wallachia.

Dracula had a close relationship with the Franciscan monks in Tirgoviste and with the Cistercian monastery at Carta, and he frequently received monks from both orders at the palace. But the religious of various orders-Dominicans, Benedictines, Franciscans, and Capuchins - sought refuge in German lands after they had incurred Dracula's wrath by refusing to toe the line.

Dracula’s crimes - the refinements of his cruelty - deserve a chapter unto themselves. Impalement, hardly a new method of torture, was his favourite means of imposing death. A strong horse was usually harnessed to each leg of the victim, while the stake was carefully introduced so as not to kill instantly. Sometimes Dracula issued special instructions to his torturers to have the pales rounded-off, lest gaping wounds kill his victims on the spot. Such quick death would have interfered with the pleasure he received from watching their agonies over time. This torture was often a matter of several hours, sometimes a matter of several days. There were various forms of impalement depending upon age, rank, or sex.

There were also various geometric patterns in which the impaled were displayed,

Usually the victims were arranged in concentric circles on the outskirts of cities where they could be viewed by all. There were high spears and low spears, according to rank. Victims were impaled and left either feet up or head up, or they might be impaled through the heart or navel. Victims were subjected to nails driven into their heads, maiming of limbs, blinding, strangulation, burning, the hacking off of noses and ears, the hacking out of sexual organs in the case of women, scalping and skinning, exposure to the elements or to wild animals, and boiling alive.

Dracula’s morbid inventiveness may well have inspired the Marquis de Sade, who was no doubt familiar with his crimes. In regard to the cruel techniques practiced in our so-called enlightened twentieth century, Dracula set another shining precedent. Prior to punishment he generally demanded confessions, the nature of which could result in his victims escaping some violence or even death. And often he scaled the severity of the punishment to the instinctively self-preservative wit of his potential victim. As with the Polish nobleman, there were instances when the doomed were able to save their lives with a happy or flattering phrase.

But in this he was not really very different from any other ruler of his time. Catharine de Medici, amongst several others, favoured impaling as the de riguer punishment, and hundreds lost their lives in this fashion during the St. Bartholomew's day massacre. Dracula's mistake was to target the Saxon merchants, who sent copious amounts of wailing sob stories back home.

 


Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (1431–1476), more commonly known as Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad ?epe? pronounced ['vlad 't?sepe?]) or simply as Dracula, was a three-time Voivode of Wallachia, ruling mainly from 1456 to 1462. His Romanian surname Draculea (also spelled "Drakulya"), by which Vlad was referred to in several documents, means "son of the dragon", in reference to his father, Vlad Dracul, who received that moniker from his subjects because he had joined the Order of the Dragon. Dracul, from the Latin word Draco, meaning "dragon", is derived from the Greek word ?????? (Drákon). In Romanian, on the other hand, Dracul means "devil", and in the bible the devil is also called the dragon, great dragon and the snake.
 

 

Here There Be Dragons

WHO WAS ST. GERMAIN? The following is offered as suggestion rather than proof:

Among the legends of his origins is that he was a "wandering Jew" or an exiled Transylvanian Prince. His "dragon book" implies that his lineage is secretly identified with the Dragon. All those threads weave together once we realize that Royal Ashina Khazars, a dynasty of converted Jews ruled Khazaria (ancient Scythia) from about 650 to 1016.

Two royal clans merged: in Hebrew Ha-Shechina, and Turkic Ashina.

They were preceded by proto-Scythian kings who initiated a custodial tradition of seership and wisdom that migrated with them from Transylvania and Central Asia throughout Europe.

Thus, the Scythian dynasties permeated European royalty as individual Dragon lineages fused.

According to Nicholas de Vere, "Briefly, the Dragon lineage starts in the Caucasus with the Annunaki, descending through migrating proto-Scythians to the Sumerians while branching off also into the ring kings of the Horse Lords of Dal Riada, through the dynasty of Pendragon and Avallon del Acqs, and down to a few pure bred families today."

The Royal Court of the Dragon was founded by

the Kings of Jerusalem; to the Black Sea Princes of Scythia (Princess Milouziana of the Scythians) and into the Balkans - notably to the Royal House of Hungary, whose King Sigismund reconstituted the Court just 600 years ago. Sigismund’s assumed descent from Melusine. Her ancestry actually can be traced back to the Scythian Dragon Princess Scota, Queen and the Cult of the Dragon. Vlad Dracul was a minion of Sigismund of Luxembourg, and was educated at the Emperor's court in Nuremberg. Dracul was invested into Societas Draconis.

The Byzantine Emperor Constantine was a Dragon King. The Byzantine emperor Leo III married his son Constantine (V) to the Khazar princess as part of the alliance between the two empires. Princess Tzitzak was baptized as Irene. Their son Leo (Leo IV) was known as "Leo the Khazar", emperor of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire from 775 to 780.
 

Some say the nomadic Khazars derived from both the Edomites. Like their Edomite ancestors, the Khazars were also red-headed, and came to be known as “Red Jews”. Transylvania was part of the Khazarian Empire (with roots from Mongolia to Transylvania).

Transylvanian royalty belonged to the Dragon Court. So, St. Germain might represent himself authentically as a "Wandering Jew" with the secret of immortality, while being Transylvanian (the royal House of Rakoczy) and carrying the Dragon legacy with which he emblazoned his singular book.
 

 

Far more influential than the relatively diminutive principality of Wallachia, Hungary wielded enormous power in eastern Europe that lasted for decades, and at its helm for a half-century was the crafty king, Sigismund. Sigismund's reign culminated in his being elected as the Holy Roman Emperor in 1433, a title that carried the political leverage and blessings of the Pope, whose own authority over the Christian world was beyond measure.

Sigismund's own life was rife with mystery and intrigue, and he came into power through a series of shrewd deceptions and political scheming. Born into Polish royalty, Sigismund's early maneuverings cost him any opportunity to gain the Polish throne. Through marriage, he fell into a position of power in Hungary, and although he was defied by much of the nobility there, he had himself declared king in 1387.

Although the principal enemy of all of Christian Europe was the expanding Ottoman-Turkish Empire, Sigismund was equally threatened by houses of nobility in Hungary and its outlying principalities which disputed his right to the throne. It was with this background of internal quarreling and the external threat of Turkish invasion that Sigismund created an order that would develop its own life and legend in the pages of vampiric history.

The Order of the Dragon

The influence of the Order of the Dragon on Vlad Dracul, his son, Vlad Dracula, and its impact on the concept of Bram Stoker's Dracula is incalculable, but there's little doubt that without this organization of nobility in eastern Europe, our vision of Dracula and our mythology of vampires in general would be much different than it is today.

For Vlad Dracul, the Order of the Dragon was a badge of honor and would become symbolic of his extraordinary efforts to gain control of his homeland. The Order of the Dragon was originally conceived by Sigismund of Hungary in 1308 as a select group of initiates from the feudal regions of the Hungarian Empire. The Order of the Dragon was an honorific to be bestowed on Sigismund's most trusted and loyal vassals and was a highly respected and much sought after title.

The concept of the order was also politically and militarily advantageous to Sigismund on several levels. As a feudal state, the power that Sigismund wielded over Hungary was inextricably linked to the support of relatively disconnected landowners and military leaders in the far-flung regions of the empire.

At its very core, Sigismund's motives for creating the Order of the Dragon were entirely self-serving, and he effectively swore his initiates to complete loyalty and trust in support of his regime. In return, they were expected to respond to any threat to his sovereignty.
 

 


Transylvania is the earliest known homeland of the Dragon Kings

The Dragon Tradition was alive and well during the time of Saint Germain and he was certainly part of it as a Transylvanian prince, It is no accident one of his only two original works carried the Dragon emblem.
 

the diabolical despot that this page is about was so bad that all the renowned blood curdling horrors of the classic vampire tale are indigenous to the true character of Vlad the Impaler.

Vlad Dracula III was born in Sighisoara, Transylvania north of Wallachia which is now modern day Romania, during the dark ages in 1431. Wallachia was a small and backward principality that was racked with instability, insurrection and so much unrest that it was a country on the boundaries of total rebellion and lawlessness. Wallachia was surrounded by two super powers of the day, the Ottoman Turkish Empire to the south and the mighty Hungarian Empire to the west. The Black Sea of course was to the east with Moldavia to the north.

Vlad the Impaler was the name that he was called derogatively, behind his back, his real name was Vlad Dracula III. He was notorious in history as a ruler that reigned with abject terror, he was a paranoid, delusional monster, fuelled by revenge and hatred. Vlad Dracula III also had a passion for blood and suffering and he loved to execute his enemies in a very cruel fashion.


Bran Castle below is the real Count Draculas castle, that was built around 1212 by the Saxons. Bram Stoker based his novels around this very castle, the home of the vampire!!



This castle was Vlad Draculas home in the 15th century. The Romanian government have owned it for just as long but it has recently been reacquired by the Archduke Dominic von Hapsburg family...for a mere $140,000,000

Though Vlad Dracula III did not have any notable success as a great ruler as he lead by severe oppression, he did leave his mark in history...but as we shall see...for all the wrong reasons.

COUNT DRACULA

The actual name Vlad Dracula originated from his father, Prince Vlad Dracul II who was initiated into the Christian Order of the Dragon, which was a secret society containing select members of European royalty. Vlad Dracula III was apparently very proud of his father and whereas Dracul means dragon...the name Dracula actually means Son of The Dragon....So Vlad III adopted the name.

The Christian Order of the Dragon endorsed the political stance of all Romanian royalty in that they kept the Turks out of Romania and defended the empire. All in the name of the Christian Cross and orthodox beliefs in Christianity, they constantly fought and crusaded against them.

The throne of Prince Vlad Dracul II was under serious threat from the powerful Ottoman Turks, so the Prince decided to make an all time peace pact with them and called a meeting with the Sultan of the Turks. The Prince actually sent Vlad Dracula III and Radu III the fair, his two youngest sons to join with the Turks and live amongst them. This was done for reasons of assurance and insurance that His Excellency the Prince Vlad Dracul II would not declare war on the Turks.

Vlad II stated that he could not and would not wage war with a country who had his two sons in their presence as they could quite easily be killed in the first instance....the Turks of course believed this...who wouldn't.

Vlad Dracula III who was 13 years of age at the time he was sent to live with the Turks with his brother were more like hostages then guests and as well as it must have been a frightening time for him it was also a time that he detested to his core.

However Prince Vlad Dracul II did indeed still intend to wage war against the Turks and his two sons were seen to be a sacrifice in the name of his empire. The Christian Order of The Dragon was not unknown to make these type of sacrifices if it meant that the order could succeed. It would also have stood Prince Vlad Dracul II in higher regard with the top members of the Order.



It is believed that the years that Vlad Dracula spent living with the Turks drastically altered his thinking processes and the way that he thought about life in general...which is not surprising considering the circumstances. He was in a strange country, not being able to speak the language, not knowing their customs or traditions and feeling abandoned by his father. More to the point he was a Christian surrounded by the hated Muslims and even on a good day, the Muslims hated any Christians...so he lived a very precarious six years with the Turks.

Vlad Dracula hated his predicament and hated that fact that he indeed had to live with the Turks as a peace settlement and he grew to resent the Turks with each passing day. He also hated the prospect of being converted to Islam which the Turks told him every day that he would.

He decided to bide his time and not make any waves...so he kept a low profile and did as he was told in the Turks company...but all the time he was watching them and making his future plans.

He spent most of his time training to fight, with swords, bows, arrows, axes, chain maces, lances and horsemanship. With the real prospect of becoming the next ruler of Wallachia, it is was in his best interests to pursue these pastimes. Fighting on the battlefields of Europe was also a proposition that was never too far away in those days and the better the fighter the better the chances of survival.

During Vlads time with the Turks, he witnessed the Turks cruelty in their methods of executing prisoners, which is best left to the imagination as they were all pretty cruel in those days. Vlad started to develop a sadistic pleasure and enjoyed watching the deaths of those who were executed.



Vlad Dracula III hated the Turks as earlier stated but his younger brother Radu III the fair, had literally gone over to them in a big way and had picked up their sword...becoming fully indoctrinated in their culture. Radu III was destined to become their puppet ruler, their prince on a leash and Vlad Dracula hated this. In Vlads eyes Radu III was nothing more than a traitor and deserved never to be trusted again.

Radu III The Fair actually converted to Islam and betrayed all that the Christian Order of the Dragon stood for.

It was during this time spent with the Turks in 1448 that his Father Vlad Dracul II was murdered by several power hungry members of Wallachia's nobility, it was part of an ongoing plot to steal his throne. However, Vlad Draculas chance to rule supreme had now finally come about. The Turkish Sultan made Vlad Dracula III his new Prince of Wallachia but within only three years Vlad had turned on the Sultan. Vlad waged a crusade against him and had the Turks kicked out of what was now his Empire.



At 25 years old Vlad Dracula III began his reign of terror, he ruled for a total of six terrifying years, leaving behind a legacy of blood of which the world had never seen before.

Vlad built huge walls around the city, with massive battle ramparts, he went overboard on all aspects of security as his paranoia was dictating to him more and more as every day passed. Along with all these new constructions, Vlad also had an array of underground tunnels dug, both as a means to move around undetected and as an escape route if invaded. To many it was evident that Vlad was preparing to engage in hostilities with the Turks.

Once Vlad was satisfied with his new security arrangements, he then looked at the values of his citizens in particular the nobility of Wallachia and their loyalty. Vlad was fearful of being murdered as his father was...so something needed to be done to deter them from attempting anything untoward.

Vlad requested that all the nobility of Walachia about 500 optimistic souls, come to his castle for a great feast, a banquet of fantastic proportions. There was wine, roasted boar, song, dance, much merriment and joy in the air, everyone was having a wonderful time with their new prince. Vlad then raised his hand and stopped the festivities, he asked his guests, how many rulers there had been in Wallachia, during the past 50 years. They answered 10, 12 or as many as 20, to be honest, they didn't really know, as they never kept count.

Vlad Dracula looked at them coldly and told them that they all lacked any respect whatsoever and unbeknown to them, Vlad already had the banquette surrounded by heavily armed guards and he had them all arrested.

Many were taken outside by a thousand or so guards and immediately impaled, just below the ramparts, yonder in the fields. The rest were marched out and up to the castle ramparts. Vlad then forced them to work with the local peasants in reinforcing the castle. As well as the sound beatings, it was dangerous work on those high walls in snow and gales and many fell to their deaths, others starved as they were not fed properly.

These once rich, noblemen had become Vlads dirty slaves, as they toiled so were they beaten and flogged to within an inch of their wretched lives. They were all eventually worked to death, all those old nobles of Wallachia and Vlad Dracula instilled a new nobility, ones that he persuaded to be loyal to him, loyal on pain of death if any of them failed him in any way.

Vlad Dracula III ruled with absolute fear and instigated harsh policies that suited his harsh regime. All laws had to be obeyed including all those in the ten commandments as laid out in the Holly Bible. All of his people had to abide by Christian laws down to the letter, if they failed then the punishments would be horrific as a deterrent to others.

THE IMPALER

Vlad Dracula III liked to have offenders impaled, this was done by pushing a sharpened 4, 5 or 6 inch wide stake up the bottom and then bringing the stake upright so that they slid down it. The end of the stake would exit out of their neck, throat, chest, shoulder, or through the mouth. Totally gruesome, totally horrific but guaranteed to get a reaction from the crowds...that of undeniable obedience.



Death by impaling could be instant or could last several minutes, some historians even suggest several hours, depending on the victims metabolism and strength...but all died on their stakes...either of ruptured internal organs, blood loss or even exposure, as the fields of Wallachia were wet, cold, snow covered lands.



Ruling by horror, fear and intimidation was such a well established and successful method that many rulers adopted the same tactics. King Henry VIII for example, was also quite adept at terrorising his populace and had victims boiled alive, roasted alive over fires or chained up to starve to death after being tortured with hot irons.

With Vlad Draculas passion for impalement, it was not soon before he was called Vlad Tepes, which translates as Vlad The Impaler. With his method of impaling, it is stated that the victims height on the stake would indicate their former position in society...the higher up they were, the taller the stake they would get.
 

Vlad the Impaler would leave the bodies to rot on their stakes almost indefinitely, as an added incentive not to fall foul of him. It was not uncommon to see skeletons still impaled on stakes several years after the punishment had been carried out.

All the old records and chronicles testify that Vlad the Impaler was absolutely obsessed with loyalty and was one of histories biggest control freaks. Vlad the Impalers moral codes and orders were punishable by death and death alone, there were no prisons in Walachia, as it was death for any and every infraction....and all deaths were done by impaling.



Vlad had anyone impaled, be they young or old, male or female...they would all be skewered and left on display, he had no sympathy and showed no mercy for anyone. Everyone hated him, as he was so utterly evil and detestable, but none tried to overthrow him or assassinate him...they were all too petrified of his wrath.

Vlad the Impaler knew they were all petrified of him too, as he had a golden goblet placed in every town square and dared anyone to steal them...and as history relates, those goblets stayed there as long as Vlad the Impaler was in power. Execution was not however administered just as punishment it was fast becoming Vlads most favorite pastime and he like to have victims killed at a whim whilst he dined with his terrified guests.

A polish noblemen was said to have complained to Vlad the Impaler that the foul stench of the rotting corpses upset him whilst he dined. So Vlad had him impaled himself and added that his fresh washed body would cleans the air somewhat...he had his nose cut off as well so that the stench would not bother him as he died.
 

Vlad the Impalers demonic side shone through when he decided to dine with his impaled victims at either side of his table. It was recorded that Vlad often dipped his bread into the blood of an impaled victim and then ate the bread. This is where the folklore of Count Dracula the blood drinking vampire had its origins.
 



The Turks once gathered together a few thousand horsemen and went to invade parts of Wallachia, but as they enclosed in on the city they came across around 20,000 impaled victims, all positioned around the city entrance. Upon seeing this gruesome sight and also being taken in with the stench of the rotting corpses, they fled in terror back to their Sultan and explained what they had seen to him.

The Turkish Army was several thousand men stronger that Vlad the Impalers, they were better equipped with the latest shields, swords and armor cladding. The Turks who had gotten over the terrible sight of the impaled victims gathered together a strong army of 30,000 and advanced on foot to Wallachia, they encountered the Impaled victims and cast their eyes to the ground...it is assumed that they covered their mouths and noses with scented cloths to arrest some of the stench.



When they met Vlad the Impalers army they battled and killed nearly 200 of Vlads men straight away. The Sultan apparently decided to stop the invasion and sue for peace instead, so he sent two ambassadors to negotiate a peace deal with Vlad.

Upon meeting Vlad the Impaler in his castle, he asked them to remove their embroidered and ornate headwear but the ambassadors refused, saying it was not within the confines of their custom or tradition to do so as bearing ones head was seen as a crime. Vlad pretended to understand and commiserate with them but then looked at his guards who were standing all around and quietly said " Nail their caps to their heads " and that is what the guards did. Grabbing and then holding the ambassadors down they then proceeded to nail the caps to their heads with some short nails.

Vlad explained to them that when delegates visit a great ruler such as him they had better agree with his customs and not their own. He sent them back to explain this to their Sultan. The Sultan was furious when they told him and showed him what had transpired and he immediately drew his final plans against him.

Several weeks later in 1462, the Turks forced Vlad the Impaler to vacate Wallachia on a hasty basis as they invaded with an army of men in their tens of thousands, more than the compliment in Vlads army. Vlad quickly fled to upper most Transylvania, poisoning all the drinking water on the way. Vlads wife apparently jumped from the castle ramparts and died when she clipped the river bank edge...the body flopped into the river and was washed downstream.

Vlad the Impaler was eventually captured by The Hungarian King and was imprisoned for 12 years. Vlads brother Radu III the fair, had taken the throne and ruled a peaceful reign until Vlads return, when Vlad united with him against the common enemy...the Turks. Radu III died in 1475 and Vlad took his place back as the ruler of Wallachia...and a few people got impaled to indicate that he was back.



However just three months into his new reign, Vlad the Impalers decapitated body was found in a muddy bog just outside the city...the Sultans assassins had murdered him, finally getting their own revenge for Vlads initial treachery. Vlad the Impalers head was impaled on a spike and shown all around the villages and towns to prove he was now dead.

VLAD: A LEGEND...IN HELL

Vlad the Impaler excelled himself and all others by devising horrific methods of torture and mass executions of his citizens. If you were living in Wallachia at the time of Vlad the Impalers reign then it was indeed a stroke of the most tremendous bad luck! The chances of meeting a terrible death at Vlad the Impalers hands was quite high, probably about 1 in 8.

Vlad reigned for six terrible years and brought about despicable horrors and terror to anyone who displeased him, even for the slightest infraction. It has been estimated that over 100,000 people met a terrible fate at Vlad the Impalers demented and terrible behest.

 

Vlad the Impaler was a worse architect of evil, than all the blood and horror stories of Bram Stokers Count Dracula put together. Vlad the Impaler was the devil incarnate, a true monster of hideous proportions...a truly diabolical despot.
 

Prince Charles, the eldest son of UK's Queen Elizabeth II, actually claims to be an ancestor of Prince Vlad Dracula III. It is now believed that Queen Mary, consort of George V was actually related to Vlad. It is also known that "porphyria " an iron deficiency, which is thought to lie behind the vampire myth, has run in the Royal Family since the 14th century.
 

The London Coat of Arms, like all heraldry, contains much symbolism and provides strong evidence of the nation's origin and ancestry. It clearly displays the national emblems of ancient transylvania.


#4c - HIS COAT OF ARMS / CREST - THE RED DRAGON
Revelations 13:2 also says, "And the dragon gave him his power and his throne and great authority." The dragon is "symbolic" to others, but not to Prince Charles. He has a red dragon on his coat of arms. It comes from the flag of Wales, and it is in this title, Prince of Wales, that Charles is heir-apparent to the throne of Great Britain. At his coronation (investiture as Prince of Wales) in 1969, he sat on a chair with a large red dragon emblazoned on it. During the ceremony, his mother Queen Elizabeth II said, "This dragon gives you your power, your throne and your own authority." His response to her was, "I am now your Liege-man, and worthy of your earthly worship." Liege is an old English word meaning "Lord". "I am now your Lord-man, and worthy of your earthly worship." Another reference to the red dragon is in Revelations 12:3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. Prince Charles is the ONLY person in the world to whom "And the dragon gave him his power and his throne and great authority" can literally be applied to!

#4d - HIS COAT OF ARMS / CREST - THE ORDER OF THE GARTER
Another symbol on Prince Charles' Coat of Arms is that of The Order of the Garter. The Order of the Garter is the parent organization over Free Masonry, worldwide. When a man becomes a 33rd Degree Mason, he swears allegiance to that organization, and thereby to Prince Charles.

 

a shadowy blood cult who had it's birth in the dark recesses

 

Prince Charles is heir to the highest ranking office on earth to be attained solely by birthright.

The Heraldic symbol of London is the Great Dragon.

Domine dirige nos" (Oh Lord Direct us) Is on the Heraldic symbol of London which shows Dragons as what some call the ultimate Blasphemy.

In The Apocrypha Dragons were literally the "Flying reptiles" or the "unnatural or Alien Gods." The dragons demanded the blood of the innocent. Dragons of course were associated anciently with vampirism.

 

Despite all the myriad of Celtic genealogical falsehoods leading back to King David, elborate charts, faked scrolls, Jewish mysticism, gematria, Kaballah, Zohar, and so-called Bible codes, (that supposedly prove all claims), the religious in Israel are becoming intrigued with the idea. Just as Laurence Gardner and other researchers are putting forth a tremendous effort at proving their heretical information about Christ's Bloodline being found in European and British Royalty which is mainly targeted to those of a responsive Christian, even Pagan mind - there is also a Jewish force doing the same, albeit targeting a Jewish audience. Rabbi Avraham Feld, Yair Davidy and many others are themselves leading a huge American, Israeli, and European following built upon this same heresy stating the modern British as being descended from Ephraim, ultimately that England and all of the Celtic peoples are Lost Tribes of Israel with the British Royals being ordained by God. The underlying implication in all this is that Israel now has a new direction to look in when considering their choice of a Messiah-King (see Daniel 11:21), and with Davidy's work, it's becoming much clearer to them, they only need to look west towards Britain (carefully watch the nation of Israel as it is God's Prophetic timepiece. Every single action Israel is making currently in her necessary defense is inevitably moving the planet closer to Armageddon because of those who hate her. Soon after the comet and war, the Antichrist (the false "prince of peace") arises and you are already witnessing the first signs towards Israel's eventual meeting with destiny and her "great Peacemaker," this false Messiah, because her need for peace is so great.)

This same deception that is even gaining strength in European and even American churches, going under very deceptive and racist theological names such as Replacement Theology and United Israel, beware of it. In addition to Jews being deceived, and ironically enough, it's also this same future heresy that is to peacefully unite every current radical right wing, "Christian" fringe element. Aryan Nations, Christian Identity, Mormonism (Latter Day Saints), White Pride, Celtic Pride, Anglo-Unity, KKK, etc., all will unite under one banner "House of Israel" with Israel, and it's 'One King' leading them all.
 


The ancient Roman-built port city of Londinium [London], from whence this new 'Rome' grew, later placed itself as Capitol to the world though it's own (Roman-styled) British Empire dominating the Western Hemisphere and civilization whereby London ruled the world (and still rules to this very day).

Cecrops I, the legendary first King of Athens was said to have been half man, half snake.

The European dragon dates back to ancient depictions on various archaeological artifacts. An early instance in literature was the dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece in the Voyage of the Argonauts. In the Middle Ages, tales of dragons seem to have become even more common. The dragon in Europe, as a rule, was not conceived as having a humanoid form,

The Chinese, Korean and Japanese speak throughout their history of L—ng (Yong in Korean, Ryu in Japanese) or dragons, conceived of in both physical and non-physical forms, but rarely depicted in humanoid form, though they may assume a non-reptilian human form.

The Japanese have tales of Kappa, a basically reptilian humanoid.

In China, Korea and Japan, underwater realms where the Dragon Kings and their descendants live are referred to, as well as the lineage of humans from a race of dragons. This lineage was often claimed by Asian Emperors, who were believed to be able to change from human to dragon form at will,



Middle East
In the Middle East, reptilian beings ranging from certain Jinn to dragons and serpent-men have been spoken of since ancient times. In one of the apocryphal books purporting to be the lost Book of Jasher, a serpent race is described.

But the New Testament reference of Revelation 12:9 which identifies the serpent of Genesis as Satan himself (the "dragon, devil, Satan, ancient serpent," etc.) gives insight from another angle. The serpent in the Garden of Eden


 

 

vampirisin was originally the purview of a few noble families who practiced it in order to maintain their powers.

"The most famous stories," writes de Vere, "those of Dracula, Bathory and de Rais, support this conclusion."



Principality of Transylvania
 

 

Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana and Dacia Felix) was a province of the Roman Empire (106-271/275 AD). Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat, and Oltenia (regions of modern Romania). It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians’ estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000.[1]

The conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan (98-117) after two major campaigns against Decebalus’s Dacian kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia, together with Maramures and Crisana, was ruled by Free Dacians even after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Superior (Upper Dacia) and Dacia Inferior (Lower Dacia) (later named Dacia Malvensis). In 124 (or around 158), Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars the military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor, with another two senators (the legati legionis) as his subordinates; the province was called tres Daciæ (Three Dacias) or simply Dacia.

The Roman authorities undertook in Dacia a massive and organized colonization. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but also to the rest of the Balkan area. It became a highly urban province, with 11 or 12 cities known, 8 of which held the highest rank of colonia, though the number of cities was fewer than in the region’s other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator (finance officer) for all the three subdivisions was the financial, religious, and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier.

There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia’s existence. Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, who, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla (180-217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, becoming the first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned.[2] Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes (Goths, Taifali, Bastarns) together with the Carpi in 248-250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269.[3][4] Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus (253-268), but they also report that it was Aurelian (270-275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia.

The fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future, gradually turned into Romanian; in parallel, a new people—the Romanians—were formed from the Daco-Romans (the Romanized population of Dacia Traiana). The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula.
 

 

 

Dacian Kingdom around 100 AD, before the Roman conquest.
The Dacians and the Getae frequently interacted with the Romans prior to Dacia's incorporation into the Roman Empire.[5] However, Roman attention on the area around the lower Danube was sharpened when Burebista[5] (82–44 BC)[6] unified the native tribes and began an aggressive campaign of expansion. His kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea to the east, while to the south his authority extended into the Balkans.[7]

By 74 BC,[7] the Roman legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio reached the lower Danube and proceeded to come into contact with the Dacians.[8] Roman concern over the rising power and influence of Burebista was amplified when he began to play an active part in Roman politics. His last minute decision just before the Battle of Pharsalus to participate in the Roman Republic’s civil war by supporting Pompey meant that once the Pompeians were dealt with, Julius Caesar would turn his eye towards Dacia.[9] As part of Caesar’s planned Parthian campaign of 44 BC, he planned to cross into Dacia and eliminate Burebista, thereby hopefully causing the breakup of his kingdom.[10] Although the planned expedition into Dacia did not happen due to Caesar’s assassination, Burebista failed to bring about any true unification of the tribes he ruled. Following a plot which saw him assassinated, his kingdom fractured into four distinct political entities, later becoming five, each ruled by minor kings.[11][12]

From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae.[5] Constant raiding by the tribes into the adjacent provinces of Moesia and Pannonia caused the local governors and the emperors to undertake a number of punitive actions against the Dacians.[5] Yet for all this, there existed a measure of social, diplomatic, and political interaction between the Roman Empire and the Dacians during much of the late pre-Roman period.[5] This saw the occasional granting of favoured status to the Dacians in the manner of being identified as amicii et socii – friends and allies – of Rome, although by the time of Octavianus this was tied up with the personal patronage of important Roman individuals.[5] An example of this was seen in Octavianus’s actions during his conflict with Marcus Antonius. Seeking to obtain an ally who could threaten Antonius’s European provinces, in 35 BC Octavianus offered an alliance with the Dacians, whereby he would marry the daughter of the Dacian King, Cotiso, and in exchange Cotiso would wed Octavianus' daughter, Julia.[13][14]





Trajan's Column (1820)
Although it is believed that the custom of providing royal hostages to the Romans may have commenced sometime during the first half of the first century BC, it was certainly occurring by Octavianus's reign and it continued to be practised during the late pre-Roman period.[15] On the flip side, ancient sources have attested to the presence of Roman merchants and artisans in Dacia, while the region also served as a haven for runaway Roman slaves.[15] This cultural and mercantile exchange saw the gradual spread of Roman influence throughout the region, most clearly seen in the area around the Orastie Mountains.[15]





Trajan receives homage from a Dacian chieftain who has betrayed Decebalus.
The arrival of the Flavian dynasty, in particular the accession of the emperor Domitian, saw an escalation in the level of conflict along the lower and middle Danube.[16] In approximately 84 or 85 AD the Dacians, led by King Decebalus, crossed the Danube into Moesia, wreaking havoc and killing the Moesian governor Oppius Sabinus.[17] Domitian responded by reorganising Moesia into Moesia Inferior and Moesia Superior and launching a war against Decebalus. Unable to finish the war due to troubles on the German frontier, Domitian concluded a treaty with the Dacians that was heavily criticized at the time.[18] Yet this episode was merely a prelude to the emperor Trajans wars of conquest in Dacia.[16] Trajan led the Roman legions across the Danube, penetrating Dacia and focusing on the important area around the Orastie Mountains.[19] In 102,[20] after a series of engagements, negotiations led to a peace settlement where Decebalus agreed to demolish his forts while allowing the presence of a Roman garrison at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Gradistea Muncelului, Romania) to ensure Dacian compliance with the treaty.[19] Trajan also ordered his engineer, Apollodorus of Damascus,[21] to design and build a bridge across the Danube at Drobeta.[20]

Trajan's second Dacian campaign in 105–106 was very specific in its aim of expansion and conquest.[19] The offensive targeted Sarmizegetusa Regia.[22] The Romans besieged Decebalus' capital, which surrendered and was destroyed.[20] The Dacian king and a handful of his followers withdrew into the mountains, but their resistance was short-lived and Decebalus committed suicide.[23] Other Dacian nobles, however, were either captured or chose to surrender.[24] One of those who surrendered revealed the location of the Dacian royal treasury, which was of enormous value: 500,000 pounds (226,800 kilograms) of gold and 1,000,000 pounds (453,600 kilograms) of silver.[24]


It is an excellent idea of yours to write about the Dacian war. There is no subject which offers such scope and such a wealth of original material, no subject so poetic and almost legendary although its facts are true. You will describe new rivers set flowing over the land, new bridges built across rivers, and camps clinging to sheer precipices; you will tell of a king driven from his capital and finally to death, but courageous to the end; you will record a double triumph one the first over a nation hitherto unconquered, the other a final victory.

—Pliny the Younger: Letters (Book VIII, Letter 4: To Caninius Rufus

Trajan conquered the Dacians, under King Decibalus, and made Dacia, across the Danube in the soil of barbary, a province that in circumference had ten times 100,000 paces; but it was lost under Imperator Gallienus, and, after Romans had been transferred from there by Aurelian, two Dacias were made in the regions of Moesia and Dardania.

—Festus: Breviarium of the Accomplishments of the Roman People (VIII.2)[26]

With the annexation of Decebalus’ kingdom, Dacia was turned into Rome's newest province, only the second such acquisition since the death of Augustus nearly a century before.[27] All that was left to deal with were Decebalus’ Sarmatian allies to the north, requiring a number of campaigns that did not cease until 107 at the earliest;[28] however, by the end of 106, the legions began erecting new Castra along the frontiers.[29] Trajan returned to Rome in the middle of June 107.[30]

Roman sources list the Dacia as an imperial province on August 11, 106.[31] It was governed by an imperial legate of consular standing, supported by two legati legionis who were in charge of each of the two legions stationed in Dacia. The procurator Augusti was responsible for managing the taxation of the province and expenditure by the military.[32] The territory conquered by Trajan was portioned between the newly formed province and the existing provinces bordering imperial Dacia. Moesia Inferior absorbed what eventually became South Moldavia, Muntenia, and Eastern Oltenia,[33] while Dacia Traiana was composed of the western portions of Oltenia, Transylvania, and the Banat.[33]





The provinces of the Roman Empire in 117, with Dacia highlighted.
To Roman Dacia’s east and south was the province of Moesia, which the emperor Domitian had split into two in 86 AD – Moesia Superior, having its capital at Singidunum (modern Belgrade in Serbia), and Moesia Inferior, with Tomis as its capital (modern Constanta, Romania).[34] Along Roman Dacia’s exposed western border and stretching towards the vast Pannonian Plain lived the Iazyges, a Sarmatian tribe.[35] Northern Moldavia was the home of the Bastarns,[36] Roxolani,[37] and Carpi,[38] while the northern section of Transylvania was populated by the remaining non-Romanized Dacians and another Dacian tribe, the Costoboci.[39]

Transforming Dacia into a province was a very resource-intensive process. Traditional Roman methods were employed, including the creation of urban infrastructure such as Roman baths, forums and temples, the establishment of Roman roads, and the creation of colonies composed of retired soldiers.[40] However, excluding Trajan’s attempts to encourage colonists to move into the new province, the imperial government did hardly anything to promote resettlement from existing provinces into Dacia.[40]





The sanctuaries in the ruined Sarmizegetusa Regia, the capital of ancient Dacia
An immediate effect of the wars leading to the Roman conquest was a decrease in the population in the province.[41] Crito wrote that approximately 500,000 Dacians were enslaved and deported, a portion of which were transported to Rome to participate in the gladiatorial games (or lusiones) as part of the celebrations to mark the emperor’s triumph.[28] To compensate for the depletion of the population, the Romans carried out a program of official colonisation, establishing urban centres made up of both Roman citizens and non-citizens from across the empire.[1] Nevertheless, native Dacians remained at the periphery of the province and in rural settings, while local power elites were encouraged to support the provincial administration, as per traditional Roman colonial practice.[42]

Trajan established the Dacian capital, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, some 40 kilometers (25 mi) west of the ruined Sarmizegetusa Regia.[43] Initially serving as a base for the legion IV Flavia,[44] it soon was settled by the retired veterans who had served in the Dacian Wars, principally the Fifth (Macedonia), Ninth (Claudia), and Fourteenth (Gemina) legions.[45]

It is generally assumed that Trajan's reign saw the creation of the Roman road network within imperial Dacia, with any pre-existing natural communication lines quickly converted into paved Roman roads[46] which were soon extended into a more extensive road network.[46] However, only two roads have been attested to have been created at Trajan's explicit command: one was an arterial road that linked the military camps at Napoca and Potaissa.[46] Epigraphic evidence on the milliarium of Aiton indicates that this stretch of road was finished sometime during 109–110 AD.[47] The second road was a major arterial road that passed through Apulum, and stretched from the Black Sea in the east all the way to Pannonia Inferior in the west and presumably beyond.[46]

 

 

 


Emperor Hadrian (117-138)
Hadrian was at Antioch in Syria when word came through of the death of Trajan.[48] But he was in no position to return to Rome, as he was advised that Quadratus Bassus, ordered by Trajan to protect the new Dacian territories north of the Danube, had died there while on campaign.[49] As a result of taking several legions and numerous auxiliary regiments with him to Parthia, Trajan had left Dacia and the remaining Danubian provinces below strength.[50][51] The Roxolani, angry over a Roman decision to cease the payments to which Trajan had agreed, allied themselves with the Iazyges and both tribes revolted against Rome.[52] Therefore, Hadrian dispatched the armies from the east ahead of him, and departed Syria as soon as he was able.[51]

By this time, Hadrian had grown so frustrated with the continual problems in the territories north of the Danube that he contemplated withdrawing from Dacia.[2] As an emergency measure, Hadrian dismantled Apollodorus’s bridge across the Danube, concerned about the threat posed by barbarian incursions across the Olt River and a southward push between a number of Trajan’s colonia and the castrum at Bersobis.[51]





Roman Dacia
By 118, Hadrian himself had taken to the field against the Roxolani and the Iazyges, and although he defeated them, he agreed to reinstate the subsidies to the Roxolani.[52][53] Hadrian then decided to abandon certain portions of Trajan's Dacian conquests. The territories added to Moesia Inferior (Southern Moldavia, the south-eastern edge of the Carpathian Mountains, and the plains of Muntenia and Oltenia) were returned to the Roxolani.[54][53] As a result, Moesia Inferior reverted once again to the original boundaries it possessed prior to the acquisition of Dacia.[33] The portions of Moesia Inferior to the north of the Danube were split off and refashioned into a new province called Dacia Inferior.[33] Trajan’s original province of Dacia was relabelled Dacia Superior.[33] It was at this time that Hadrian moved the Legio IV Flavia Felix from its base at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, and ordered it stationed in Moesia Superior.[55]

By 124, an additional province called Dacia Porolissensis was created in the northern portion of Dacia Superior,[56] roughly located in north-western Transylvania.[33] Since it had become tradition since the time of Augustus that former consuls could only govern provinces as imperial legates where more than one legion was present, Dacia Superior was administered by a senator of praetorian rank.[56] This meant that the imperial legate of Dacia Superior only had one legion under his command, stationed at Apulum.[32] Dacia Inferior and Dacia Porolissensis were under the command of praesidial procurators of ducenary rank.[32]

Hadrian vigorously exploited the opportunities for mining in the new province.[57] The emperors monopolized the revenue generated from mining by leasing the operations of the mines to members of the Equestrian order, who employed a large number of individuals to manage the operations.[58] In 124, the emperor visited Napoca and made the city a municipium.[59]
Captive Dacian
Evidence concerning the continued existence of a native Dacian population within Roman Dacia is not as apparent as that of Germans, Celts, Thracians, or Illyrians in other provinces.[113] There is relatively poor documentation surrounding the existence of native or indigenous Dacians in the Roman towns that were established post Dacia’s incorporation into the empire.[114]

Although literary sources – principally Eutropius,[115] supported by minor references in the works of Cassius Dio[116] and Julian the Apostate[117][118] – describe the widespread depopulation of the province after the siege of Sermizegetusa Regia and the suicide of king Decebalus,[33] there are issues with this interpretation. The remaining manuscripts of Eutropius' Breviarium ab urbe condita, which is the principal source for the depopulation of Roman Dacia after the conquest, are not consistent. Some versions describe the depletion of men after the war, other variants describe the depletion of things, or possibly resources, after Trajan’s conquest.[42] Archaeological evidence shows the continuation of traditional Dacian burial practices; ceramic manufacturing continued throughout the Roman period, in both the province as well as the periphery where Roman control was non-existent.[42] Differing interpretations can be made from the final scene on Trajan's Column, which either depicts a Dacian emigration, accelerating the depopulation of Dacia,[119] or Dacians going back to their settlements after yielding to Roman authority.[120]

While it is certain that colonists in large numbers were imported from all over the empire to settle in Roman Dacia,[42] this appears to be true for the newly created Roman towns only. The lack of epigraphic evidence for native Dacian names in the towns suggests a urban–rural split between Roman multi-ethnic urban centres and the native Dacian rural population.[42]

On at least two occasions the Dacians rebelled against Roman authority: first in 117 AD, which caused the return of Trajan from the east,[121] then in 158 AD when they were put down by Marcus Statius Priscus.[122]

The archaeological evidence from various types of settlements, especially in the Orastie Mountains, demonstrates the deliberate destruction of hill forts during the annexation of Dacia, but this does not rule out a continuity of occupation once the traumas of the initial conquest had past.[123] Hamlets containing traditional Dacian architecture, such as Obreja and Noslac, have been dated to the 2nd century AD, implying that they arose at the same time as the Roman urban centres.[123]

Some settlements do show a clear continuation of occupation from pre-Roman times into the provincial period, such as Cetea and Cicau.[124] Archaeological evidence taken from pottery show a continued occupation of native Dacians in these and other areas. Architectural forms native to pre-Roman Dacia, such as the traditional sunken house and storage pits, remained during Roman times. Such housing continued to be erected well into the Roman period, even in settlements which clearly show an establishment after the Roman annexation, such as Obreja.[125] Altogether, approximately 46 sites have been noted as existing on a spot in both the La Tène and Roman periods.[125]

Where archaeology attests to a continuing Dacian presence, it also shows a simultaneous process of Romanization.[120] Traditional Dacian pottery has been uncovered in Dacian settlements, together with Roman-manufactured pottery incorporating local designs.[120] The increasing Romanization of Dacia meant that only a small number of earlier Dacian pottery styles were retained unchanged, such as pots and the low thick-walled drinking mug that has been termed the Dacian cup. These artifacts were usually handmade; the use of the pottery wheel was rare.[126] In the case of homes, the use of old Dacian techniques persisted, as did the sorts of ornaments and tools used prior to the establishment of Roman Dacia.[120] Archaeological evidence from burial sites has demonstrated that the native population of Dacia was far too large to have been driven away or wiped out in any meaningful sense.[120] It was beyond the resources of the Romans to have eliminated the great majority of the rural population in an area measuring some 300,000 square kilometres.[42] Silver jewellery uncovered in graves show that some of the burial sites are not necessarily native Dacian in origin, but are equally likely to have belonged to the Carpi or Free Dacians who are thought to have moved into Dacia sometime before 200 AD.

Some scholars have used the lack of civitates peregrinae in Roman Dacia, where indigenous peoples were organised into native townships, as evidence for the Roman depopulation of Dacia. Prior to its incorporation into the empire, Dacia was a kingdom ruled by one king, and did not possess a regional tribal structure that could easily be turned into the Roman civitas system as used successfully in other provinces of the empire. Dacian tribes mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography may represent indigenous administrative structures, similar to those from Moesia, Pannonia, Dalmatia, or Noricum.

The native Dacians retained their names and their cultural distinctiveness even with the increasing embrace of Roman cultural norms which followed their incorporation into the empire.


As per usual Roman practice, Dacian males were recruited into auxiliary units[134] and dispatched across the empire, from the eastern provinces to Britannia.  Numerous Roman military diplomas issued for Dacian soldiers discovered after 1990 indicate that veterans preferred to return to their place of origin; per usual Roman practice, these veterans were given Roman citizenship upon their discharge.

There were varying degrees of Romanization throughout Roman Dacia. The most Romanized segment was the region along the Danube, which was predominately under imperial administration, albeit in a form that was partially barbarized. The population beyond this zone, having lived with the Roman legions before their withdrawal, were substantially Romanized. The final zone, consisting of the northern portions of Maramures, Crisana, and Moldavia, stood at the edges of Roman Dacia. Although its people did not have Roman legions stationed among them, they were still nominally under the control of Rome, politically, socially, and economically. These were the areas in which resided the Carpi, often referred to as the Free Dacians.[141]

In an attempt to fill the cities, cultivate the fields, and mine the ore, a large-scale attempt at colonization took place with colonists coming in “from all over the Roman world”.[142] The colonists were a heterogeneous mix:[1] of the some 3,000 names preserved in inscriptions found to date,[timeframe?] 74% (c. 2,200) are Latin, 14% (c. 420) are Greek, 4% (c. 120) are Illyrian, 2.3% (c. 70) are Celtic, 2% (c. 60) are Thraco-Dacian, and another 2% (c. 60) are Semites from Syria.[143] Regardless of their place of origin, the settlers and colonists were a physical manifestation of Roman civilisation and imperial culture, bringing with them the most effective Romanizing mechanism: the use of Latin as the new lingua franca.[1]

The first settlement at Sarmizegethusa was made up of Roman citizens who had retired from the legions.[144] Based upon the location of names scattered throughout the province, it has been argued that, although places of origin are hardly ever noted in epigraphs, a large percentage of colonists originated from Noricum and western Pannonia.[145]

Specialist miners (the Pirusti tribesmen)[146] were brought in from Dalmatia.[58] These Dalmatian miners were kept in sheltered communities (Vicus Pirustarum) and were under the jurisdiction of their own tribal leadership (with individual leaders referred to as princeps).[146]
 

 

 

 

 

 




The Holy Roman Empire was in theory an elective monarchy, but from the 15th century onwards the electors often merely formalised what was a dynastic succession within the Austrian House of Habsburg, with the title usually passing to the eldest surviving son of the deceased Emperor. Despite this, the office was not legally hereditary, and the heir could not title himself "Emperor" without having been personally elected.

Formally the Prince-Electors elected a King of the Romans, who was elected in Germany but became Holy Roman Emperor only when crowned by the Pope. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor (elected 1519, crowned 1530); his successors were all Emperors by election (German: erwählter Römischer Kaiser; Latin: electus Romanorum imperator) only.

Electors were among the princes of the Empire, but they had exclusive privileges in addition to their electoral ones which were not shared with the other princes. The dignity of Elector was extremely prestigious, and was held in addition to such feudal titles as Duke, Margrave, or Count Palatine.

At least from the 13th century, there were seven electors: three spiritual (the Archbishop of Mainz, the Archbishop of Trier, and the Archbishop of Cologne) and four lay: (the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg; these last three were also known as the Elector Palatine, the Elector of Saxony, and the Elector of Brandenburg, respectively). Only six of the electors, however, had the right to sit at ordinary meetings: "The King of Bohemia, who was in fact not a prince of the Empire but a neighbouring and independent monarch, might vote at an imperial election, but was allowed on no other occasion to meddle in the affairs of the Empire

 


So what did the earliest Dragon standards look like? The shape and design of the early standards are lost in the mists of time but if we take the Viking Raven banner as a reference it is likely that there would not have been any unifying shape or size. It would have varied from tribe to tribe and place to place. What is certain is that the appearance of these Dragon standards evolved over time. The Dragon standards from the time of the English migration would have been different from the time of the Norman conquest and these likewise would have been different from the those used up to the early middle ages (it is worth noting that the present day Welsh Dragon only dates from the late 1950’s.) To modern eyes some of them may not have even resembled what we would now days call a flag and would have been more akin to what we would call a wind sock with the dragon pinned to the staff through it’s nostrils and front paws. They may well have been designed to whistle eerily as the wind blew through them in order to spread unease in the enemy ranks in the calm before battle. Some say that we shouldn’t be calling it a dragon at all and instead the early English battle standard should be referred to as a Wyvern. I would certainly not go along with this. Wyvern is a Norman/French word and is not a word our ancestors would have ever used. “Wyverns” only came about due to later Norman heraldry and so have nothing to do with us (and to me is also a great argument for the modern White Dragon having four legs. Why do we want to use Norman words?). To our ancestors a 2-legged dragon was just a dragon, just as a 2-legged dog would still have been a dog. In English literature, Beowulf fought a fire-breathing dragon, not a wyvern. Sigurd was a dragon slayer, not a wyvern slayer and the Anglo-Saxon chronicle speaks of fiery dragons in the sky and not fiery wyverns. In English folklore dragons come in many shapes and sizes, with or without wings and with legs varying from between none at all up to six. Possibly the quinisential early English Dragon was the “Wyrm” of folklore which had no wings and no legs.

In later years it became the custom for the personal banners of the English Kings to be interlaced with gold and jewels in order to reflect the wealth and power of the individual rulers (this would not have been an option open to the roaming war bands who first splashed up our shores in the very early days) but ever since Nennius (who even then was drawing on far earlier sources) in his, Historia Brittonum, wrote of the the early English being represented by a White Dragon it was an asssociation that stuck through many years.

When King Harold’s dragon standard fell onto the blood soaked ground of Sandlake Hill at the Battle of Hastings the long connection between the English people and dragons may well have ended. It was in the victorious Norman’s interest to remove as many signs of English cultural identity as they possibly could, and they started with the English flags. The Dragon Standards that the English had carried before their armies for possibly the last milenia were done away with and replaced by the more continental Cross of St George. The English Dragons very nearly disappeared, but not quite. They lived on, all be it, in a different form in the heraldic symbols of Wessex, the cradle of the English nation. With the ending of the Norman line the English dragons once again start to reappear as the Battle standard of the English armies. In later years during the War of the Roses the Lancastrians were identified as being the Saxon half of the opposing armies and so on medieaval manuscripts were represented by the White Dragon. In modern times the Arch Bishop of Canterbury wears a jeweled clasp on his enthronement vestments. The design on the clasp bears the image of a White Dragon, representing the people of England and a Red Dragon representing the people of Wales greeting each other in peace across the Cross of Canterbury.

It would appear that the people of England, the Anglo-Saxon people of England have for millennia used the Dragon as a token of their common identity and as a rallying symbol to carry before them in troubled times. Through one route or another it has been with the
White Dragon that this association has been most enduring, and that association continues up to the present day.

The White Dragon on the web – some things we found…..

Thus within the original boundaries of the Roman Empire this left the Red Dragon as the symbol of authority only in the extreme West (Britain) and in the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. The Red Dragon survived as a symbol of the Byzantine Empire until Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1465.

at which time it was aquired by the hungarian and austrian, dacian, transylvanian, romanian kings....
 the dragon order of which dracula belonged

Taking advantage of the newly weakened state of Britain these shores came under increasing threat of invasion by the Saxons from Denmark. Though outside the Roman Empire the Saxons had because of their contact with Roman Forces acquired the dragon as a symbol of their own. They however had preferred a White Dragon. The next six hundred years saw battles and rivalry between the forces of the Celts (with their Red Dragons) and the Saxons (with their White Dragons). Around these two warring forces grew the legends of Merlin and King Arthur. Eventually a line was drawn by the Saxon King Offa of Mercia who built a Dyke separating what was Celtic Wales (and the Red Dragon) from Saxon England (and their White Dragon). The last time the White Dragon was seen as a national Standard in Britain was at the Battle of Hastings where on the Bayeux Tapestry the White Dragon is seen in the same scene in which King Harold is struck down.
The History of the Welsh Flag


"At any rate it became their standard, and it was beneath a White Dragon that Harold, the last English king fell, under the arrows of the Normans"
Flame Bearers of Welsh History - Owen Rhoscomyl


"The Welsh fought under a "golden" banner and the adoption of a White Dragon by the men of Sussex may have been merely a matter of useful distinction between the opposing forces"
The Dragons - Ernest Ingersoll


"...the readers attention must still be diverted to the victorious Germanic race and the conquered Celtic race, he must view the white standard of the Saxons and Angles gradually driving the red standard of the Kymri back towards the west...the national poems of the Cambrians designated the two hostile standards, the Red Dragon and the White Dragon"
History of the Conquest of England by the Normans - Augustin Thierry


"In their subsequent contests with the Saxons, our British ancestors always had a red dragon painted upon their standards; while the colourless banner of their opponents bore the figure of the White Dragon"
The National Magazine - Abel Stevens


"...it was then that he discovered that the Red Dragon of the Cymry had joined issue with the White Dragon of Wessex"
Collections Historical & Archaeological Relating to Monmouthshire


"Owen Glyndwr's war standard in 1401 showed a Golden Dragon and the bard Dafydd tells us that they sang that it would overthrow the White Dragon"
The Princes and Principality of Wales


The clasp that holds the two sides of the cope together bears a jewel made by jeweller, Rhiannon of Tregaron. The design shows the white dragon of England and the red dragon of Wales greeting each other in peace across the cross of Canterbury.
The Arch Bishop of Canterbury web site


The mysterious White Horse is carved into the chalk hillside above the village of Uffington. Various interpretations of the stylised carvings are possible; some believe that it might be a dragon rather than a horse.
The Uffington White Horse (many Anglo-Saxon representations of dragons resembled horses. There are many accounts of it’s origins including that it was cut to commemorate King Alfred’s victory over the Danes and also that it was cut by Hengist, leader of the 5th century Anglo-Saxons. It is interesting that the hill just below the carving is called Dragon Hill)

The Celtic dragon represents sovereignty, power or a chief, such as Pendragon, the Celtic word meaning 'chief'. The Red Dragon of Cadwallader or Cadwaller is the emblem of Wales - 'upon a mount vert, a dragon passant, wings expanded and endorsed gules - the Red Dragon Dreadful' The Saxons had the white dragon as a royal standard. In early Britain it depicted supreme power.


In this period the banner, the sign in textile, was a crucial part of the battle. It was not to be captured for that signified defeat. There were royal standards, banners which represented, like the glove, the person of the king. Pagan Vikings—and even Christian Anglo-Saxon kings—fought under a dragon standard.


The Welsh, as a distinct people, may be said to date from about the seventh century, when the advance of the Saxons to the Bristol Channel and the Mersey isolated them from the rest of Celtic Britain. The 'Historia Brittonum,' of about 800 A.D. (traditionally ascribed to the scholar Nennius), which drew on earlier sources, described a Red Dragon as the symbol of the British people in their wars against the White Dragon of the Saxons.


With the relative safety of the line gone, the Huscarls formed a ring around the king. With the king were the standards of England; the Dragon standard of the line of Cerdic, the ancient House of the kings of Wessex; and the fighting man, the personal marker of Harold Godwinsson, worked with silver and gold thread upon in red and white Byzantine silk by Edith, his wife.
Regia Anglorum


Whet the bright steel,
Sons of the White Dragon!
Kindle the torch,
Daughter of Hengist!
Sir Walter Scott - Author of Ivanhoe


A dragon standard was taken on the Third Crusade by Richard I in 1191. A dragon was borne by the English army at the battle of Lewes in 1216 and later Henry III had a dragon standard made to be placed in the re-built Abbey at Westminster. Used by Edward I, Edward III at the battle of Crécy 1346, Henry V at the battle of Agincourt 1415, and at the battle of Bosworth in 1485, after which it was carried in state to St Paul’s Cathedral. Henry VII displayed the red dragon of Cadwallader, from whom he claimed descent, on the Tudor colours of white and green. Until this time it was probably golden. The supporters of the English royal arms were a lion and a dragon, but the latter was replaced by a unicorn for Scotland by the Stuarts. The dragon reappeared briefly as a supporter of the arms of the Commonwealth under Cromwell.


"In the year 742 a great battle was fought at Burford in Oxfordshire, and the Golden Dragon, which like the White Dragon was the standard of Wessex was victorious over Ethelbald, the King of Mercia"
A Study of Serpent Symbolism in All Countries And Ages - M. Oldfield Howey


Anyway, I’d like to add I’m more inclined to believe that Dragon standards have an even older origin than the Romans, in Britain or Germany, when one considers the prevalence of ‘dragon- slayer’ myths, it is likely that some of these old heroes adopted the dragon as their symbol.


Whence came the red dragon of Cadwaladar? Why was the Welsh dragon in fables of Merddin (Merlin), Wennius, and Geofrey described as red, while the Saxon 'fenris' was white?


Battles and rivalry between the forces of the Celts and the Saxons continued until eventually in the eighth century, a line was drawn by the Saxon King Offa of Mercia who built a Dyke separating what was Celtic Wales (and the Red Dragon) from Saxon England (and their White Dragon). The people of Wales would have to wait for the Tudors to re-establish any claim to the throne of Britain. It is significant, therefore, at Bosworth Field in 1485, the Red Dragon of Cadwaladr was carried by Henry Tudor in his defeat of Richard III.


In the Historia Brittonum of around 800 A.D. the dragon is seen as a symbol of national independence in the story of the red dragon battling with the white dragon of the Saxon over the green fertile lands. You can see the White Dragon representing the Saxons on the Bayeaux Tapestry which of course illustrates the Norman invasion of 1066 and conquest of the Saxons. The Saxons did not get a chance to flee west into Wales.


One author interprets “pursuing a dragon” as a poetical description of a campaign against the Saxons or Welsh, who used a dragon banner.
This alludes to the Vikings referring to their armed campaigns in England as “pursuing a dragon”


The English standard was the dragon, shown lying on the ground in the scene depicting Harold's death. Thought to have derived from the figure of the dragon encountered by Trajan's legions in Dacia, it may be the origin of the red dragon of Wales.


In historic times, the Roman soldiers in England carried images or pictures of dragons as ensigns in their wars with the native Britons. If these were mainly white that fact might account for the whiteness of the emblems used by the 'Saxon' armies of the South (Sussex), with which, after the Roman troops had quit England, the west-central kingdom, Wessex, was incessantly in conflict.


It is difficult to imagine the skyline bare of its presence, but on the 14th of October, 1066 it was not a many-towered abbey that broke the cold horizon, but the ominous sight of Harold's Saxon shield wall with the dragon banner of Wessex and his own personal banner of the Fighting Man, flying in the stiffening breeze of a bleak October morning.


The two "dragon" banners here are supposedly the "Dragon of Wessex" Harold's banner as the earl of Wessex. His personal standard the "Fighting Man" is not depicted. It is described as jewelled and was sent as a gift to the pope by William after the battle. The first "dragon" is going down with its bearer - out of sequence if they are meant to be the same (or else the standard is picked up by another housecarle when the original bearer goes down). The "dragon" is a windsock, patterned after Carolingian types, which in turn derived from the Roman.


This corresponds to pre-800 BC, for the Etruscans had arrived by then. We're clearly dealing with the Gaul migration (i.e. "Hallstatt" Celts). The question is, did the Cymbry of Wales originate from the Danish branch of Cimmerians, or from the Italian branch from Umbria/Venetia? Could the red colour of the Welsh dragon indicate Venetia, since the Tyrol symbol (north of Veneto) is a red dragon-like phoenix, while the Anglo-Saxon dragon is depicted as a white one?


The boy says that the red dragon symbolized the people of Vortigern and the white dragon symbolizes the Saxons. Which symbolizes that in the future, the Vortigern, who are today called the Welsh, would fight the Saxons and drive them to the edge of their country and out of their land in 5th century AD, many years later.


There is a medieval map of the English "heptarchy", a period where there were seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms at war with each other. This map, made I believe in the 12th Century after the heptarchy period is illustrated with banners of the kingdoms. Those shown for Essex, Kent and Sussex appear to be very similar to their "county standards" today, while East Anglia has three crowns on a white background, Mercia appears to have a white dragon of some kind.


One of the British leaders after the departure of the Romans was Vortigern (Gwyrtheryn of Welsh legend), who may have been a native of the Welsh borders. Certainly the kings of Powys claimed him as an ancestor. It was Vortigern who is blamed for inviting Saxon mercenaries into Britain to help maintain order in the period following the departure of Roman troops. When the money ran out to pay the mercenaries, they rebelled and over the course of several centuries, took over control of large sections of Britain from the Romano-British. Just to confuse matters the Saxons also liked the idea of a dragon (which they saw when fighting romans cohorts in Europe) and had adopted the white dragon as their symbol.


At one time, the Saxons had a dragon too, a white one, and legend has it that in Eryri (Snowdonia) there was a battle between the two, the White Dragon winning at first then losing as the Red Dragon found renewed strength. This was supposed to foretell a time when the Welsh would drive out the Saxon invaders (perhaps their survival as a separate people against heavy odds is a sort of fulfilment of that prophecy).


'The Red Dragon signifies our people of Britain. For a long time he shall suffer woe and be driven into hiding by the White Dragon, who signifies the Saxons whom you have invited into the Island. For a little space the Red Dragon shall conquer, when King Arthur rules this land: but when he passes into Avalon, the White Dragon shall triumph wholely, and the Saxons shall rule all Britain. Yet at the last Arthur shall return, and the Red Dragon of Wales conquer the White and set his country free.


Wales is symbolised by a red dragon. In the Mabinogion the tale of Lludd and Llewelys speaks of the struggle between this red dragon and the white dragon. It was long ago in the days of the Saxon invasions that this story takes place and it is no wonder that the white dragon is the invader, the Saxons, come to battle the red.
As the symbolic struggle comes to a close, the two opposing dragons become drunk with mead. It is in this drunken state that they are both buried in a large stone coffin and placed to rest in the centre of the island of Britain. The story goes that so long as the pair remain buried beneath Oxford the island will be protected from invasion. The dual burial is a symbol of the latent power within the combined strength of the Anglo-Saxons people. Therefore the double burial is key to their reconciliation. The bloody relations have been calmed and the dragons wait to rise together in protection of the island.


The White Horse was the symbol of the invading Saxons. This sort of symbolism is also indicated by references to the British Red Dragon and Saxon White Dragon of the text of Nennius.


The pool is the emblem of this world, and the tent that of your kingdom: the two serpents are two dragons; the red serpent is your dragon, but the white serpent is the dragon of the people who occupy several provinces and districts of Britain, even almost from sea to sea: at length, however, our people shall rise and drive away the Saxon race from beyond the sea, whence they originally came.

England has many flags, each representing each county, that date back to the Anglo Saxon invasion, with dragons being a popular theme. The current flag of England is the flag of Saint George, the 'dragon slayer'. The flag consists of a red cross on a white background and was first worn by the English King Richard 'The Lionheart' Plantagenet and his English Knights on the Third Crusade in the 12th century. When the Crusaders returned back to England, they replaced England's first flag, which was the Anglo Saxon 'White Dragon' flag with the Saint George. The white dragon flag consisted of a white dragon on a blood red background. Even though the Saint George flag is the official flag of England, the 'White Dragon Flag' is still in use and is still very popular amongst the English who some of which would like to have it re instated as the official flag of England.
Wikipedia


The White Dragon Flag is reputedly an Anglo-Saxon flag with historic associations for pre-Norman England. The White Dragon arrived with the Angle, Saxon and Jutish raiders attacking Celtic Britain during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Centuries. It is believed to feature on the Bayeux Tapestry. The White Dragon Flag is not used in any official capacity and was phased out of popular use.
Wikipedia


In pagan times the Mercians fought under the banner of the white dragon. This remained in use during the Christian period as well.
Wikipedia


One of the most ordinary Anglo-Saxon sculptures," he remarks, "is that of a dragon. All sorts of Anglo-Celtic work bear this figure."


Q: Dear Mr. Cornwell, I have been an avid reader of your books for many a year and read "The Last Kingdom" with the usual enjoyment. As something of an Anglo-Saxon enthusiast, I was interested in your description of Alfred's Wessex flag as a white dragon on a green background. I have seen reference to the Wessex flag as a white dragon on a red background and of a golden dragon on a red background. But I cannot find details of the green background you mention. I've talked to some other Anglo-Saxon enthusiasts and they aren't sure of the origin of the green background either. I would much appreciate if you could tell me the source of where you found this information if you have it at hand anywhere. Keep up the superb work and I look forward to reading "The Pale Horseman".
A: Honestly don't have a clue. I've got it in a notebook, so I copied it down from somewhere, but as I keep explaining (and apologising) I rarely note my sources because they aren't really relevant to an historical novelist. I'll keep an eye out though, and if I come across the reference again I'll make sure to let you know.
This refers to a question posed to the best selling novelist Bernard Cornwell who also has a reputation for his research and historical accuracy


Two images toward the bottom of this section also bear mentioning. A pair of small roundels containing a red dragon, representing the Welsh, and a white dragon, representing the Saxons… For the Yorkists the red dragon represented Edward IV, and the white dragon the Lancastrians. The identification of Lancastrians and Saxons is made further along in the manuscript, where Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI are all bordered in Saxon yellow alone.
This refers to a 15th century heraldic manuscript.


A white dragon was the original pagan banner of Marcia; it remained in use during the Christian period as well.
Wikipedia


Various accounts of the times record many battles between armies carrying the Celtic British Red Dragon Banner (now the Welsh Dragon) and the White Dragon Flag of the Saxons, Angles and Jutes (the English Dragon).


The White Dragon of the English probably began as a rallying symbol on the battlefiled. Attached to a spear or pole it would have possibly been a windsock type design that could have made a noise. Imagine many of them! But the White Dragon of the English is no longer a far forgotten emblem on a forgotten battlefield. It is fast becoming a symbol of the English alongside the Cross of St George. But it is less religious. It represents the pride and resilience of the English people. It is truly a symbol for our times. Its appeal will continue to grow.
 

 

 

 

 

 

A Sixteenth Century Hungarian Countess, Erszebet enjoyed bathing in blood. This deviant fawn of royalty believed that regular blood baths would halt the aging process. Estimates of the number of girls that were slaughtered for her 10 years of beauty treatments are as much as 650.



The bloody Countess, the widow of a celebrated Hungarian war hero and descendent of the legendary despot Vlad the Impaler, led a life immersed in black magic and sadism. When the Countess became romantically involved with a black-clad stranger with pale complexion, dark eyes and abnormally sharp teeth, the villagers who believed in vampires had more reason toe be wary of Csejthe Castle. Perhaps, to the imaginative, the stranger was Dracula himself, returned from the grave. The Countess returned alone from her sojourn with the stranger and some of the villagers stated that her mouth showed telltale signs of blood.

Now firmly rooted at her castle, Countess Elizabeth experimented in depravity with the help of Thorko, Ilona Joo (Elizabeth's former nurse), the witches Dorottya Szentes and Darvulia, and the dwarf majordomo Johannes Ujvary, who would soon become chief torturer. With the aid of this crew Elizabeth captured buxom servant girls at the castle, taking them to an underground room known as 'her Ladyship's torture chamber' and subjected them to the worst cruelties she could devise. Under the pretext of punishing the girls for failing to perform certain trivial tasks, Elizabeth used branding irons, molten wax and knives to shed their blood. She tore the clothing from one girl, covered her with honey, and left her to the hunger of the insects of the woods. Soon, the Countess began attacking her bound victims with her teeth, biting chunks of bloody flesh from their necks, cheeks and shoulders. Blood became more of an obsession with Elizabeth as she continued her tortures with razors, torches, and her own custom made silver pincers.

She was excessively vain and her narcissism drove her to new depths of perversion. As Elizabeth aged and her beauty began to wane, she tried to conceal the decline through cosmetics and the most expensive of clothes. But these would not cover the ever spreading wrinkles. One fateful day a servant girl was attending to Elizabeth's hair and either pulled it or remarked that something was wrong with her mistress' headdress. The infuriated Countess slapped the girl so hard that blood spurted from her nose. The blood splashed against Elizabeth's face. Where the blood had touched her skin, the Countess observed in a mirror, a miracle had seemingly transpired. In her eyes, the skin had lost its lines of age. Elizabeth became exhilarated in the knowledge that she could regain her lost youth through vampirism. Darvulia instructed the credulous Elizabeth how she might again be young. The Countess believed the ancient credo that the taking of another's blood could result in the assimilation of that person's physical or spiritual qualities. Following the witch's instructions, Elizabeth had her torturers kidnap beautiful young virgins, slash them with knives and collect their blood in a large vat. Then the Countess proceeded to bathe in the virgin's blood. When she emerged from the blood she had seemingly regained her youth and radiance.

Elizabeth's minions procured more virgins from the neighboring villages on the pretext of hiring them as servants. When their bloodless corpses were discovered outside the castle, rumors quickly spread that vampires inhabited the old fortress. Countess Elizabeth continued such practices after the death of her husband in 1604. (Count Nadasdy apparently died of poisoning although his death was also ascribed to witchcraft.) When Darvulia died and Elizabeth found herself aging even more, another sorceress named Erzsi Majorova told her that the virginal victims must be of noble birth. But even though Elizabeth tortured young noblewomen and accompanied the blood baths with witchcraft rites, she could not retrieve her lost youth. For over a decade she perpetrated her acts of vampirism, mutilating and bleeding dry 650 maidens. Rumors spread that Elizabeth headed a terrible group of vampires that preyed upon the village maidens. Reverend Andras Berthoni, a Lutheran pastor of Csejthe, realized the truth when Elizabeth commanded him to bury secretly the bloodless corpses. He set down his suspicions regarding Elizabeth in a note before he died. The Countess was becoming so notorious that her crimes could no longer be concealed. In 1612, after countless rumors about her behavior, troops entered her Castle Csejthe and uncovered a blood-letting in progress. All the servants that participated in her orgies of horror were executed and burned. The Countess, being royalty, was put under house arrest. Three years later, on August 21, 1614, she died sealed in her bedroom.

Shape shifting and blood rituals of the Dacains

RITUAL INITIATIONS

WRAPPING IN SKINS

According to Porphirios (Vita Pyth. 16-17), Phytagoras was initiated in Crete in the mysteries of Zeus, being purified by the initiates of Dactylus the Morget, using a meteorite. Then Pythagoras spent the night wrapped into a black sheep skin. This custom is similar to the account of Herodian (232 - 304) from his "Life of Pythagora, relatively to Zalmoxis birth": "Pythagoras had another teenager from Thrace, called Zalmoxis, because, at birth, he was wrapped into a bear skin. The Thracian name for skin is "zalmos"" This confirms that, by being wrapped into a black sheep skin, Pythagoras was initiated into a Thracian ritual. This ritual was considered as a spiritual rebirth. Zalmoxis' (re)birth as a bear, meant that he become a hermit, as bear is a well known solitary animal. Pythagoras was initiated according to a Morget (black Getic) ritual, by the initiates of Dactylus the Morget.
The ritual wrapping into a wolf skin had a similar signification: the person was reborn transformed into a wolf. He lost his previous human behavior and became a blood thirsty warrior. Probably, this practice was brought to Dacia by the Scythians.
Neuri is the name of an ancient tribe placed by Herodotus (iv. 1o5) to the north-east of Scythia. He says of it: "It seems that the Neuri are sorcerers, if one is to believe the Scythians and the Greeks established in Scythia; for each Neurian changes himself, once in the year, into the form of a wolf, and he continues in that form for several days, after which he resumes his former shape." Pomponius Mela (lib. ii. c. 1) says: "There is a fixed time for each Neurian, at which they change, if they like, into wolves, and back again into their former condition."
A similar signification of spiritual transformation was in the custom of the Dacian priests to wear fur caps during their rituals, being called "pilleati" (from pilleus = fur cap) because of that.

The custom of wrapping in skins was preserved until the 20th century among Aromanian shepherds. My grandfather contacted typhus while being a voluntary into the French Army, in the Albanian side of Macedonia, during World War I. He was cured by Aromanian shepherds: they sacrificed two sheep and wrapped his naked body into their fresh skins. He was unconscious the next 48 hours, but after that his fever dropped and he was saved. At the close of World War I the disease caused several million deaths in Russia, Poland, and Romania.

TATTOOING

Some of the oldest evidence on existence of tattooing were left by Herodotus (500 BC) in his "Historia" where he described Thracians: "Stitching was their sign for an aristocrat and who has had no tattoos done - descend from ordinary people." 100 years later Plutarhus wrote "Thracians mark their wives with stitching..."

Dio Christotomus also wrote that "free women in Thracia were covered with signs and scars although they derived from a noble family." Roman poet Valerius Flacus (100 B.C.) wrote in his epic poem "Argonautica" that kidnapped Thracian girl was a participant at barbaric custom called "coloured and stigmatized arms." That should be connected with Thracian tradition to do tattoos, scars and burns.

Artemidos mentioned that Thracians were marking children from noble aristocratic families, but Goths were marking their slaves with tattoos. There is a note about one of the Thracian tribes the Agatirians. "All of the noble had a lot of tattooing on their faces and limbs."
Roman geographer Pomponius Mela (100 B.C.) remarked "the Agathyrs, particularly the noble ones, colour their faces and limbs with colour which can not be washed away." We should almost be certain that those were tattoos. The Agathyrs coloured their hair and the tattoo in blue.

Plinios (100 A.D.) wrote in his "Historia naturalis" that Dacian men were tattooed. The same was mentioned about the neighbouring tribe of the Sarmatians, who were of Iranian origin, being closely related to the Agathyrs.

They did not do only the usual colouring of the body because Plinios reported that those marks and scars can be inherited from father to son for few generations and still remain the same - the sign of Dacian origin. It is a bit exaggerated but at the same time shows that those permanent signs were tattoos. We should believe it because later Hesychios wrote about tattooed men in those areas where among others lived also Dacians. All mentioned peoples were settled at the east of the Balkan peninsula. At the west there were Japodians and Ilirians. Strabo (100 B.C.) wrote about them in his book "Geographica." "Japodians mark themselves with stitching just like other Ilirians and Thracians." So the tattooing was widely spread among ancient Balkan peoples and tribes.

Scythians, according to Herodotus, were a red haired people who practiced tatooing and buried their kings in elaborate tummuli.
Cicero called the marks "punctum notis Thraeciis", meaning pricked with Thracian marks.
Tertullian, in the 3rd century, implied that tattooing was the custom of the Britons, Picts and Scots, and called the marks "Stigmata Britonum."

PSYCHOACTIVE MUSHROOMS

As the distinguished historian Mircea Eliade points out in his essay "Dacians and wolves", the early European warriors - using carefully orchestrated rituals involving wolf-pelts and psychoactive mushrooms - were able to undergo a total psychological transformation into wolves. The Dacians' belief in immortality is the result of the experiences derived from the use of psychoactive mushrooms. During these altered states of consciousness they were able to meet their dead ancestors and to have premonitory visions. The most commonly used mushroom, for ritual purposes, was Amanita Muscaria. It was leading to a feeling of pleasant invigoration, and the individual would be prone to breaking into song, dance and laughter. This was accompanied by a marked increase in physical strength.

Dio Cassius wrote in Roman History, epitome of book LXVIII, 8: "When Trajan in his campaign against the Dacians had drawn near Tapae, where the barbarians were encamped, a large mushroom was brought to him on which was written in Latin characters a message to the effect that the Buri and other allies advised Trajan to turn back and keep the peace. Nevertheless he engaged the foe, and saw many wounded on his own side and killed many of the enemy. And when the bandages gave out, he is said not to have spared even his own clothing, but to have cut it up into strips."
The Dacians warned the Romans that they have plenty of mushrooms to became fearless warriors and the outcome of the battle was a confirmation for that. The use of these mushrooms explains the remark of Trajan: "the Dacians go to their deaths, happier than in any other journey".

THE WOLF AS A SYMBOL

Lup/lupul = wolf/the wolf in Romanian; lup/lupu = to die/dead in Etruscan. Similarly, haita = wolf pack in Romanian; Aita = the god of the underworld the equivalent of Greek Hades, for the Etruscans. Etruscan funerary paintings shows Aita wearing on his head the head and fur of a wolf! It is similar to the Egyptian jackal headed Upuaut/Wepwawet or Greek Ophois. Upuaut had a double role, being the god of war (just like the wolf headed Dacian banners!) and of the funerary worship, opening the way both for the troops and for the spirits of the dead.
Luptã (Romanian) = lucta (Latin) = fight. Note that the Romanian word stands from lup (wolf), the symbol from the banners of the Dacian warriors. It is not the case of the Latin word, which seems to be imported from Dacian, the Romans maintaining themselves the cult of the she-wolf, mother of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome!
In the Balkan folk medicine and apotropaeic magic, the destructive aspect of the wolf's mouth is symbolically turned around and used against demonic forces and diseases.
The magic act of pulling children through the wolf's mouth in the context of birth ritual and infant care shows that the symbolism of the wolf's mouth is connected with the female reproductive organs.
The wolf appears at the most important transitory moments in the human life cycle (birth - marriage - death).

LYCANTHROPY

The ability to change into a wolf by the power of certain rituals is connected with lycanthropy properly speaking-an extremely widespread phenomenon, but more especially documented in the Balkano-Carpathian region-or with a ritual imitation of the behavior and outward appearance of the wolf.
Mount Lycaeus was the scene of a yearly gathering at which the priests were said to prepare a sacrificial feast that included meat mixed with human parts. According to legend, whoever tasted it became a wolf and could not turn back into a man unless he abstained from human flesh for nine years.
Pliny relates from Evanthes, that on the festival of Jupiter Lycaeus, one of the family of Antaeus was selected by lot and conducted to the brink of the Arcadian lake. He then hung his clothes on a tree and plunged into the water, whereupon he was transformed into a wolf. Nine years after, if he had not tasted human flesh, he was at liberty to swim back and resume his former shape, which had in the meantime become aged, as though he had worn it for nine years.
Agriopas relates, that Demaenetus, having assisted at an Arcadian human sacrifice to Jupiter Lycaeus, ate of the flesh and was at once transformed into a wolf, in which shape he prowled about for ten years, after which he recovered his human form and took part in the Olympic games.

The essential part of the military initiation consisted in ritually transforming the young warrior into some species of predatory wild animal. It was not solely a matter of courage, physical strength, or endurance, but "of a magico-religious experience that radically changed the young warriors mode of being. He had to transmute his humanity by an access of aggressive and terrifying fury that made him like a raging carnivore.
The young warrior accomplished his transformation into a wolf by the ritual donning of a wolf-skin, an operation preceded or followed by a radical change in behavior. As long as he was wrapped in the animal's skin, he no longer felt bound by the laws and customs of men.

The wolf-man survived up to now under the image of Saint Cristopher / Hristofor who is represented having a dog/wolf face. Such representations are found in Orthodox Church in icons and an wall-paintings. An icon of Saint Hristofor shows him with a staff that ends with a wolf- head, similarly to the draco/dragon of the Dacian banner. A wall painting from "Sfanta-Maria" monastery from Techirghiol, Romania, shows St. Hristofor having a cross in his hand. That indicates a Christian metamorphosis of a formerly pagan wolf-god.
Saint Cristopher/Hristofor is celebrated by the Orthodox Church on the 8th ofmay.
In the Romanian popular tradition, in January is celebrated the winter St. Peter, also known as the Lame St.Peter, the patron of the wolves, that protects people from wolves. In the Catholic Church, St. Cristopher is protecting the travelers from being attacked and robbed or murdered. That's an interesting similitude with the Lame St.Peter, since the outlaws were called "wolves" since the ancient times.
 

LYCANTHROPY
The ability to change into a wolf by the power of certain rituals is connected with lycanthropy properly speaking-an extremely widespread phenomenon, but more especially documented in the Balkano-Carpathian region-or with a ritual imitation of the behavior and outward appearance of the wolf.
Mount Lycaeus was the scene of a yearly gathering at which the priests were said to prepare a sacrificial feast that included meat mixed with human parts. According to legend, whoever tasted it became a wolf and could not turn back into a man unless he abstained from human flesh for nine years.
Pliny relates from Evanthes, that on the festival of Jupiter Lycaeus, one of the family of Antaeus was selected by lot and conducted to the brink of the Arcadian lake. He then hung his clothes on a tree and plunged into the water, whereupon he was transformed into a wolf. Nine years after, if he had not tasted human flesh, he was at liberty to swim back and resume his former shape, which had in the meantime become aged, as though he had worn it for nine years.
Agriopas relates, that Demaenetus, having assisted at an Arcadian human sacrifice to Jupiter Lycaeus, ate of the flesh and was at once transformed into a wolf, in which shape he prowled about for ten years, after which he recovered his human form and took part in the Olympic games.

The essential part of the military initiation consisted in ritually transforming the young warrior into some species of predatory wild animal. It was not solely a matter of courage, physical strength, or endurance, but "of a magico-religious experience that radically changed the young warriors mode of being. He had to transmute his humanity by an access of aggressive and terrifying fury that made him like a raging carnivore.
The young warrior accomplished his transformation into a wolf by the ritual donning of a wolf-skin, an operation preceded or followed by a radical change in behavior. As long as he was wrapped in the animal's skin, he no longer felt bound by the laws and customs of men.
 




NORTHERN WOLF WARRIORS

The ritual initiations in the Wolves' brotherhood were passed from Dacia to the Germanic tribes through the Celts' Druids and through the Goths.
An unamalgamated group of Baltic tribes occupied the area from the Warnow to the Rugen, round the Oder mouths and up the Peene. These were given the collective name of the Liutuzians (today's Lithuanians) meaning "terrible" or Wilzians (from which comes today's capital name Vilnius) meaning "wolf" people.
Valhalla or Valhöll, in Norse mythology, was the "hall of the Valks", the wolf warriors, who live there blissfully under the leadership of the god Odin. Their feminine counterparts were the Valkyries also spelled Walkyries, Old Norse Valkyrja, the female wolf warriors, in Norse mythology. They picked up the heroes to fill Valhalla. A man choosen to die was said to see a Valkyrie just before the fatal blow. Valkyria is probably a compound name Valk + kyra meaning Valk lady (from Greek kyra, meaning lady).
The Valkyries also worked as Odin's servants. They served food and drink to the warriors in Valhalla.
Valhalla is depicted as a splendid palace, roofed with shields, and hving 540 doors, each big enough to let 800 armed men through, side by side. There the warriors feasted on the flesh of a boar slaughtered daily and made whole again each evening. They fight one another every day in order to be prepared to join Odin in the final battle against the forces of destruction at the time of Ragnarök.
Valaskjalf (meaning Shelf of the Valasks) was Odin's other hall where his great throne, Hlidskjalf, stood.
The Vedic heaven, the "world of the fathers", called Valak-Hilyah, was inhabited by the 60.000 deities of light, called Valakhilyas and presented in the Mahabharata and in the Puranas. It resembles the Germanic Valhalla, both names coming from the root Valak/Valk that might be of Scythian origin. Valakhilyas, the Lilliputian sages were said to be drinkers of Sun-rays (maricipah). They were worshipping the sun god.

HITLER THE WOLF

Most probable, Adolf Hither was initiated into the Germanic branch of wolves' brotherhood. The following facts are sustaining this assertion.
In an article in his party newspaper written in 1922, Hitler used an unusual metaphor to describe how the crowds began to react to him: they began to realize, he said, 'that now a wolf has been born, destined to burst in upon the herd of seducers and deceivers of the people.' He had his sister Paula change her name to Frau Wolf. The special agent he chose to supervise purchases for his Linz Library and Museum was a Dr Wolfhardt (literally, "hard wolf"). He approved of naming the Volkswagen factory "Wolfsburg". When he telephone Winifred Wagner, he would say "Conductor Wolf"calling!'. The secretary he kept longer than any other (more than 20 years) was Johanna Wolf. She recalled that while Hitler addressed all other secretaries formally as "Frau" or "Fraulein", he invariably called her "Wolfin" (She-Wolf). Hitler named his headquarters in France "Wolfsschluct" (Wolf's Gulch), in the Ukraine his headquarters were "Werwolf (Werewolf)", and in East Prussia "Wolfsschanze" (Wolf's Lair) - as he explained to a servant, "I am the Wolf and this is my den." He called the SS "my pack of wolves". In his book, "Hitler Speaks", published in 1939, Hermann Rauschning writes: "My informant described to me in full detail a remarkable scene - I should not have credited the story if it had not come from such a source. Hitler stood swaying in his room, looking wildly about him. "He! He! He's been here!" He gasped. His lips were blue. Sweat streamed down his face. Suddenly he began to reel off figures, and odd words and broken phrases, entirely devoid of sense. It sounded horrible. He used strangely composed and entirely un-German word formations. Then he stood quite still, only his lips moving ... gradually he grew calm. After that he lay asleep for many hours."
 

THE REW

Throughout the whole vast shadowy world of ghosts and demons there is no figure so terrible, so dreaded and abhorred, yet endowed with such fearful fascination as the vampire; who is himself neither ghost nor demon but who partakes of the dark natures, and possesses the mysterious and terrible qualities of both. Around the vampire have clustered the most sombre superstitions, for he is a thing which belongs to no world at all. A pariah even among demons, foul are his ravages; gruesome and seemingly barbaric are the ancient and approved methods by which folk must rid themselves of this hideous pest. Even in this twentieth century in certain quarters of the world, in the remoter districts of Europe itself, in Transylvania, Slavonia, the isles and mountains of Greece, the peasant will take the law into his own hands and utterly destroy the carrion who - as is yet firmly believed - will issue at night from his unhallowed grave to spread the infection of vampirism throughout the countryside.

Nowhere, however, do we see more vampire folklore than in the stories of the Slavic people.

It is known that a specific trait of the Khazar turkik tribes, before their conversion to Judaism, was phallic worship. The aristocracy within those tribes held harems and exacted female slaves from tributary (mostly slavic) populations. Slaves held in Khazaria were forced to sell their children, males and females, to sexual slavery.

The Vampire descends from the Dragon Royalty known in Transylvania and Greater Scythia

Vampire (also vampyre) is from the Magyar vampir, a word of Slavonic origin occurring in the same form in Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbian and Bulgarian.vampires particularly infest Slavonic countries, and it does not appear that this species of apparition was well known in western Europe until towards the end of the seventeenth century. There undoubtedly were cases of vampirism, as will be recorded in their due order, but the fuller knowledge of these horrors reached western Europe only during the eighteenth century

Khazarian Jews seen as Vampires..

Sometime during the 13th century, the Khazars were driven from their land and they migrated north westward with most of them settling in Poland and Russia.

There are many stories from the middle ages of Jews practicing  sorcery and ritual sacrifice such as ''The Girl Who Was Killed by Jews'' and ''The Jews' Stone''
 

The parallels between the character of Dracula and the 19th century stereotype of the Jew are striking.

Dracula’s distinctive physique, his parasitical desires, his `blood-sucking', his aversion to the crucifix and Christianity, and his rapacious relation to money, parallel stereotypical anti-Semitic nineteenth-century representations of the Jew.' However, because no direct reference is made within Dracula which unequivocally establishes the Count as Jewish, it would seem difficult to establish this relationship. Nonetheless, if a comparison is made between the representation of the vampire and the perceived image of the Jew, then a startling analogy arises. Dracula, like the perceived image of the Jew, seemingly transmits an inherent connection between blood and gold, between a threatening sexuality and ethnicity which seems to confirm the novel's depiction of the vampire as the anti-Semite's Jew. Here, the Jew is portrayed as a multi-faceted `monster', where the Gothic novel's creation of monstrosity is never completely unitary but is a composite of race, class, and gender'.

Dracula’s hoards of gold are also reflective of a Jewish nature. There was a long-established stereotype of the Jew being emblematic of exploitation and cosmopolitan wealth. The cultural variety of the gold suggests the extent of the Count’s travels. Dracula’s financial stinginess is thought to be a reflection of Jewish money managing.

Physically, he is made to resemble an Eastern European Jew: Dracula is a dark-featured, pale-skinned man with a prominent “hook nose.” He comes from the East and speaks with a strange accent, switching his “v's” and “w's” and sometimes “t's” and “s's”-morphemic characteristics of Jews. Further, like the Jews cast out of Israel into the lands of the Diaspora, Dracula as a vampire has no true nationality to claim. He has pride in tracing his ancestry back to the Turks and the great warrior Attila the Hun, but he has no present ties to any geographically fixed ethnic group. He is forced by his very nature to remain on the outskirts of civilization, hunted and, as the Christians imagined the Jews to do, hunting down innocent people. Van Helsing and his “Crew of Light” make it their mission to destroy the threat that Dracula poses

Bram Stoker's character of Count Dracula, who for many encapsulates the aristocratic ethos of the vampire, "

"The idea that a shadowy clique is running the world is nothing new. For hundreds of years people have believed the world is governed by a cabal of Jews. 

There is, nevertheless, a critical and even radical dimension to the figure of the vampire, who, as a parasite, circulates as a political metaphor. The word vampire has from the start been used in oppositional literature as a symbol of an exploiting class, government, industry, or institution. Vampires are perfectly suited to, and a perfect representation of, a global economy in the scope of their engagement and their profile in emergent industries. Shouldn't we expect that the rich and powerful organize things in their own interests. The Vampire complex is now a vast and often unfathomable web of interconnecting secret societies, banks, businesses, political parties, security agencies, media owners, and so on" Perhaps most revealing of all is the dissolution of the boundary between fantasy and reality, the presentation of the vampire as an historical agent rather than a fictional character. Deeply ironic and radical, this slippage of fact and fantasy drives the vampire legacy much closer to its critical core.

The Illuminate is Rew

Out of European history then comes a group of people who call themselves the Illuminati. The term "Illuminati" refers to the highest and most evil people in the pyramid structure.

Their power lies in the occult and in economy - money creates power. The Illuminati own all the International banks, the oil-businesses, the most powerful businesses of industry and trade, they infiltrate politics and they own most governments - or at least control them. An example of this is the election for presidency. It is no secret that the candidate who gets the most sponsorship in form of money wins the election, as this gives the power to "un-create" the opposed candidate.

But is the President really running the game? Not the least. The power does not lie with the politicians, but with the Illuminati, whose top members are mostly International Bankers. The leading candidates for Presidency are carefully chosen from the occult bloodlines of the thirteen Illuminati families, and if we research all the Presidents of the United States from the beginning and up to now, we will see that almost all of them are of the same royal bloodline, and they are all "family"; related by ancestry and family trees. Royalty is equivalent to the Illuminati.

 

Strongest Beliefs in Vampires Settled in Bohemia,

Suffolk County.
The village of Bohemia, which is east of Amityville, was founded by Slavic peasants from Eastern Europe in the 19th century. The names of the early Slav families were Vavra, Kratchovil, Koula and Ruzicka. They developed a reputation of being fine carpenters. The part of Eastern Europe they were from was the province of Bohemia, in a village near Kadam. These peasant immigrants brought with them legends and tales of vampires which was added to the local Suffolk County folklore.
Montague Summers who wrote The Vampire in Europe said that the small province of Bohemia was the main center of Vampire activity. An article in the Prague Post called Bohemia, "Vampire Central." Bohemia was worse for vampire legends than Transylvania. From the beginning of Slavic settlements here in Bohemia - that means from the beginning of the 6th century - you can find a percentage of graves that you can recognize were considered "vampire" graves.

Bohemian Grove

Bohemian Grove is a 2,700-acre campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue, in Monte Rio, California, belonging to a private San Francisco-based men's art club known as the Bohemian Club. In mid-July each year, Bohemian Grove hosts a three-week encampment of some of the most powerful men in the world. The membership lists are private, and only a few people outside of the club ever have seen them. Some prominent figures are given honorary membership only, such as Richard Nixon and William Randolph Hearst. Members have included some U.S. presidents (usually before they are elected to office), many cabinet officials, and CEOs of large corporations, including major financial institutions. Major military contractors, oil companies, banks (including the Federal Reserve), utilities, and national media have high-ranking officials as club members or guests. Many members are, or have been, on the board of directors of several of these corporations. Here are the main players.

1. Rothschild  2. (European Royal Families) 3. Rockefeller  4. DuPont

The Cremation of Care ceremony..The ceremony involves the poling across a lake of a small boat containing an effigy of Care. Dark, hooded figures receive from the ferryman the effigy which is placed on an altar and at the end of the ceremony, is set on fire. This "cremation" symbolizes that members are banishing the "cares" of conscience.

In this ceremony, they worship a giant 40-foot OWL, and sacrifice a mock human being in effigy. This is Satanism. David Rockefeller is also a member of this Satanic group.

Suddenly, (again, we had initially been misdirected from the owl by the activities behind the curtains across the bank, then we were paying attention to the owl and the priests on the island ) back on the west bank, there was an old-fashioned river-style boat, with that grim reaper character who had been driving the wagon, and he was poling himself across the water with the bound body up on the bow. He brought the bound body to the high priest who was waiting for it at the foot of the owl, at the bottom of large circular steps on which the owl sits. Then, in very macabre fashion, the two black-clad priests rubbed and caressed the sacrificial body and brought it before the owl. The body begged for its life, over a speaker system. They refused it mercy. They took it up onto the altar. The "great owl" told them to burn the body (which they called "dull care,")which looks like a human wrapped up in black cloth. Right above the altar there was a large stone lamp that was burning that they call the "eternal flame." The high priest took an unlit torch and lit his torch with this flame. The body again begged for mercy. The high priest then walked down (with some difficulty, because this high priest was so old, he could hardly even walk), and lit the pyre on fire. He began to say that he would read the signs in the remains, a deep occult tradition. This is not the Hollywood devil with red pajamas – this is the real deal, Babylon mystery religion-style. The body continued to scream in pain. Suddenly, all of those little metal crosses that we had seen along the bank during the day burst into flame. So, I was there witnessing something right out of the medieval painter Hieronymus Bosch’s Visions of Hell: burning metal crosses, priests in red and black robes with the high priest in a silver robe with a red cape, a burning body screaming in pain, a giant stone great-horned owl, world leaders, bankers, media and the head of academia engaged in these activities. It was total insanity.

 

The occultic 'dark side' that is bred (indoctrinated) into the collective mindset of the members can be so so so easily argued down as being 'harmless fun' if you do not understand how the technique works. An obvious analogy that springs to mind would be to say that it is rather like allowing school children to engage in playground bullying and vandalism and fighting, without the proper adult guidance of right and wrong. Yes, you could say it's all a little bit of harmless schoolyard fun, but as anyone who knows about child (human) development will tell you, bullies in the playground often become bullies into the adult world! The idea that the mock sacrifices are the extent of the sinister 'goings on' at Bohemian Grove is always open to speculation. There have been several official reports which include evidence of satanic ritual abuse, blood drinking and even child murder in the area. The 1993 murder of 12 year old Polly Klass has been linked to the area close to the Bohemian Grove.

There is a notion that the 1987 vampire move The Lost Boys is actually based on the history of the surrounding Bohemian Grove area. One of the inner-camps at the Grove is actually called 'The Lost Boys'.

But then again, even if there are such evil activities as murder being conducted at the Grove, as bizarre as it may seem, this is comparably insignificant (but not in itself) when you look at how the mindset of the elite is being flooded with corruption of greed and hedonistic value. These are the people who are deciding who is to live and who is to die in the global control structure of the 'New World Order' and to call this 'harmless fun' is a dangerous attitude to take.

Discover the preparation, initiation and the “bringing over” of the initiate into the world of true vampirism.

human sacrifice, occult practice, vast esoteric understanding and continual warfare has also been apart of this groups modus operandi. Murder, blackmail, usury, indebtedness, lying, stealing and general treachery are their methods to be sure.

How would you classify "humans" who gleefully discuss the extermination of billions of people to make way for sustainable development by offing all the "useless eaters?" Fanning the flames of their lust for power and control are the powers of darkness, spiritual forces which will accept nothing less than total commitment to pride, deceitfulness, greed, murder and the ultimate enslavement and destruction of the human race, They give parasites a bad name

 

Rothchild, Rockerfeller, are Rew  

Jesuit Adam Weishaupt and Sabbatean Jacob Frank, both having established viable subversive movements, were at that point, if they had not been heretofore, bankrolled by another Cabalist Jew, Meyer Amschel Rothschild,

The Rew leaders were able to establish a control over all world banking through the Rothschild family, and...the political power was captured through the work of Adam Weishaupt. Here is how it was done: Meyer Amschel (a rabbinically trained German Jew who later took the name Rothschild) was firmly established in the German city, Frankfurt am Main, with an emerging banking house as early as 1764. The leader of the Cabala at that time, Jakob Frank (a Polish born Jew with the family name of Leibowicz) lived in the German city of Offenbach (just south of the city of Frankfurt) from 1773. Johann Adam Weishaupt (from a Jewish family that had converted to the Roman Catholic Church) was at Ingolstadt in 1770, a German city in Bavaria. With these three men, the stage was set to ignite a hell fire that would forever bring changes to the world. “At this point in time, it is not known who ‘supervised’ these three Jewish men, but it is obvious that someone directed their efforts. On May 1, 1776, just two months before the Declaration of Independence in America, the Order of Illuminati was founded by Weishaupt. At this time Weishaupt was 28 years old, Amschel was 32 years old and Frank was 50 years old. Meyer Amschel financed Adam Weishaupt and Jakob Frank laid the cabalisic theological foundation for the Order of the Illuminati.”